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Kumar receives Atkinson Center award

Shanthanu Krishna Kumar

Shanthanu Krishna Kumar

Shanthanu Krishna Kumar, a Ph.D. student in Greg Peck‘s lab, received a 2020 Sustainable Biodiversity Fund award from the Cornell Atkinson Center for Sustainability.

Shanthanu’s research goals involve enhancing biodiversity in cider apple production by increasing the concentration of polyphenols and micronutrients which were more plentiful in older cider apple cultivars.

With support from Sustainable Biodiversity Fund, Shanthanu plans to identify genetic markers for polyphenolic compounds which will speed development of new cultivars for the burgeoning cider market.

The Sustainable Biodiversity Fund  supports innovative research by Cornell graduate students and postdoctoral researchers on the most pressing questions in protecting biodiversity.

Seminar video: Deconstructing broccoli: complex traits are illuminated by an immortal mapping population

If you missed Monday’s Horticulture Section seminar, Deconstructing broccoli: complex traits are illuminated by an immortal mapping population, with Zachary Stansell, Horticulture Section, it is available online.

More seminar videos: Horticulture | School of Integrative Plant Science

Maria Gannett awarded three-year FFAR fellowship

Maria Gannett

ReposteMaria Gannett

Reposted from the SIPS blog, Discovery that Connects:

Maria Gannett, PhD student in the Field of Horticulture advised by Jenny Kao-Kniffin and Toni DiTommaso, has been awarded a graduate fellowship from the Foundation for Food and Agriculture (FFAR). The fellowship grants $150,000 over three years, with roughly half of the funding provided by an industry partner. Gannett’s thesis research is focused on manipulation of soil microbes to enhance growth of crop plants relative to weed competitors. Her industry partner, American Vanguard Company (AMVAC), develops precision application technologies and is interested in incorporating research findings on soil biological functioning.

FFAR was established as part of the 2014 Farm Bill. The Fellows Program was created to provide professional development and career guidance to the next generation of food and agriculture scientists and is led by the Academic Programs Office at the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at North Carolina State University. In addition to a $2.7 million commitment from FFAR, funding for the program is matched by a consortium of industry leaders. By providing early career support to graduate students, the fellowship cultivates supportive relationships between graduate students and industry peers to equip students with the skills needed to facilitate their transition to the workforce and prepare future leaders for food and agriculture. Fellows are co-mentored over the course of the 3-year program by university and industry representatives, and engage with their peers in professional development programming both virtually and at the annual one-week residential sessions.

As described in her FFAR profile, Gannett’s interest in weed control grew during her time in the Peace Corps where she observed the challenges of weed management in rural Senegal. In other parts of the world, heavy reliance on chemical herbicides such as glyphosate is leading to an increase in herbicide-resistant weeds. However, greater understanding of the interactions of soil chemistry, the soil microbiome, and the relative nutritional needs of plants, has the potential to reveal new strategies for weed suppression through targeted manipulation of these variables.

Gannett values this opportunity as the industry collaboration enables her to pursue fundamental research with real applications in farming systems and the program encourages innovation by gathering diverse stakeholders together. “This fellowship is especially unique in that it emphasizes professional skill development with our cohort. I’m really honored to be part of the program and hope I can share some of the skills I learn with the SIPS community.”

Read more about FFAR

Read more about Maria Gannett and her research

Michael Rosato: Creating a more sustainable and affordable future for New York growers

Mike Rosato and others harvesting snap peas in research plots at Cornell AgriTech

Michael Rosato, a graduate student studying under the guidance of Steve Reiners, professor and chair of the Horticulture Section of the School of Integrative Plant Science, is evaluating the soil sulfur levels on vegetable farms across New York State and conducting sulfur fertilizer trails that have economically important crops for growers. Above, Rosato, center, harvests snap peas at Cornell AgriTech with summer field workers, Christine Driscoll, Kim Day and Luke Czadzeck. Photo by Justin James Muir

CALS News [2019-08-23]:

Michael Rosato is a graduate student studying under the guidance of Steve Reiners, professor and chair of the horticulture section of the School of Integrative Plant Science.

What drew you to the program with Steve Reiners?

I first worked in Steve Reiner’s program at the beginning of my undergraduate years as a summer technician. Steve always took the time to answer questions and helped me explore the world of horticulture. Beyond being a true mentor, seeing how his worked helped growers—both with sustainability and success—was a big reason why I wanted to work with him.

What’s the focus of your research?

Historically, sulfur has been abundant in soils mainly due to widespread pollution and the use of manure. In the 1970s, the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Clean Air Act led to a gradual but drastic reduction in atmospheric sulfur, and thus, less sulfur was deposited in U.S. soils.

My project has two key elements. First, we are evaluating soil sulfur levels on vegetable farms across New York State, and second, we are also conducting sulfur fertilizer trials that have economically important crops for growers. We are measuring both yield and quality factors across all crops.

In our tomato trial, we are conducting sensory evaluations, as well as testing soluble solids and titratable acids to see if sulfur may be impacting flavor.

What’s the most exciting thing you’ve discovered while doing research at Cornell AgriTech?

In our first sensory evaluation, a panel of 100 participants generally rated sulfur-treated tomatoes as more acidic. Their observations were mirrored in our measurements of citric acid in the fruit.

Sulfur is a macro-nutrient that may impact the flavor of vegetables like tomato and onions, but it is often overlooked. If growers can add flavor intensity to their tomatoes by using a sulfur source like gypsum, which is cheap, easily applied and has the option of being organic, it’s a win for the farmer and the consumer.

In what ways do you hope your research will help growers in New York?

By measuring soil sulfur levels state-wide, we hope to get a better idea of how common sulfur deficiencies are. Further, we want to create accurate fertilizer recommendations for growers, so they can produce the highest quality products possible in both an affordable and sustainable way.

How do you think graduate students benefit from doing translational research?

Working on real life issues and seeing your efforts positively impact others’ lives is an important experience for all of us, and it’s truly fulfilling. I think translational research is a place where people can find purpose in helping others in any variety of ways.

New software helps plant breeders bring out their best

CALS News, Cornell Chronicle [2019-07-19]:

Thomas Björkman, professor in the Horticulture Section, studies broccoli in a field at Cornell AgriTech.

Thomas Björkman, professor in the Horticulture Section, studies broccoli in a field at Cornell AgriTech.

Broccoli is in the eye of the beholder.

A head of broccoli that might appeal to one person – perhaps because of its deep green color – may leave another cold, due to an asymmetrical shape or too-large buds.

Cornell researchers participating in the Eastern Broccoli Project, which aims to produce broccoli varieties suited to grow on the East Coast, have devised a statistical method to standardize evaluations of broccoli, in order to make plant breeding decisions more consistent and efficient.

Now a Cornell group – doctoral student Zachary Stansell; Thomas Björkman, professor of horticulture at Cornell AgriTech; and Deniz Akdemir of the Cornell Statistical Consulting Unit – has released RateRvaR, a new software based on this method. RateRvaR is freely available, open source, easy to use and applicable to breeders of any vegetable, tree or flower with subjective features.

Using the software, breeders can select traits and ask multiple people to perform the same evaluation. The program will then analyze that data to determine which traits are more or less important in predicting overall quality, partly by prioritizing traits that are easier to judge objectively, such as size or color.

“The challenge for breeders, when they’re looking for wider adaptations, is that for certain crops, you plant all over the place and fly to various locations around the world to do the evaluations yourself,” Björkman said.

“But what if you had to check the plant twice a week for a month because it’s maturing at different rates? You can’t be jetting around the world; it just becomes impractical,” he said. “Breeders want to know not only how another person would score a plant, but how they would score it themselves, or how some idealized consumer would score it. This should open up the opportunity for breeders to do evaluations in multiple locations.”

Read the whole article.

Plant breeding project gives East African farmers better leafy green options

CALS News [2019-06-27]:

 Griffiths, associate professor of horticulture, and graduate student Hannah Swegarden pose with East African women harvesting collard greens.

Griffiths and graduate student Hannah Swegarden pose with East African women harvesting collard greens.

Phillip Griffiths, associate professor in the Horticulture Section of the School of Integrative Plant Science based at Cornell AgriTech, has a special connection in East Africa that’s improving the humble collard green to help smallholder farmers—and their communities—live and eat better. Griffiths’ East African connection was made when Charles Wasonga, recipient of the first Cornell Assistantship for Horticulture in Africa (CAHA), began his Ph.D. studies with Griffiths. The design of CAHA, which requires advisors to work alongside students on research in their home country, brought Griffiths to Kenya to oversee Wasonga’s work on green beans. While there, the two also saw a number of collard fields and realized the significant challenges farmers had in getting fresh, desirable products to rapidly urbanizing markets.

“The issue with fresh-market crops versus agronomic crops, like maize, is always getting them to end users. Farmers need to focus on marketable yield,” said Griffiths, associate professor of horticulture, plant breeding and genetics.

In Kenyan diets, collard greens—a member of the Brassica family—are a nutritious dietary staple for millions of people. Like all dark leafy greens, they’re high in vitamin A and a good source of calcium, iron and vitamin C. But collards are highly susceptible to black rot, which can reduce marketability by 50% to 80%. This susceptibility makes the crop a risky venture for small farmers looking to expand their income options with vegetables.

Recognizing the vulnerabilities that would have to be overcome, Wasonga and Griffiths started crossing several kale and collard varieties at Cornell with the goal of breeding for improved resistance to black rot. After Wasonga returned to Kenya, Griffiths applied for and was chosen as a David R. Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future Academic Venture Fund project to continue the collaboration and investigate more diverse leafy Brassica vegetables in Kenya and Tanzania.

Read the whole article.

Hort alums named to GPN ‘Forty Under 40’

Cheni Filios

Cheni Filios

Two alumni from the Graduate Field of Horticulture were named to Greenhouse Produce New’s 2019 Forty under 40.

Cheni Filios (M.S. ’14) is now Global Product Manager for Vegetables at PanAmerican Seed Co.  Since joining the team there, she has helped to double the company’s product portfolio and sales.  While at Cornell, she also received the Frederick Dreer Award, which she used to study post-havest horticulture in New Zealand and Europe.

Ockert Greyvenstein

Ockert Greyvenstein

Ockert Greyvenstein (M.S. ’09) is now a plant breeder, also at PanAmerican Seed Co.  There, he’s helped get the male-sterile patent approved for the company’s vinca breeding program and has been instrumental in the program’s trialing, evaluation, test production and ultimate product selection. He has also been active mentoring college interns in the company’s breeding program to create an exciting, meaningful and educational experiences.

Both were advised by Bill Miller, director of Cornell’s Flower Bulb Research Program.

Commencement videos

If you missed the festivities this weekend — or want to relive them — you can view videos of the Class of 2019 Undergraduate Recognition Ceremony (recognizing students receiving degrees in Agricultural Sciences and Plant Sciences May 26) and the 2019 Graduate Degree Ceremony (recognizing students receiving MPS, MS and PhD students from each of the five graduate fields within SIPS).

‘Urban Eden’ students put a price tag on trees for Arbor Day

Nina Bassuk and students tag a tree outside Roberts Hall.

Nina Bassuk and students tag a tree outside Roberts Hall.

What’s a tree worth?

In what has become an annual tradition, students in Creating the Urban Eden: Woody Plant Selection, Design, and Landscape Establishment (HORT/LA 4910/4920) are helping to make people more aware of why trees are worth hugging by hanging bright green “price tags” on trunks around the Ag Quad.

The students entered data about the trees, such as species, diameter and location, into i-Tree — a state-of-the-art, peer-reviewed software suite from the USDA Forest Service. The application then calculates monetary benefits from reduced stormwater runoff, improved air quality,  carbon dioxide sequestration and energy savings to nearby buildings by blocking wind in winter and providing shade in summer.

“It’s really quite eye-opening for people who think that trees are just nice to look at and don’t have any other value,” said Nina Bassuk, professor in the Horticulture Section of the School of Integrative Plant Science, who leads the class alongside Zac Rood, lecturer in the Department of Landscape Architecture.

There are also benefits that are not easily quantified, such as wildlife habitats and emotional responses, added Bassuk, who is also director of the Urban Horticulture Institute.

Students tagging oaks in front of Mann Library

Tagging an oak on the Ag Quad

Tagging a red oak.

Tagging a Kentucky coffeetree

Tagging Katsura tree outside Mann Library

Leonard Topoleski, vegetable crop expert, dies at 83

Leonard Topoleski

Leonard Topoleski

CALS News [2019-02-21]:

Leonard D. Topoleski, professor emeritus of vegetable crops and horticulture, died Feb. 8 in Sayre, Pennsylvania. He was 83.

Topoleski conducted research on vegetable crops, served as an extension agent and left a legacy as a popular teacher and student adviser.

“He was an enthusiastic teacher of our undergraduate beginning horticulture course and, over his career, inspired many students with his love of plants,” said Chris Wien, M.S. ’67, Ph.D. ’71, professor emeritus of horticulture.

Born in 1935 in Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania, Topoleski earned a bachelor’s (1957) and a master’s degree (1959) in horticulture from Penn State University and a doctorate in plant breeding and genetics (1962) from Purdue University. That same year, he joined Cornell’s faculty in the then-Department of Vegetable Crops where he worked until his retirement in 2001.

Topoleski’s research involved understanding incompatibility issues that arise when breeding different tomato species. He received training in the use of electron microscopy and became the department expert on using the technique for plant science research.

He also researched greenhouse vegetable production, evaluating new growing systems and fertility management, assessing new varieties and providing basic greenhouse tomato production information to new growers.

But his biggest impact may have been as a teacher.

“Professor Topoleski was revered by his students for his hands-on and engaging approach,” said Frank Rossi, professor and extension turf grass specialist in the School of Integrative Plant Science. “Students would be responsible for growing and studying the growth of plants from seed to harvest each semester, a tradition I know my colleagues and I have attempted to maintain in our coursework today.”

Topoleski’s general horticulture course (Hort 102) exposed hundreds of Cornell undergraduates to the world of fruits, vegetables and landscape plants for the first time. He also was an undergraduate adviser for more than 30 students per year.

As a 4-H vegetable crops extension specialist, he trained agents, wrote highly regarded extension publications and guides, and developed new programs.

“He was well-known and appreciated by 4-H and home gardeners all over the state,” said Elmer Ewing, professor emeritus of horticulture, adding that Topoleski was also a strong supporter of Cornell sports.

“A big man, with a booming voice and extrovert personality, he was a memorable figure in our department,” Wien said.

Topoleski is survived by his wife of 61 years, Janice, along with three children, five grandchildren and a sister.

A memorial event will be announced at a later date.

This article also appeared in the Cornell Chronicle.

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