What’s in Bloom?

Bright red flowers on the branch of a red maple tree
Red Maple (Acer rubrum)

by Susan Ndiaye, Community Horticulture Educator

Signs of spring abound!   Bird songs fill the air.  Buds on the trees are starting to unfurl.   New shoots are breaking through the soil.  And flowers are beginning to bloom!

Here are some of the flowers to look out for as you venture outside for a breath of fresh air.

When most people think of maple trees, flowers aren’t the first thing that comes to mind.  Red maples are native to the eastern United States and happen to be one of the first trees to flower in the spring.  Their bright pink to red flowers result in the production of thousands of winged fruits called samaras, colloquially referred to as helicopters.  After ripening on the trees for several weeks they will fill the air and litter the ground.

A branch of forsythia in full blloom - yellow flowers
Forsythia spp.

Although many people equate the yellow blossoms of the forsythia with the beginning of spring, the forsythia is not native to New York; it actually native to eastern Asia.  This fast growing shrub is a favorite among homeowners, because it is tolerant to deer, resistant to Japanese beetles, and rarely has disease problems.   If you are looking for a native alternative to forsythia, try spicebush (Lindera benzoin).  This medium sized multi-stemmed shrub has fragrant yellow-green flowers in early spring and supports 12 species of butterflies and  provides berries for the birds.

Snowdrop - small white flower held between someone's thumb and forefinger
Snowdrops (Galanthus nivalis)
Bunches of white ane purple crocuses
Crocus spp.

One of the many joys of spring is the emergence of all the spring flowering bulbs.   Some of them are already blooming: snowdrops, crocuses, daffodils (my favorite flower!).   Despite its sometime unsightly appearance, make sure you leave  the foliage alone until it turns yellow and dies back.  This allows the leaves of the plant to produce food through photosynthesis.  This food is stored in the bulb and will be used  to produce even more beautiful flowers next spring!

Hellebores are also flowering! This evergreen herbaceous perennial is native to Turkey, but does well here in Orange County.  It grows well in full or partial shade and has beautiful white to pink to purple flowers that bloom in late winter into  early spring.  Hellebores are rarely damaged by deer and as they are evergreen, after their flowers fade, they make an attractive ground cover

Pink Hellebores (Helleborus spp.)
Varigated pink and with flowe with stringy yellow stamens in the center
Varigated Hellebores (Helleborus spp.)
White flowers with bright yellow stamens in the center
White Hellebores (Helleborus spp.)

As you are out enjoying the sunshine, what other signs of spring do see or hear or smell?

Vegetable Gardening Resources

Although it seems like no one really knows what is going on right now or how long this situation is going to last, one thing that I am sure of is that there is no time like the present to start your own vegetable garden!

Whether you’ve been growing vegetables for 30+ years or this will be you first year, here is a list of resources that should help you along the way.


Vegetable Gardening Resources – Getting Started!

  • A cucurbit seedling showing the two cotelydons and the first true leaf just starting to unfold.Beginning a Vegetable Garden This resource takes you through choosing a location for you garden to dealing garden pests.
  • Vegetable Growing Guides From artichoke to zucchini, find information about site characteristics and plant traits as well as growing information and special considerations.
  • Vegetable Planting Guide This resource includes a chart that shows when you should seed things inside, when you should seed things outside and when it is time to transplant. (Note: Although written for Rockland County, it works Orange County as well.)
  • Average Last Frost Date Although the last frost date is important, keep in mind that even after the last frost, cool temperatures will stress warm season crops like peppers and tomatoes.  These crops like nighttime temperatures consistently above 45°F and soil temperatures at about 70°F.
  • Soil Amendments and Fertilizers This guide includes fertilizer guidelines by plant group as well as information about pH adjusters, growth stimulants and potting mixes

Soil Samples

A trowel stuck in a raised garden bedBefore starting a garden, it is always a good idea to get a soil test.  As our office is closed, we are no longer accepting soil samples at this time.  Fortunately, if you need your soil tested, you can mail it directly to the soil testing lab, Dairy One.

Once you have your results, we would be more than happy to answer any questions you may have.

Vegetable Garden Problems

  • Vegetable Pests Colorado potato beetle on a potato stemFrom cucumber beetles and aphids to spider mites and slugs, this guide will help you identify your pest and give you tips on how to manage it.
  • Vegetable Diseases Choose your vegetable and then look through Fact Sheets and Information Bulletins to help identify the disease and learn the best way to manage it. 
  • Vegetable Cultural and Environmental Problems Sometimes you might think your plant has a disease when in fact the problem is not caused by a pathogen but environmental conditions or a cultural practice.  This resource will help you diagnose your problem and teach you what you can do about it.

Garden Helpline!

Garden Helpline Card (Information in text below image.)If you need help identifying the cause of a problem or figuring out a management strategy give us a call.  Our Garden Helpline phones are staffed April – November, Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, from 9:30 am – 12:30 pm.  But you can always leave us a message or send us an e-mail.

Call (845) 343-0664 or e-mail your questions to mghelpline@cornell.edu.

Online Classes

If you still want to learn more, take advantage of these online classes!

Wicker basket full of lettuce, tomatoes, peppers, beets, turnips,onions and a sprig of mintVegetable Gardening 101: Virtual Class (via Zoom)

Cornell Cooperative Extension of Tompkins County

Date and Time: Saturday, March 28, 2020, 10:00 am – 12:00 pm

Cost: $10-$30 / person self-determined sliding scale, pay what you can afford

This class will help the beginning vegetable gardener learn how to choose a site for their vegetable garden, prepare the soil, start and transplant seeds, how to choose and use compost and mulch, how to care for your plants throughout the season, and when to harvest. Get the basics so you can have a great garden no matter how much experience you have.

Tray of cabbage seedlings in Starting Seeds 101: Virtual Class (via Zoom)

Cornell Cooperative Extension of Tompkins County

Date and Time: Wednesday, April 1, 2020, 6:00 pm – 8:00 pm

Cost: $10-$30 / person self-determined sliding scale, pay what you can afford

Grow everything from artichokes to zucchini from seed at home. Save money and enjoy the miraculous process of seed germination and plant growth in your home to get you through these last weeks of winter and get your garden started early. We’ll cover techniques such as cold stratification and scarification as well as simple recipes for making your own potting and fertilizer mixes to save even more money. We’ll talk about tools such as grow lights and heat mats and soil blocks.


So in the time of uncertainty, I encourage you to grow some food.

Stay home!  Stay safe!  Be well!  Happy Gardening!

 

The Great Backyard Bird Count has begun!

A bright red male cardinal perched a twig as snow falls The Great Backyard Bird count has begun! Starting today, February 14th until Monday, February 17th you are invited to join this citizen science project in which people all over the world spend at least 15 minutes simply counting the numbers and kinds of birds that they see.

This project began in 1998 by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology and the National Audubon Society.  Just last year over 200,000 people in 100 countries participated and counting over 6,800 species of birds.

The data collected from the Great Backyard Bird Count helps scientist learn more about bird populations including population fluctuation, migration timing, effects of climate change, etc. This is extremely important as birds are great indicator species and in North America we have seen significant decline in bird population in the past 50 years!A black crow standing on the snowy ground

So please take 15 minutes of you time today, tomorrow, Sunday and/or Monday and participate in this amazing opportunity to contribute to scientific research!

Click here to learn how to join the Great Backyard Bird Count!

Related link:

Birds as Indicator Species – Ornithology: The Science of Birds

North America has lost more than 1 in 4 birds in the last 50 years, new study says – National Audubon Society

 

Philadelphia Flower Show Bus Trip

 Tuesday, March 3, 2020

(registration  deadline February 7th)

Bus boards at 7:45 am, leaves at 8:00 am and returns at 9:00 pm from Crystal Run Galleria

Cost: $80 per person

cost includes the bus and a ticket to the Flower Show

Learn more about the the 2020 Philadelphia Flower Show!

Click here to Register!

Hemp! An Introduction to Hemp as a Crop

Hemp: It is not Pot! An Introduction to Hemp as a Crop

By Brooke Moore, New Windsor Senior Master Gardener Volunteer and Madelene Knaggs, New Windsor Master Gardener Volunteer

This article appeared in the October / November 2019 Issue of Gardening in Orange County. Click here to subscribe!

top of a hemp plant showing the characteristic five lobed leavesHemp may not be a familiar crop to you, but it has had a long history in this country and is poised to make a comeback in the Hudson Valley and throughout New York State. In the last five years, changes to federal and state laws have allowed for the growing of hemp. As a result, hemp has the potential to create an incredible economic boom for our region.

As demand for dairy and other traditional crops has declined, farmers are looking for alternative crops to provide a long-term base for staying in agriculture. Hemp may also be a means to keep younger farmers interested and involved in family farms. Some estimates for the return on investment in growing hemp for cannabidiol (CBD) are as high as 40%. This high return on investment is unheard of in agriculture, but as we are still in the earlier days of growing hemp in our region, it could turn out to be much less. Research is ongoing and there are many facets of hemp where little is known or where conflicting information exists.

Purple hemp flower pistils on a CBD hemp plant
Female hemp flower

Hemp can be grown for use as fiber, grain, oil and CBD. In the Hudson Valley most hemp in 2019 is being grown for CBD not for fiber, grain, or oil. CBD is a compound that is extracted from the female hemp flower and can be used for medicinal purposes. Unlike its cousin marijuana, CBD do not produce a “high” when ingested. There is a lot to learn about hemp and its potential impact on the agricultural economy of our region, but before we explore all the options lets answer some basic questions and introduce the crop.

What is hemp?

Both hemp and marijuana are varieties of Canabis sativa. Each is produced through selective breeding. Hemp is bred to produce fiber, grain, oil and/or CBD, while marijuana is bred to produce delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) which is a psychoactive compound.

Genetically the two plants are very similar. Research shows that even though different genes produce CBD and THC, these genes are linked. This link between the genes creates a ratio of CBD to THC that influences the total amount of each compound in a particular plant.

Hemp can be useful in many ways that may surprise you. Historically hemp was grown to produce fiber for use in rope and textiles. Today hemp fiber is used for insulation, animal bedding, particle board, hempcrete (a mixture of hemp and lime used in construction), and some plastics. When synthetic fibers became more common in the mid-twentieth century, hemp and other natural fibers fell out of favor. Now as we look at the impact of plastic products in all forms, a renewed interest in natural fiber production, including hemp, has taken hold.

Close-up of a top of a hemp plant covered with seeds
Ready to harvest hemp grain

Hemp seeds are a good source of protein and can used like other seed to enhance a large variety of foods. They can also be pressed to produce a food grade oil that is high in omegas, vitamins, and minerals. As hemp oil has a low smoking temperature, the oil is best used for low temperature cooking. Hemp oil can also be used in cosmetics.

The medical side of hemp comes from using  CBD extracts from the female flowers. (More about this will be in another article.)

Is it legal to grow hemp?

Field of 3 foot tall hemp plants, rows are seperated by black landscaping fabric and each row has a five foot wooden post ever marking of every two plants
Hemp Trial, Geneva, NY

Yes, with the proper approval from the state it is now legal to grow hemp. Following the passage of the 2014 Farm Bill, which legitimized industrial hemp research, New York State created an Industrial Hemp Agricultural Research Project Pilot Program to encourage hemp research. In 2017, the state expanded the program from a few educational institutions to farmers and businesses. The 2018 Farm Bill went as far as removing industrial hemp from the controlled substances list. Today hemp growers in New York are partners with the Industrial Hemp Pilot Program and supervised by the Department of Agriculture and Markets.

Is all hemp the same?

The simple answer is no. There is still much to be learned about the genetics of hemp plants and what is important for developing plants that will thrive in our soil and climate. Plant researchers are looking at both modern hemp plants as well as feral plants they find growing along ditches and hidden in fields. Some of these feral plants date back to the colonial period of cultivation. Others are from the pre-WWII era when hemp was a huge source of fiber. These plants may well hold the key to developing modern cultivars which are well adapted to the soil and temperature in New York State and still produce a high rate of CBD and a low rate of THC.

Do the plants all look the same?

All the hemp plants currently grown have similar looking leaves, but there is quite a variety of height, width, and flower development. And even though the leaf shape is similar, it too can vary in size. Plant breeders continue to select for plants that are both easy to cultivate and easy to harvest, but still produce good quality fiber, grain, oil, or CBD depending on the desired end product.

The topof a hemp plant, a small dish of hemp seeds and a ropper bottle of CBD oilDo all plants produce the same products?

There are many of different hemp cultivars, each bred to produce either good quality fiber, grain, oil or CBD. Growers choose the specific cultivar that matches the intended use. Most growers in our region are growing for CBD production, not for fiber, grain or oil production. In the future plants may be developed to allow for multiple products to be economically processed from the same plant.

Special thanks to Maire Ullrich, Cornell Cooperative Extension Orange County and to the Cornell Hemp Team for resources and guidance in this series.

This article is the first in a series of articles focusing on the hemp industry.  See future Gardening in Orange County issues for more information.

For more information about all things hemp:

Beginning Hemp – Keys to Successful Production in NYS – Cornell Cooperative Extension Orange County

Cornell Hemp – Cornell School of Integrative Plant Science

 

Color, Color Everywhere – or maybe not!

By Brooke Moore, New Windsor, Senior Master Gardener Volunteer

This article appeared in the September 2019 Issue of Gardening in Orange County. Click here to subscribe!

We live in a colorful world filled with plants, animals, and objects that are brightly colored or, in some cases, patterned, or even singular in color.  As humans we often think that the rest of the world sees itself and its surroundings in the same way that we do. But nothing could be further than the truth.

A cirlce filled with dots of varying sizes all in arying shade of red except for the green dots, of varying shades, that form a large 'W' spaning the width of the circle.
An Ishihar plate, used by optometrists and ophthalmologists to test for color blindness.
As a teenager I had a wonderful friend, John, who was the first person I knew who was colorblind.  Not just color insensitive, as many are, but truly and completely unable to perceive any color at all.  His experience of the world was totally opposite to mine, as I am one of the lucky or in some ways unlucky people who perceive way more color than most people do.  His daily view of things was more like that of a rabbit, who see in shades of darkness and light and contrast.

Close up of a blue human eye.
Human eye

Learning more about how he saw the world and experienced paintings, gardens and simple things like traffic lights began my interest in color and how we can manipulate our surroundings based on adding or subtracting colors from a situation.

Close-uo of the head of a fly - white head, lots of black hairs and large red eyes in which you can see teh individaul lenses
Fly eye

The animals who live among us and in our gardens perceive color in many different ways, and they interact with the plants we grow depending on what they see and how they see and interpret light.

All eyes use reflected light to create images that are the basis of sight.  As humans, we have sight that can determine the shape, size and special relationship of objects, and we have sight that is color-based.

Close up of an owl eye - bright yellow eye surrounded by white, brown and black plummage
Owl eye

The same is true for animals.  Birds have keen color sight that helps them with foraging for food, identifying prey and recognizing others of their species.  Many scientists have been astonished to discover that some birds may not be able to see all the colors of their own plumage, while other birds can see more than enough colors to find and attract a mate.

Bird Vision
A graph with absorbance on the y-axis (0-1.0) and wave length (330 nm - 700 nm) on the x-axis. There are four lines on the graph, all of them bell shape-esque. The grey line peaks at 370 nm, which falls in the ultraviolet range. The blue line peaks at 445 nm, which falls in the blue range of the visble light spectrum. The green line peaks at 508 nm, which falls in the green range of the visible light spectrum. The red line peaks at 565 nm, which falls in the yellow/orange range of the visible light spectrum.
Humans usually have three types of cones allowing them to perceive light in the visible spectrum.  Some animals , including birds, have four types of cones which allows them to see ultraviolet light.

Birds see more colors than humans as they are able to use ultraviolet (UV) light due to having four types of cones in their retinas – in contrast to humans who have three types of cones.  Different species of birds have more or fewer cone cells in their retinas and thus different ability to see colors.  The ability to determine subtle differences in shades of colors is an evolving ability in birds and thought to be something that aids in adapting to change in environment and availability of food sources.

Color Vision
State Types of cone cells Approx. number of colors perceived Carriers
Monochromacy 1 200 Marine mammals, owl monkey, Australian sea lion, achromat primates
Dichromacy 2 40,000 Most terrestrial non-primate mammals, color blind primates
Trichromacy 3 10 million Most primates, especially great apes (such as humans), marsupials, some insects (such as honeybees)
Tetrachromacy 4 100 million Most reptiles, amphibians, birds and insects, rarely humans
Pentachromacy 5 10 billion Some insects (specific species of butterflies), some birds (pigeons for instance)

The UV reflection from the waxy surface of fruits and berries makes them stand out from the green of foliage – and birds are better able to find them.  Red berries are seen  best and will be eaten first, so also growing some plants that produce orange or yellow fruit will extend the feeding season.

Top picture: A sinlge stem with two flower buds and one small yellow flower with four petals. Bottom: The same photo taken in UV light. The flower is now white with a black center.
Winter Jasmine (Jasminum nudiflorum) photographed in visible light (top) and ultraviolet light (bottom).

Many insects also reflect UV light, making them more attractive to birds as a food source.  Certain bird eggs reflect UV light and help birds to identify their own eggs and reject those put in the nest by other birds.  Many flowers have nectar guides  that reflect UV light.  These  marking are visible to bees and butterflies allowing them to easily find the nectar at the center of the flower.

Deer have poor color vision limited to short (blue) and middle (green) wave lengths of color.  They may have some UV sensitivity but not much compared to birds.  Foxes do not see green and have little ability to see blue, red or yellow.  So, these animals are not using color in the garden to find or choose what they eat!

The head of a deer standing with its face brushing up againsta purple flower.Understanding which animals use color to find and choose food can help us in identifying plants to put into our gardens, and plants to leave out.  It also can put to rest myths like deer choosing red tulips over yellow daffodils -because they are making a choice based on taste and smell, not sight.

Pest Watch: Bagworms!

by Susan Ndiaye, Community Horticulture Educator

pinecone like structure hanging on an evergreen tree

Have you ever noticed one of these structures hanging on a Colorado blue spruce or an arborvitae?  They kind of look like pine cones, but not exactly.  Well, they aren’t pine cones, but silken bags spun and decorated by bagworms (Thyridopteryx ephemeraeform).

Bagworms are moths whose larvae feed on evergreens such as spruce, juniper, pine and arborvitae.  The larvae can also feed on deciduous trees such as maple, elm, birch and sycamore.  Bagworms defoliate the trees and shrubs they infest.  In large numbers, bagworms can cause significant defoliation, which can lead to the death of the plant.

Bagworm Lifecycle

In late spring, bagworm eggs, which overwinter in their mother’s silken bag, hatch and caterpillars emerge.  These caterpillars begin to form new silk bags, and as they eat, they cover it with bits of leaves.  As the caterpillar grows, it expand its bags.   Then in late summer the caterpillar firmly attaches its bag to the plant and pupates.

Adult male bagworm - clear winged moth with furry brown body
Adult male bagworm

Complete metamorphosis from caterpillar to moth takes about four weeks.  Adult male bagworms emerge from their bags as clear winged moths and begin to search for a mate.  Adult female bagworms are wingless moths and never leave their bags.  After mating females produce 500-1000 eggs before dying.  Their eggs overwinter inside their mother’s silken bag and the whole cycle begins again.

Management

Because bagworms are protected by their silken bag, management can be tricky.  For smaller trees and shrubs the best tactic is to remove and destroy the bags by hand.  Unfortunately, this is not possible in all instances, especially on larger trees and shrubs.  Insecticides are most effective right after bagworm eggs hatch, when the caterpillars are small.

But how does one know when the eggs are going to hatch?  Well, it turns out that there is a “Bagworm Forecast” that you can check in the spring to determine  the best time to apply insecticide.  The maps provided by this forecast are updated daily and available six days in the future, so you can plan ahead.

For recommendations on pesticides, check out the resources below.  And as always, make sure you read and follow all the instructions on the pesticide label including the use of personal protective equipment.  The label is the law!

If you need to spray a larger tree, you may need to contact an arborist.  Click here to find a certified arborist near you.

Fun Facts

As females don’t fly, you may wonder how bagworms spread.  Bagworm caterpillars can balloon, or use their silk threads to catch the wind and travel long distances.

Despite relatively little protection for overwintering bagworm eggs, research at Purdue University found that it takes a 24 hr period at -0.6 ° F or below to kill the eggs.  So if you live in Orange County New York don’t expect a cold winter to kill off your bagworms.

Here is a video of a bagworm feeding!

Video from Purdue University Landscape Report (https://www.purduelandscapereport.org/article/824/)

Resources

Bagworm – Penn State University

Bagworms – Cornell University

Bagworm Forecast – USA National Phenology Network

Bagworms on Landscape Plants – University of Kentucky

Cold weather in January 2018 may have killed bagworms in some parts of Indiana – Landscape Report, Purdue University

Urban Sanctuary

Urban Sanctuary

By Cecelia Lillard, Florida Master Gardener Volunteer and James Alton Thomas, Greenville Township Senior Master Gardener Volunteer

This article appeared in the August 2019 Issue of Gardening in Orange County. Click here to subscribe!

This article profiles an urban lot that was transformed into an oasis for body, mind and soul as well as for wildlife.  This lot belongs to a local Master Gardener and illustrates how much privacy, beauty and biodiversity can be created with thoughtful design and considered plant choices.  We’ll review the design principles employed in this yard and then take a look at the ecological needs fulfilled through the design and its implementation.

A bright green garden - houses in the background and bright lush green garden in the foregroundFirst and foremost, this design provides privacy and the sense that the space is an outdoor room.  The lot is 50′ wide and faces southeast.  The edges of the property are bordered by deciduous and evergreen trees.  The tall Norway Spruce provides a strong anchor for the southern border and creates a shade garden for almost half of the yard, while the mature deciduous trees provide both frame and boundary for the property.  Given that this garden is in shade much of the time, plant textures are emphasized in throughout the space.  Since the plants are in groups instead of individual plants, the various textures become harmonious and interesting rather than chaotic to the eye.  The repetition of plants by massing gives the design a simplicity that helps quiet the mind and gives one an opportunity to linger in areas and simply enjoy the beauty of a plant’s texture and color.

A beautifully green garden with trees in the background and a small grassy area with a large planter in the foreground
The central planter provides the main focal point of the yard and is the only place where we find a traditional lawn.  The repetition of red in the plants helps to unify the yard and gives the focal point additional structure.  The use of evergreen boxwoods around the base of the container ensures that the focal point will be held even in winter when the planter is moved indoors and allowed to go dormant.

The lawn around the focal point draws the eye to the back of the circle where a stone path peeks between the low shrubs and groundcovers.  The curving shape of the path gives the landscape a sense of movement and entices one into the farther spaces.  The copper birdbath provides another focal point that draws the viewer’s eye and invites the viewer to another part of the garden that is more private.  The red pole, which supports an unseen, yet occupied birdhouse, gives us a hint that there is more to that part of the garden than we can see and provides a touch of mystery.

A lush green gardenThe yard evokes a feeling of balance with the shrubs softening the borders of the property and the understory trees filling the gaps between the shrub layer and the canopy of the deciduous trees.  The varying heights of the plants provide visual interest and contribute to the feeling of privacy that is created in such a small space.  The repetition of color throughout the garden contributes to the sense of balance, with the yellow-greens contrasting with the darker greens, yet not competing with them.

Seasonal interest was also a major consideration in the design of this space.  There is year-round interest provided by many elements of the garden.  The plants were chosen not only for their texture, but for their bloom times and flower colors as well.  There is a continuous supply of flowers in the garden throughout the spring and summer and into fall.  The changing color of the leaves of the trees and shrubs during the autumn supplies the visual interest that flowers provided the rest of the season.  In the winter, the evergreens take center stage, furnishing a stark contrast to the more delicate structures of the deciduous plants.

Overall this garden creation has a feeling of unity, where all of the parts work together to create a coherent whole.  The massing provides a rhythm that is relaxing and the multiple textures provide interest within that rhythm.  The reiteration of certain colors also unifies the space by visually connecting different areas of the property.

green stripped caterpillar with a red head on a leaf stem
Rosy Maple Moth Caterpillar  (Dryocampa rubicunda)

Looking at the yard from an ecological point of view, the property provides all the layers of a forest garden:  tall tree layer, low tree layer, shrub layer, herbaceous layer, ground cover layer and, of course, the root layer.   The tall tree layer consists of both deciduous and evergreen trees.  These trees provide food in the form of seeds and shelter within their branches to birds and squirrels.  The leaves of the deciduous trees also supply an important habitat for insects, including butterflies and moths, providing spaces to lay eggs and food for growing larvae.

A back beetle with orange stripes and long antenna on the white florets of a Queen Anne's Lace flower
A longhorn beetle on the umbelliferous flower of Queen Anne’s Lace

Since the garden was designed to be in continuous bloom for more than half the year, it can be considered an insectary.  There are various flower shapes throughout the garden, providing food for many different types of insects.  Some insects prefer umbelliferous flowers, while others prefer flowers with central florets like asters.  The diversity of flower shapes and bloom times helps ensure that beneficial insects will have a continuous food supply and will help keep invasive and/or problem insects at manageable populations.

As we have spent much of this issue discussing soil and the soil food web, we need to look at our garden through that lens.  In addition to providing mulch and habitat for overwintering insects, fallen leaves contribute to the soil structure and organic matter content in the soil.  These photos were taken in spring and we can see how full and lush the vegetation is early in the season.  This verdure is due not only to the care of the gardener, but more so to the health of the soil where these plants are growing.  The soil food web is very dynamic in an environment like this and the result is the beauty that we see in these photos.  May you be inspired to use these design principles and nourish your ecosystem to build a beautiful garden of your own.Drawing of a carm with icons highliting different management practices, soil health benifits, and soil organisms that are important to soil health. Click on the picture to learn more.

For links to resources that will help you design your own urban sanctuary, check out Cornell University’s “Site Assessment for Better Gardens and Landscapes“.

Click here to learn more about Backyard Conservation.

4-H Fair and Family Festival

4-H Fair & Family Festival, July 26, 27, & 28, Presented by: Cornell Cooperative Extension Orange County, More information at cceorangecounty.org

Friday, July 26, 2019, 3:00 PM – 10:00 PM

Saturday, July 27, 2019, 9:00 AM – 10:00 PM

Sunday, July 28, 2019, 9:00 AM – 3:00 PM

Join us for three days of fun and festivities for the whole family!

Sign: Cow Pie Bingo, Horse Show, Duck Derby, Movie in the Park, Food and Smooties, Petting Zoo, Arts and Crafts, Fun!For more information, click here!

Master Gardener Volunteers will be there all weekend answering all of your gardening questions, selling succulents and a facilitating a new activity for kids of all ages called “Bugs in Goo!”  Come on by our tables and check it out!

Location:

4H Park and Education Center
300 Finchville Turnpike
Otisville, NY 10963

 

What kind of insect is destroying my plants?

Biting / Chewing vs. Piercing / Sucking

By Susan Ndiaye, Community Horticulture Educator

This article appeared in the July 2019 Issue of Gardening in Orange County. Click here to subscribe!

Insects can cause a lot of damage to your plants.  Determining what insect is causing damage to your plant is key to developing an effective management strategy.  The first step is to examine the damage.

Biting/Chewing Insects

A leaf covered with holes and a small grasshopper
Chewing damage

Biting/chewing insects create holes in plant leaves.  The size and shape of these holes varies by  insect.  The three most common types of insects with biting/chewing mouthparts you may find in your garden are: grasshoppers, butterfly/moth larvae, and beetles (adults and larvae).

 Grasshoppers

Two mating diffrentail grasshoppers, the male sitting on top of the female
Differential grasshoppers (Melanoplus differentialis)

Grasshoppers are a sporadic pest and rarely cause substantial damage to garden plants.  During dry years when other plants dry out, grasshoppers may seek refuge and food in your lush green garden. Unfortunately, because grasshoppers are highly mobile they are difficult to manage.  If you have an ongoing problem with grasshoppers, you can reduce populations, by fall tillage as grasshoppers overwinter as eggs laid in the soil.

Imported Cabbageworm (Pieris rapae)

Imported cabbageworm larvae, a velvety green caterpillar with a faint yellow strip down the miidle of the back, hanging out on a leaf
Imported cabbageworm larvae
Imported Cabbageworm adult, a white butterfly with three black spots on the forewings perched on a rasberry bloom
Imported cabbageworm adult

Those beautiful white butterflies you see fluttering around your garden, may seem innocuous, but their larvae, the imported cabbageworm, can cause extensive damage to plants in the brassica family also known as cole crops.  These plants include broccoli, cabbage, Brussel sprouts, collards, kale, radishes, and turnips.  The caterpillar is bright green with a yellow stripe down the center of its back.  They start out chewing little holes in the leaves of the plants, but eventually consume the entire leaf leaving only the midrib behind.

A very holey head of cabbage a result of feeding by the imported cabbageworm
Imported cabbageworm damage on cabbage

To monitor for these pests, look for dark green frass or poop near feeding areas.  Once you discover a population of imported cabbageworm, depending on how numerous they are you can hand pick them off your plant.  The use of Bt (Bacillus thuringensis), a microbial insecticide is also highly effective on younger caterpillars.  This particular pest spends the winter in the pupal stage, so to prevent future infestations you can eliminate overwintering sites in your garden by removing plant debris.

Stripped and Spotted Cucumber Beetles (Acalymma vittatum and Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi)

A single stripped cucumber beetle, black and yellow vertical striped with an orange thorax, a black head and black legs and filiform antennae, on the orange flesh of a pumpkin
Stripped cucumber beetle

Although they are called cucumber beetles, these insects feed on much more than cucumbers.  The stripped cucumber beetle prefers plants in the cucurbit family (squash, pumpkins, melons, etc.) feeding on leaves, flowers, stems and fruits.  They can be especially detrimental to young seedlings.

Spotted cucumber beetle, a yellow beetle with black spotts, a back head, legs and filiform antenna
Spotted cucumber beetle / Southern corn rootworm

The spotted cucumber beetle is more of a generalist and feeds on cucurbits as well as beans, tomatoes, and ornamentals. The larvae of this beetle can do substantial damage on the roots of corn plants hence its other name, the southern corn rootworm.

 

A cucumber plant sith bacterial wilt, there is a scetion of health plant and a two foot vine with shriveled brown leaves
Bacterial wilt of a  cucumber plant

Cucumber beetles vector or transmit bacterial wilt (Erwinia tracheiphila), a common disease in cucurbits in which bacteria clog up the vascular system of the plant preventing the flow of water and causing the plant to wilt and eventually die.

One way to protect your plants from cucumber beetles is by using row cover.  This can be put on at planting and kept on until female flowers appear, then it must be removed to allow for pollination.

Sucking/Piercing Insects

Squash bug damage on a squash plant - edges of the leaf are brown with a yellow line between the brown area and the green center of the leaf
Squash bug damage on a squash plant

Sucking/piercing insects can cause of variety of symptoms including leaf malformation and leaf discoloration. The most common types of insects with sucking/piercing mouthparts are from the Order Hemiptera, also known as the “true bugs”.  This order of insects contains, stink bugs, squash bugs, cicadas, leaf hoppers, scale, aphids and many more.

Brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys)

A brown shield shapped bug with white and black marmoration on the edge of the wings
Brown marmorated stink bug adult

Many people are familiar with this invasive species because the adults invade their home every fall looking for a nice warm place to spend the winter.  Although it can be an unwelcome house guest it also can cause major damage on fruits and vegetables.  Some of the brown marmorated stink bug’s favorite snacks include apples, peppers, beans, tomatoes, and sweet corn.

About 20 orange and black colored brown marmorated stink bug nymphs clustered around their egg mass
Brown marmorated stink bug 1st instar nymphs clustered around an egg mass

Controlling the brown marmorated stink bug can be quite difficult because they are highly mobile, feed on a large variety of plants, and adults are highly resistant to insecticides.  Monitoring for these pests is the best way to start.  Bunches of about 28 eggs are laid on the underside of leaves and should be removed and destroyed if found.  When the eggs hatch the 1st instar nymphs cluster around the egg mass making them an easy target for removal.  The bugs usually drop down when startled, so for hand removal, you can knock them into a container of soapy water.

Lots of research is being done to develop effective management strategies for brown marmorated stink bug.  One of the most promising avenues of research is on biological control.  A stingerless wasp known as the Samurai Wasp (Trissolcus japonicas) destroys 60-90% of brown marmorated stink bug egg masses in its native range in Asia.  This tiny wasp has found its way to the United States and as of 2018 has been found in twelve states, including New York.  Research is now being done to determine the effectiveness of rearing and releasing this tiny parasitoid.  Check out this video about brown marmorated stink bug and the samurai wasp.

Potato Leafhopper (Empoasca fabae)

Potatoe leaf hopper adult on a leaf
Potato leaf hopper adult
Neon green leaf hopper nymph on the underside of a leaf
Potato leaf hopper nymph

Despite their name, potato leaf hoppers feed on over 200 hundred different kinds of plants including potatoes, snap beans, cucumbers, pumpkins, egg plants, rhubarb, squash and sweet potatoes.  The nymphs are neon green and are usually found crawling around on the underside of leaves.  The adults only reach ⅛ inch in length. They are pale green and wedge shaped and fly away when disturbed.

hopper burn on bean leaves, edges of leaves are yellowing, entire leaf is distorted
Hopper burn on bean leaves

These little pests do not overwinter in our area, but instead overwinter down south and the adults are brought up each year by the winds arriving in late-May / early-June.  Although small, a few individuals can cause hopper burn on your plants.  Hopper burn reduces yield and is characterized by chlorosis, or yellowing, of the leaf edges.  Eventually these leaves begin to curl and turn brown.

It is easiest to combat these pest as flightless nymphs using insecticidal soaps or horticultural oils on the undersides of leaves.  Dusting plants with diatomaceous earth can also help deter these pesky bugs.

Squash Bug (Anasa tristis)

Squah bug nymphs, green with black legs
Squash bug nymphs

Squash bugs are pests of all cucurbits, but prefer squash (summer and winter varieties) and pumpkins.  Adults are a little over a ½ inch long and are dark brownish while nymphs are black, pale green or gray with black legs.  These insects feed mainly on the leaves and the stems of squash plants, but can also feed on the fruits.  Initially they cause a stippling on the leaves, but after heavy feeding the leaves begin to look tattered.

Squash bug adult laying eggs
Squash bug adult laying eggs

Squash bugs overwinter as adults, so at the end of the season cleaning up plant debris and mulch will remove overwintering sites.  Eggs are bronze colored and usually laid in clumps on the underside of leaves.  Removing and destroying egg masses can help keep squash bug numbers down.  Adults and nymphs are known to hide in mulch around the base of the plants, laying down a board or piece of cardboard will provide a hiding place for these bugs.  You can then remove the shelter and destroy all the bugs underneath it.  There are also some cultivars of both summer and winter squash that are resistant to squash bugs.


Of course there are lots of non-insect pests that can wreak havoc on your garden as well and whose damage can sometimes be confused with insect damage.  Snails and slugs have rasping mouth parts that create holes in plant leaves much like insects that have biting/chewing mouth parts. Spider mites having piercing/sucking mouth parts that cause stippling on plant leaves like the “true bugs”.

So as you try to determine what is causing damage to your plants keep in mind that different kinds of insects cause different kinds of damage and that determining the cause is essential to developing a solution.

Note: Pesticide recommendations are not a substitute for pesticide labeling.  Remember to read the label before applying any pesticide.  The label is the law!

Helpful References

Vegetable Insect-Mite Pests

https://extension.umd.edu/hgic/topics/vegetable-insect-mite-pests

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

https://www.stopbmsb.org/stopBMSB/assets/File/BMSB-in-Vegetables-English.pdf

https://extension.umd.edu/hgic/topics/stink-bugs-vegetables

 Grasshoppers

https://extension.umd.edu/learn/grasshoppers-life-cycle-and-control

Imported Cabbageworm

https://extension.umd.edu/hgic/topics/imported-cabbageworm-vegetables

http://idl.entomology.cornell.edu/wp-content/uploads/Imported-Cabbageworm.pdf

Potato Leafhoppers

https://extension.umd.edu/hgic/topics/potato-leafhopper-vegetables

Squash Bugs

https://extension.umd.edu/hgic/topics/squash-bug-vegetables

Striped and Spotted Cucumber Beetles 

https://extension.umd.edu/hgic/topics/cucumber-beetles-spotted-or-striped-vegetables

 

Cornell Cooperative Extension Orange County

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