New York State IPM Program

April 2, 2020
by Debra E. Marvin
Comments Off on Timely School IPM #2: Excluding Pests

Timely School IPM #2: Excluding Pests

Last week we promoted SCOUTING for pests.

Today, we want to emphasize ways to EXCLUDE pests. Exclusion is a fundamental way to reduce pests in buildings. Unfortunately, it’s not always a quick and easy job.

Some gaps are easy to see. Improperly fitting door sweeps or gaps along utility lines, for instance.  Others, like gaps along roof lines are harder to locate, and harder to access.

We’ve included some videos and some links to METHODS and exclusion product resources. NOW is a great time to address pest reduction or prevention needs in quiet school buildings. Trade names used herein are for convenience only; no endorsement of products is intended, nor is criticism of unnamed products implied.

While you’re at it, visit our School IPM Best Management Practices Website where we’ve gathered plenty of resources for successful school IPM.

Photo shows the gaps entry doors of a school building

(Above) “You might be a pest management champion” if you automatically look for gaps like this in structural doors.

Photo shows a large2-3" gap around a pipe going into a brick wall foundation

(Above) This gap is obvious, but so often ignored. A proper job of completely sealing this with cement will keep rodents out. Even so, areas like this should be scouted on a regular basis, as pests will find a way to re-use old pathways.

photo shows a gap in a cement wall around a utility pipe.

Before adding ‘exclusion’ in the form of stainless steel wire mesh fiber

photo shows gap around pipe filled with metal mesh fiber

After. Stainless steel mesh resists rusting.

VIDEO: NYSIPM Rodent Management – How to keep them out

VIDEO: NYSIPM: Exclusion – an old concept with new life

VIDEO: TEXAS SCHOOL IPM: Sealants versus Caulking

VIDEO: TEXAS SCHOOL IPM: Patching a rat hold with mesh

ONLINE ARTICLE: PCT’s Annual Pest Exclusion Issue.

ONLINE ARTICLE with VIDEO: Stop Pests in Housing: Developing a Pest Exclusion for Cockroaches and Rodents

March 30, 2020
by Debra E. Marvin
Comments Off on Timely School IPM #1: Scouting for Building Pests

Timely School IPM #1: Scouting for Building Pests

While pests like bedbugs are inactive waiting out school re-openings, the old standards like cockroaches and rodents can use quiet buildings to their advantage if habitat needs are met.  Food, water and shelter are available in areas such as storage rooms, kitchens, boiler rooms and crawlspaces. If your building is currently unoccupied, pest activity can go unnoticed by staff, especially if there is a disruption in pest control operator visits.

OUR NUMBER ONE SUGGESTION NOW IS…SCOUTING. Building maintenance remains (at this time) essential work. Just like in the summer months, buildings without students allow much great opportunity for extensive scouting and cleaning.

LOOK FOR PESTS, PEST ACTIVITY and PEST ENTRY POINTS. The partial inspection list below notes areas that may not be addressed daily during the school year.  Now is the time to move large pieces of kitchen equipment in buildings no longer providing meals.

image shows three samples of pest droppings for comparison, rat, cockrock, mouse

Rat, cockroach, and mouse droppings. Can you identify? (cockroach on the right)

Our Best Management Practices for School IPM website is available to help.  For example: Resources for custodial and building maintenance staff.  We have at least forty links to online or printable resources for IPM Policies and Protocols, General IPM Resources, Indoor IPM Resources and Outdoor IPM Resources

a partial chart of things to do monthly, quarterly or annually to reduce pest problems in buildings.

Here are some videos to help you out:

Signs of rodent infestations in buildings: NYSIPM’s Dr. Matt Frye

Setting snap traps : NYSIPM’s Dr. Matt Frye

Insect monitoring: West Virginia’s IPM Minute: Sticky traps for insects

How to conduct a Pest Assessment in Schools: EPA Webinar

Inspecting a Child Care Facility – Detailed video applicable to all school buildings

photo shows water lines inside a building's utility room. Grease marks are dark and greasy trails showing where rodents travel. This also shows how water condensation provides water for pests.

Dark areas known as grease marks show consistent routes of rodents. Their greasy fur leaves a trail. Why are they here? Pests rely on water sources such as condensation.

 

 

March 27, 2020
by Debra E. Marvin
Comments Off on Highlights from the Northeast Mechanical Weed Control Expo

Highlights from the Northeast Mechanical Weed Control Expo

Today’s post is from Bryan Brown PhD, NYS IPM

Weeding tools have come a long way! Last summer, Eric Gallandt invited me to present the results of my latest “stacked” cultivation trials at the Northeast Mechanical Weed Control Expo. I brought my camera along to document the exciting exhibits by vendors and other researchers. Stacked cultivation featured prominently, as did enhanced accuracy ­– achieved through improved steering capability or camera-guided tools.

(Above) KULT Kress demonstrated their camera guided sweeps and finger weeders (only one row operating). These weeds were too large for optimal finger weeder performance. In-row weeds are most effectively controlled when less than one inch tall.

image shows a monitor mounted on tractor.

(above) The camera guidance system display was brought out from the tractor cab to show participants how it focuses on green plants to determine the location of the crop row.

image is three images side by side showing three angles of a cultivator pulled behind the tractor

(above) HAK showcased a new cultivating tractor with sweeps (left), finger weeders (center), and tines for the wheel tracks (right).

Image shows a sales rep from Steketee company, standing next to a pull behind cultivator that uses a multi-faceted method of disturbing soil and uprooting weeds

(above) Steketee brought their Crumbler Rotors (left), finger weeders (center), and side knives (right).

image shows a Tilmor tractor with weeding equipment suspended beneath to front end. Motor is under and behind the driver.

(above) The cultivating tractor from Tilmor is reminiscent of the Allis Chalmers G, but notice the new crane-winch system for moving tools into place.

image shows a pull behind cultivator with mutlple soil disturbance adaptions

(above) Tilmor also demonstrated a walk-behind tractor with a potential “stacked” cultivation setup.

photo shows two hand pushed cultivators, each with multiple weeder attachments

(above) Jen Goff, from Johnny’s Selected Seeds, showcased several innovative wheel hoes and hand tools.

image shows two researchers discussing their use of multi-functional weeding cultiivators

(above) Ellen Mallory PhD, and Tom Molloy from UMaine discuss their results testing the potential of the CombCut and inter-row hoeing in small grains.

image shows a small attachment suitable for weeding grain fields.

(above) “Stacking” cultivation tools is not just for vegetable crops, this combination has proved effective in small grains.

(above) Slow-motion-video of camera-guided hoeing in a small grain. This practice is gaining popularity in Europe but is still uncommon in the United States.

(below) The futuristic “Tertill” from Franklin Robotics. This solar-powered weeding robot attacks weeds with a string trimmer on its belly and it senses crop plants based on their height. I can’t believe this is now on the market! Flying cars will be next!

graphic showing photo of Bryan Brown and his information. Email him at b r y a n dot b r o w n at cornell dot edu

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 25, 2020
by Debra E. Marvin
Comments Off on Pests Take Advantage of Quiet School Buildings

Pests Take Advantage of Quiet School Buildings

THIS IS A REPOST OF a JUNE 2015 SCHOOL IPM Blog post by Joellen Lampman. The timing is significant. Closed school buildings are the perfect time to tackled sanitation and exclusion efforts that are hard to manage with students in the building. If your school cafeteria is providing meals (thank you!), we’ll also be posting about exclusion in other parts of the building.

“Cleanliness is not next to godliness. It isn’t even in the same neighborhood. No one has ever gotten a religious experience out of removing burned-on cheese from the grill of the toaster oven.” – ― Erma Bombeck

Move equipment to make it easier to clean it as well as the floor and walls around it.

Move equipment to make it easier to clean the floor and walls around it as well as the equipment itself.

While cleanliness might not help you spiritually, we can promise that it will help you prevent pest problems in the school. There are certain tasks that should be done every day, some that can be done weekly, or even monthly, and some that should be done at least once a year. Schools vacated for the summer provide an excellent time to tackle the big jobs.

The primary idea is to remove pest habitat (food, water, shelter, and space) from buildings. This includes sealing off food, repairing water leaks, and removing shelter. Reach into the corners. Get under the sinks. Tackle molding, walls, and flooring behind and under appliances and cooking equipment. This is the time to pull out equipment and vending machines. Clean the wheels and wheel wells on carts and garbage cans. If resources allow, take the opportunity to put shelving on casters. This will make deep cleaning easier, and thus allow it to be conducted more often once school starts up again.

We can't always blame the teachers and students. This cluttered custodial closet provides pest harborage and makes inspection and cleaning difficult.

We can’t always blame the teachers and students. This cluttered custodial closet provides pest harborage and makes inspection and cleaning difficult.

What other pest projects are good for the summer? Ideally your regular inspections have helped you to produce a list of tasks to tackle. Many of these projects likely include projects that will help exclude pests from your building. They include:

  • Sealing gaps where utility lines (water pipes, electricity) enter the building and between rooms
  • Sealing all cracks and gaps in foundations, windows, door jambs and vents
  • Repairing holes or tears in window screens
  • Transplanting (or removing) plant material away from the building foundation
  • Replacing mulch next to buildings with gravel
  • Eliminating water sources such as leaking pipes, clogged drains, and missing tile grout
  • Insulating pipes that accumulate condensation (sweat)
  • Reducing clutter, cardboard, and paper that provides covers for pests

    Seal pipe chases entering buildings, between rooms, and under sinks with foam and copper mesh.

    Seal pipe chases entering buildings, between rooms, and under sinks with foam and copper mesh.

For more information, visit the School IPM Best Management Practices website. Inspection forms, pest fact sheets, IPM protocols, and links to the best and latest from IPM experts will support the novice and the seasoned IPM practitioner alike.

The EPA Clean Bill of Health: How Effective Cleaning and Maintenance Can Improve Health Outcomes in Your School webinar covers how to develop and implement a preventative maintenance plan to reduce costs and improve health by using effective cleaning practices in your school.

And don’t forget to look for burned-on cheese in the faculty lounge toaster oven.

a graphic showing a photo of Joellen Lampman and her role at New York State Integrated Pest Management. She is the school and turfgrass specialist and is located in the Albany Cooperative Extension Office in Voorheesville.

March 24, 2020
by Joellen Lampman
Comments Off on Permethrin Treated Clothing? Do it the right way.

Permethrin Treated Clothing? Do it the right way.

“Frugality, I’ve learned, has its own cost, one that sometimes lasts forever.” – Nicholas Sparks

A photo of Sawyer Permthrin Clothing and Gear label is used an example of a clothing spray product endorsed by the EPA. It links to another blog post on permethrin use.

The label is the law and will tell you everything you need to know about using a pesticide correctly and legally. (Image does not imply endorsement.)

Some pesticides containing permethrin can be applied to clothing, footwear and gear to protect against mosquitoes, ticks, and other biting insects. Recent research confirmed that permethrin interferes with blacklegged, American dog, lone star and Asian longhorned ticks’ ability to move and, thus, to bite. EPA-registered products specifically designed for clothing contain 0.5% permethrin. A 22.5 oz. spray bottle claims to treat five outfits and costs $14. However, some people look to save money by buying a permethrin product meant for turfgrass or ornamental applications and diluting it to 0.5%. But what is the actual cost?

3 Reasons Why Making Your Own Permethrin Spray is a Bad Idea:

1) It probably won’t work. A pesticide product contains inert ingredients that help the active ingredient (in this case, permethrin) perform properly for the uses listed on the product label. Products used in clothing and gear sprays are uniquely suited for binding the permethrin to fabric and product labels tell you how long they will be effective (e.g., six weeks or six washes, whichever comes first). If you make a DIY spray with a permethrin product designed for other uses, it won’t bind as well to your clothes; thus, there is no way to know if it will work or for how long, putting you at risk for a tick bite.

2) You could be putting yourself, others, pets, non-target animals, and the environment at unacceptable risk. Permethrin can be harmful if absorbed through the skin and if a product is not designed to bind the permethrin to your clothing, the insecticide will instead move from the clothing onto your skin. For your protection, the EPA will register the use of a pesticide only if rigorous safety testing shows it will “pose no unreasonable risks to people or the environment when used according to label directions.” Only those uses listed on a pesticide label have met this standard, and treating clothing and gear is NOT a use listed on the label of other permethrin products.

3) It is against the law. Because of Reason #2, the first sentence in the Directions for Use section of all permethrin products is “It is a violation of federal law to use this product in a manner inconsistent with its labeling.” Which, by the way, also means it is against your state’s laws.

Commercially available permethrin clothing and gear sprays cost more because it takes time and money to develop the right mix of ingredients and conduct the required safety testing to ensure that the product will control ticks without putting people and the environment at risk. DIY treatments that pose greater risks while providing poorer control of ticks are hardly a bargain; be sure to use the real thing and follow all label directions.Campaign Objectives Reduce human exposure to tick-borne illnesses. Promote IPM, including monitoring and personal protection, as best management practices for avoiding ticks and tick-borne disease. Make tick avoidance easy to understand and accomplish

For more information about permethrin, visit the National Pesticide Information Center and EPA. And for more information on ticks, tick-borne diseases, why there are so many of them, and how to protect yourself, check out www.dontgettickedny.org.

 

Authors:

A photo of Dan Wixted links to the Cornell University Pesticide Safety Education Program page..

Dan Wixted, Pesticide Management Education Program

  • Dan Wixted, Cornell University Pesticide Management Education Program
  • Joellen Lampman, New York State Integrated Pest Management Program

March 20, 2020
by Joellen Lampman
Comments Off on Protect yourself from spring ticks

Protect yourself from spring ticks

“In the spring, at the end of the day, you should smell like dirt.” – Margaret Atwood

The spring of 2020 might have everyone’s yards incredibly tidy, as gardening and yard work are on the short list for things we can all do while social distancing. But COVID-19 isn’t the only disease we need to watch for, and new research shows that protecting yourself from tick-borne pathogens is more important than ever.

They’re active now

table showing blacklegged tick eggs laid in the spring, nymphs active in spring, larvae active in summer, adults active in fall

This table shows the textbook description of when blacklegged tick lifestages are active.

Blacklegged ticks are most active in the spring and fall, although you can often find them active year round if conditions are right (above 37o in the winter, cool and damp in the summer). Many still consider ticks to be a summer pest, but the poppy-seed sized nymph starts questing in the spring, and there have already been reports of nymphal activity in New York. These ticks are considered to be the most dangerous life stage due to their small size, so be sure to put all your tick prevention strategies into place now.

table showing blacklegged tick eggs laid in the spring, nymphs and adults active in spring, larvae and nymphs active in summer, larvae and adults active in fall, adults active in winter

In reality, different blacklegged lifestages can be active almost anytime of year depending on weather conditions.

Keep it clean

A study looking at the effectiveness of recommended yard management measures against ticks showed the presence of trash could predict an increase in ticks over a clean yard, likely due to an increase in the number of small rodents that find both shelter and food amongst the trash. This was more pronounced in yards without forested areas. Sanitation is an important IPM step, so pick up and pack out that trash!

Check your leaves

photo of blacklegged tick adult on dried leaf

Both adult and nymphal blacklegged ticks are active in the spring.

How you managed your leaves in the fall can impact your tick risk this spring. New research shows that piling leaves along woodland edges increased the number of nymphs found by three times or more. Whether they were raked to the edge,  blown there with a leaf blower, or the wind had its way with them, thicker leaf litter creates suitable microhabitats for overwintering ticks.

Identify areas in your yard where leaves have accumulated. Are they close to areas you spend a lot of time, like the kids’ swing set or your garden? It’s best to remove them. Are they in the far corner where no one ever goes? You can probably leave them, but be aware that the tick risk will likely be higher. Check for yourself. It’s pretty easy to monitor for ticks.

Protect Yourself

So while you are out raking, hauling, bagging, and tidying, be sure to wear long pants tucked into socks and a long-sleeve shirt tucked into your pants – all treated with permethrin, apply repellents to exposed skin, and conduct a tick check as soon as you come indoors.

For more information on protecting yourself from tick bites, visit www.DontGetTickedNY.org.

March 9, 2020
by Debra E. Marvin
Comments Off on Announcing Updates to the Northeastern IPM Best Management Practices for Schools Website

Announcing Updates to the Northeastern IPM Best Management Practices for Schools Website

northeastipm.org/schools//

photo shows a screen shot of the front page of the school best management practices website

Our New Look!

northeastipm.org/schools//

Back in 2013, the Northeast School IPM Working Group (NESIWG) received a Partnership Grant from the Northeastern IPM Center to develop a Best Management Practices (BMP) website.

logo of the northeastern I P M center

Reducing pest and pesticide exposure is important for children, just as it is for district staff and visitors. But schools are especially challenging to manage because they include such varied and heavily used settings such as classrooms, cafeterias, laboratories, auditoriums, theaters, playing fields, playgrounds and gardens.

photo shows signs of damaged turf on a lacrosse field due to over use

The burden of use on an athletic field. (NYSIPM photo)

With the help of many contributors, the NESIWG both created and collected resources for school IPM. We wanted to help administrators, school boards, parents, teaching and support staff, athletic directors, groundskeepers, kitchen staff and custodians how a designated pest management plan can reduce both pests and the need for pesticides. The website was a success.

By 2018, NESIWG members saw the need to update old links and fill out gaps in the content. Eager to keep the website a useful and comprehensive resource, the working group applied for and received a NEIPM Communications grant. Again using focus groups, the following changes were made:

  • a reorganization of the pest species list,
  • additional information on relevant pesticide use regulations in all Northeastern states,
  • grouping resources by stakeholder roles,
  • the addition of two new pages: Breakfast in the Classroom and Playgrounds

Additionally, the recent grant included an update of the working group’s homepage, a new ranking of regional school IPM priorities, a current membership list and an index of school IPM contacts in the Northeast.

graphic shows front of new brochure announcing the changes in the school best management practices website

Front (Outside) of Brochure

Now, with changes soon to be complete, the NESIWG welcomes your visits and assistance in sharing this helpful site. After all, finding and using the website is key!

Back of new brochure advertising the changes to the Best management practices for schools website

Back (Inside) of Brochure

Visit the page!

PLEASE CONSIDER DOWNLOADING OUR BROCHURE, printing a few and sharing them.  OR SHARE THIS LINK.

March 6, 2020
by Debra E. Marvin
Comments Off on Soybean Disease Workshop at Cayuga County ‘Shop Meeting’

Soybean Disease Workshop at Cayuga County ‘Shop Meeting’

Soybean Disease Identification, Expansion of Soilborne Soybean Diseases and the Soybean Cyst Nematode in NYS, and Considerations for Soybean Seed Treatment Options for these Threats

Cayuga County CCE specialist Ron Kuck held a shop meeting at Dumond’s farm in Union Springs on February 19th.  Jaime Cummings, Field Crops and Livestock IPM Coordinator at NYSIPM shared information on how to correctly identify, differentiate and manage soybean diseases, which seed treatments are most beneficial and cost-effective for soybeans in NY, and how to deal with the new soybean cyst nematode now that it’s been confirmed more widely in NY.
Photo shows Jaime Cummings speaking to a group of seated farmers inside a large, bright metal barn.

A good turnout on February 19 for a Cayuga County Shop Meeting. Growers concerned with soybean diseases heard the latest from NYSIPM’s Jaime Cummings.

Participants took a pre-workshop quiz to gauge their knowledge of the subject, and a post-workshop quiz to see how much they learned.  And, they learned a lot!  The average quiz rating before the workshop was 57%, and was 87% after.  This means a 30% knowledge gain regarding when and which management methods are most effective for each soybean disease, including when pesticides are not the best option, and how to incorporate integrated pest management options for minimizing losses to the soybean cyst nematode.
photo shows symptoms of soybean sudden death diesase

Soybean Sudden Death (SDS) Foliar Symptoms

Ron Kuck received positive feedback from a number of participants, who each said that they appreciated the workshop and Jaime’s expertise and enthusiasm on the subject matter.
Photo shows New York State Integrated Pest Management Program's Jaime Cummings speaks to a group of soybean farmers about soybean diseases.

About 35 farmers and agriculture professionals attended February’s Shop Meeting in Union Springs, NY.

 

Photo shows a close up of soybean plant showing symptoms fo stem canker, a fungal disease.

Symptoms of Northern stem canker on soybean.

Thank you to all who coordinated and attended this successful event.

For more information: Jaime Cummings

This is a graphic containing a photo of Jaime Cummings and where she is housed annd includes her contact email address j c 2246 at cornell dot e d u

March 5, 2020
by Joellen Lampman
Comments Off on School IPM 2020: Where We’ve Been and What’s Next Conference (POSTPONED)

School IPM 2020: Where We’ve Been and What’s Next Conference (POSTPONED)

When it comes to student learning and achievement, the physical environment is a full partner.” – Dr. Lorraine Maxwell, Cornell UniversityConference graphic of pests looking at school with "School is Open. Humans Only" sign.

Despite decades of promoting school integrated pest management (IPM), bed bugs, cockroaches, lice, and mice continue to be a problem in schools. Part of the issue is lack of implementation of proven IPM techniques such as exclusion. Part of the issue is that some pests, like bed bugs, German cockroaches and lice arrive in backpacks, delivered supplies, and directly on students and staff. While schools often have plans in place to address these pests when they are discovered, it will take a wider community effort to prevent their introductions.

The Sixth Annual NYS IPM conference brings together a wide range of speakers to address and discuss the status of school IPM adoption and where we need to go in the future. If you or your family is impacted by pests or pest management on and off school property, this is the conference for you.

Our keynote speaker, Lorraine Maxwell, will discuss “Healthy Environments for Learning”. Her research has found that school building conditions, which include conducive conditions for pests as well as the presence of pests, impact the school’s social climate, which directly impacts student performance.

Date:     April 22, 2020

Location:     New York State United Teachers Headquarters, 800 Troy Schenectady Rd, Latham, NY 12110

Cost:     $45 includes all breaks and lunch

Sponsors:

Nyew York State United Teachers logo with link to www.nysut.org

Cornell Cooperative Extension Albany County logo with link to their website: http://albany.cce.cornell.edu/

We have applied for NYS Pesticide Applicator Recertification Credits.

For more information and to register, visit https://tinyurl.com/NYSchoolIPMConference.

 AGENDA
8:30 Registration
9:00

What is the status of IPM implementation within NYS schools

·  NYS Integrated Pest Management Program – Lynn Braband, NYS IPM Program

·  NYS Department of Education – Daryl Andreades, Senior Architect

·  Healthy Schools Network – Claire Barnett, Founder and Executive Director

·  NYS School Facilities Association – Fred Koelbel, NYSSFA Board of Directors and Port Jefferson School District Plant Facilities Administrator

10:20 BREAK
10:45

Panel Discussion

·  NYS Integrated Pest Management Program

·  NYS Department of Education

·  Healthy Schools Network

·  NYS School Facilities Association

·  NYS Department of Health – Michele Herdt, Clean, Green, and Healthy Schools Program Director

·  New York State United Teachers – Veronica Foley, Health and Safety Specialist

·  Association for Educational Safety and Health Professionals – Patricia Cerio, Safety Coordinator

11:45 LUNCH
12:30 Keynote Address: Healthy Environments for Learning, Lorraine Maxwell, Associate Professor, Department of Design and Environmental Analysis, Cornell University
1:15

What We’re Doing – Community Intervention

·  Mosquitoes – Dina Fonseca, Director, Rutgers Center for Vector Biology

·  Deer/ticks – Kristina Ferrare, Forestry Program Specialist, CCE Onondaga County

·  Mice/rats –Georgianna Silveira, City of Somerville

2:45 BREAK
3:00

Break out groups – Strategies for interventions

·  Bed bugs – Jody Gangloff-Kaufmann, NYS IPM Program

·  Cockroaches – Matthew Frye, NYS IPM Program

·  Establish school IPM priorities –Joellen Lampman, NYS IPM Program

3:45 Report and Wrap-Up
4:30 Adjourn

March 4, 2020
by Debra E. Marvin
Comments Off on Summary of Stacked Cultivation Trials in New York

Summary of Stacked Cultivation Trials in New York

photo portrait of Dr. Bryan Brown

Dr. Bryan Brown

Today’s Post comes from NYSIPM’s Dr. Bryan Brown

Using several different cultivation implements at once, or “stacking” tools, can improve weed control effectiveness. From my work at the University of Maine, Eric Gallandt and I showed that certain cultivation tools work synergistically together, particularly those combinations that undercut, then uproot, then bury weeds. Unfortunately crop damage was high in the trial results from Maine. So in New York, I made some adjustments to be gentler on the crop ­– wider spacing between tools, removed center tines on the row harrow, and tested a new hiller to bury weeds without contacting the crop (Figure 1). And GPS guidance was a big improvement too!

 

Figure 1. Cultivation implements used in these trials were A) sweeps, B) finger weeders (yellow and row harrow (blue), and C) a disk hiller. For full explanation of implement adjustments and trial methods, see the project report at  https://ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/64539

Figure 2. Results of cultivation trials in snap beans. This was the first cultivation event following planting and tillage. At cultivation, snap beans were 6” tall, while weeds were 0.5” tall in 2018 and 1” tall in 2019.

Figure 3. Results of cultivation trials in beets. First cultivation occurred at either the 2-leaf stage or about one week later at the 4-leaf stage. 2019 beets trials were planted in the spring, whereas 2018 beets were planted late-summer, with lower-growing winter annual weeds present.

Overall, the adjustments made in these trials greatly reduced crop damage while weed control remained high. I was most impressed with the stacked combo of sweeps plus fingers plus disk hillers, which consistently controlled the greatest percentage of weeds. These results also demonstrate that in-row cultivation should not be conducted prior to the 4-leaf stage in beets. For more information on integrated weed management, contact bryan.brown@cornell.edu. This project was supported by a USDA NIFA CPPM.

 

 

 

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