When Cornell’s NYS IPM story — based on IPM entomologist Matt Frye’s research — hit the news a week ago, it made quite a splash. Back then, nearly 20 media outlets told the story: how Frye found over 6,500 lice, mites, and fleas on 113 rats live-trapped in New York City.
And — that among them were over 500 Oriental rat fleas, fleas capable of carrying the infamous bubonic plague. No, none of those 500 fleas harbored the plague. Still — “If these rats carry fleas that could transmit the plague to people,” says Frye, “then the pathogen itself is the only piece missing from the transmission cycle.”
Below, an updated list of the outlets that ran the news. Now the BBC — the British Broadcasting Corporation — also has plans to tell the story. And here, a one-minute video that shows how city rats make a living.
Norway rats are your consummate “where you go, we go also” species, being as well adapted to urban living as we are. Meaning that the diseases we’ve blamed on them are most likely grounded in reality.
Yet widespread instances of the most spectacular of those diseases — the Black Plague that devastated much of the Old World long ago — have virtually disappeared. Is it because this dread disease’s vector, the Oriental rat flea, also disappeared? No. Rats aren’t the only animals that harbor these fleas. In North America the plague lives on in the unlikeliest of places — in the American Southwest among ground squirrels, prairie dogs, and the rat fleas they harbor, infecting roughly 10 people each year.
A Norway rat drops down a grate in New York City, looking for food or shelter. A flea that finds food and shelter on such a rat is capable of transmitting the plague pathogen.
But what about our cities? If New York City could serve as a model organism, so to speak, then new research published this week from a Cornell and Columbia University collaboration means we’d best keep tabs on city rats and the tiny critters that call them home. NYS IPM’s urban entomologist Matthew Frye and his colleagues in New York live-trapped 133 Norway rats. Using a fine-tooth rat comb, Frye found about 6,000 parasites, including lice, mites — and more than 500 rat fleas.
The good news first: none of the fleas carried the plague. But they did carry other nasty diseases.
It’s unlikely the plague has gotten a toehold in New York. Even so, Frye is alarmed. “If these rats carry fleas that could transmit the plague to people,” says Frye, “then the pathogen itself is the only piece missing from the transmission cycle.”
What to do to help keep it that way? Since avoiding fleas is just as tricky as avoiding rats, core IPM practices are key. They include prevention (caulking and installing snug-fitting door sweeps, for instance) and careful sanitation (cleaning or removing every possible food and water source — indoors and out — be it spilled dog chow and soda pop, or leaky pipes and discarded deli containers).
Once you’ve gotten the rats out — then what? After all, those fleas and the diseases they vector are a troupe of “where you go, we go also” species on the micro level. “It’s not that the parasites that get left behind can infest our bodies,” Frye says. “But they can feed on us while seeking other rats to infest.”
Frye’s research was part of an earlier project looking at the pathogens that rats themselves — not just their fleas — could carry. That study noted a disturbing number of viral and bacterial diseases rats fall prey to — including a handful that could spell grave consequences for us.
November 11, 2014
by Elizabeth Lamb Comments Off on Roses are red but rose rosette virus will make you blue
Did your roses look odd this past year — stems and leaves that stayed red all summer, or lots of stems or buds all bunched together? (Those bunches are called “witches’ brooms.”) If so, they could have rose rosette disease — a virus carried by a miniscule mite.
Those decorative purple spiky things adorning your bouquet are actually symptoms of dreaded rose rosette disease. Photo credit S. Jensen, Cornell University.
It may be just a small branch affected at first but rose rosette is a serious disease. It can infect and kill almost all types of roses and spread from plant to plant. What to do? Remember your IPM principles and scout! Inspect your roses often for first signs of the virus. Even wild roses can carry it, so look at those too. You can check this fall and if you are not sure, mark those plants to look at again in the spring.
Found symptoms? Remove symptomatic plants to keep rose rosette from spreading. It’s unlikely that pruning out infected parts will save your roses or keep the mites from hopping onto neighboring plants to feed and infect them. And bag each plant right away! Don’t carry them through the garden dropping mites as you go.
Classic “witches’ broom” on your roses mean you must be ruthless about roguing your roses. Photo credit D. D. O’Brien, Cornell University
When you buy roses next time, inspect them carefully — not just the ones you are buying but all the roses around them. If you see symptoms, try a different store. The symptoms don’t show up right away. And the last thing you want to do is bring home a Typhoid Rosie.
Can you replant in the same place? Some resources suggest the virus can move from the old roots to the new. So give your new rose a new home.
Stay tuned! While we don’t have answers now on how to protect your rose garden, there is research in progress that should help us keep our roses red and our growers not so blue.