As I sat one evening enjoying my glass of Cabernet Sauvignon on my patio in the Finger Lakes, I noticed several small fruit flies flitting about my wine. Hmmmm...yes, SWD. The tell-tale spots on the wings of the males were a dead giveaway. And I've grown so used to the golden brown somewhat hunchbacked body of the females, that I knew who they were. Red wine is known to be highly attractive to SWD, as is Concord grape juice. Both have been used as baits and drowning solutions in SWD traps. Although, I'd rather not waste wine in an insect trap.
This week Grace Marshall and I are doing a final check of the traps we have in our research plots. Last week, on average, we were catching 20 to 1000 SWD per trap in the summer raspberry and blueberry plantings with nary a fruit in sight. Counting the SWD in those traps is no small task. I was finding myself seeing spots — literally, SWD wing spots — the day after counting. One trap had 3022 SWD in it. In most of the traps the majority of fruit flies in them are SWD — upwards of 95%.
Our trap catch data from these berry plantings, confirms findings by other researchers that traps on the crop edge that are near woods catch more SWD than traps set within an insecticide-treated planting. Plantings that are surrounded by open fields, row crops, and roadways tend to have fewer SWD overall, as compared to plantings with wooded edges or ponds, streams and ditches nearby.
As populations of SWD continue to grow across the region, be aware that unprotected, susceptiblefruit is at very high risk of SWD infestation, especially if allowed to hang until soft and ripe:
day neutral or ever-bearing strawberry
peach and nectarine
plums and prunes
Fruit, such as peaches, nectarines, plums and prunes, that aren't highly susceptible to SWD may escape infestation even without insecticide treatment if harvested before they are fully ripe and soft. All will benefit from cold storage. Keep up on your SWD management tactics. Review the information on the SWD Management page of Cornell Fruit Resources,http://fruit.cornell.edu/spottedwing/management/.
New York State Agencies encourage the public to report findings of the invasive pest, spotted lanternfly. As of August 14, 2020, it was confirmed that spotted lanternfly (SLF), an invasive pest from Asia, has been found on Staten Island. The New York State Departments of Agriculture and Markets (AGM), Environmental Conservation (DEC), and Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation (OPRHP) confirmed that several live, adult insects were discovered by OPRHP staff in Clay Pit Ponds State Park Preserve.
This destructive pest feeds on more than 70 plant species, including tree-of-heaven, and plants and crops that are critical to New York’s agricultural economy, such as sugar maple, apple trees, grapevines, and hops. Adults are out now and are strikingly large with black polka dots. They'll be mating, laying eggs, and feeding on sap from August through October and even into December, depending on the onset of frosts.
State Agriculture Commissioner Richard A. Ball said, “The Department is working closely with its partners at the Department of Environmental Conservation, the State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to mitigate the impacts of this destructive pest, which can weaken plants and have a devastating impact on agriculture. While this find on Staten Island is concerning, New York State has taken strong actions to combat the establishment of SLF since 2017. We will continue our work to survey and inspect high-risk areas and implement targeted management plans. We also urge the public to be vigilant and report any suspected sightings of SLF to help slow the spread of this invasive.”
DEC Commissioner Basil Seggos said, “Since spotted lanternfly was first discovered in neighboring states, DEC has worked aggressively with the State Department of Agriculture and Markets, Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation, USDA and other partners to educate New Yorkers and take steps to prevent this invasive species from establishing itself in New York State. This invasive pest has the potential to severely impact and stress New York's forests, agricultural crops, and tourism industries. The first live find on Staten Island is concerning, but our goal remains to find spotted lanternfly early and prevent it from further entering New York State and limiting any serious threats to our natural resources.”
State Parks Commissioner Erik Kulleseid said, “Spotted Lanternfly poses a troubling threat to the environment and agriculture of New York State but also to the quality of recreational opportunities and experiences we offer in our State Parks and public lands. I applaud our Parks’ environmental stewardship staff for identifying this pest, so New York State can quickly begin taking steps to slow its spread. Park visitors across the state can help in identifying and reporting this destructive pest, and I urge them to familiarize themselves with its signs.”
Following the finding by OPRHP, AGM, working with DEC, OPRHP, and the USDA, immediately began extensive surveys throughout the area. Crews will continue to survey areas on Staten Island, develop management plans to slow SLF’s spread, and minimize the damage and impact from this invasive species. AGM urges New Yorkers to report potential sightings using the SLF web reporting tool found here: https://survey123.arcgis.com/share/a08d60f6522043f5bd04229e00acdd63
SLF feedings can stress plants, making them vulnerable to disease and attacks from other insects. SLF also excretes large amounts of sticky "honeydew," which attracts sooty molds that interfere with plant photosynthesis, negatively affecting the growth and fruit yield of plants, and impacting forest health. SLF also has the potential to significantly hinder quality of life and recreational activities due to the honeydew and the swarms of insects it attracts.
First discovered in Pennsylvania in 2014, SLF has since been found in New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, West Virginia and Virginia. Given the proximity to the Pennsylvania and New Jersey infestations, New York State is at high risk for infestation.
Since 2017, AGM, DEC, and OPRHP have taken an aggressive approach to keeping SLF from establishing in New York State, conducting surveys of high-risk areas across the State; inspecting nursery stock, stone shipments, and commercial transports from quarantine areas; and launching a comprehensive education and outreach campaign to enlist the public’s help in reporting SLF.
While these insects can jump and fly short distances, they spread primarily through human activity. SLF can lay their eggs on any number of surfaces, such as vehicles, stone, rusty metal, outdoor furniture, and firewood. Adult SLF can hitch rides in vehicles, on any outdoor item, or cling to clothing or hats, and be easily transported into and throughout New York.
The public is encouraged to thoroughly inspect vehicles, luggage and gear, and all outdoor items for egg masses and adult SLF before leaving areas with SLF, particularly in the counties of states in the quarantine area—Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, West Virginia and Virginia. If SLF adults are found, residents should remove them and scrape off all egg masses.
Residents can also help by allowing surveyors access to properties where SLF may be present. Surveyors will be uniformed and will always provide identification.
Adult SLF are active from July to December. They are approximately one-inch long and half an inch wide at rest, with eye-catching wings. Adults begin laying eggs in September. Signs of an SLF infestation may include:
Sap oozing or weeping from open wounds on tree trunks, which appear wet and give off fermented odors.
One-inch-long egg masses that are brownish-gray, waxy and mud-like when new. Old egg masses are brown and scaly.
Massive honeydew build-up under plants, sometimes with black sooty mold developing.
Press Release Contact:
Jola Szubielski, AGM | Jola.Szubielski@agriculture.ny.gov | 518-457-0752
Lori Severino, DEC | firstname.lastname@example.org I 518-402-8000
Dan Keefe, Parks I News@parks.ny.gov I 518-486-1868
If you know people in the K-12 community, let them know about this year's IPM Conference, School IPM 2020: Where We've Been and What's Next. A virtual conference taking place on the mornings of August 11 and 18, 2020. Starting this Tuesday, August 11! Where? On Zoom, of course! The cost is only $15 per person or $25 for your entire school district's personnel. Click Here to Register!
This Sixth Annual NYS IPM conference brings together a wide range of speakers to address and discuss the status of school IPM adoption and where we need to go in the future. If you or your family is impacted by pests or pest management on and off school property, this virtual conference is for you.
Despite decades of promoting school IPM, bed bugs, cockroaches, lice, and mice continue to be a problem in schools. Part of the issue is lack of implementation of proven IPM techniques such as exclusion. Part of the issue is that some pests, like bed bugs, German cockroaches and lice arrive in backpacks, delivered supplies, and directly on students and staff. While schools often have plans in place to address these pests when they are discovered, it will take a wider community effort to prevent their introductions. Join us and learn about proven school IPM tactics!
Our keynote speaker, Lorraine Maxwell, will discuss “Healthy Environments for Learning”. Her research has found that school building conditions, which include conducive conditions for pests as well as the presence of pests, impact the school’s social climate, which directly impacts student performance. Meet the Keynote Speaker for the School IPM 2020 Conference in this IPM blog by Joellen Lampman, NYS IPM Program's School and Turfgrass IPM Extension Support Specialist.
Sustained catch in Monroe County marks the end of 2020 SWD monitoring. Please join me in thanking all who contribute to this effort! In the blueberry planting in Monroe County, Janet van Zoeren, CCE Lake Ontario Fruit Program, caught 11 SWD in the week ending July 28 (2 males and 9 females).
These Cornell University scientists participated in SWD monitoring for the first time this year. A special thanks go out to them for braving COVID-19 and keeping themselves and our growers safe — setting traps, changing lures, servicing traps, and identifying SWD. Plus, dealing with gentle reminders to enter data online or send in first trap catch info so that you, our readers, were kept informed via the blogs and distribution map. Thank you SWD first years!
Ariel Kirk, Steuben County CCE
Barb Neal, Tioga County CCE
Grace Marshall, NYS IPM Program
Janet van Zoeren, Lake Ontario Fruit Program
Liz Alexander, Chemung County CCE
Lydia Brown, Hudson Valley Research Laboratory
Sarah Tobin, Eastern NY Commercial Horticulture Program
These Cornell scientists have been the foundation of our monitoring network! This network would not be possible without their support and contributions — suggestions for improvement, ideas for mapping, perspectives on grower needs and steadfast cooperation. Yes, they've done the trapping and dealt with the gentle reminders and they're still with the program. Thank you SWD trappers!
Andy Galimberti, Eastern NY Commercial Hort Program
Dave Thorp, Livingston County CCE
Don Gasiewicz, Wyoming County CCE
Elisabeth Hodgdon, Eastern NY Commercial Hort Program
Faruque Zaman, Suffolk County CCE
Jim O'Connell, Ulster County CCE
Liz Tee, Lake Ontario Fruit Program
Natasha Field, Eastern NY Commercial Hort Program
Peter Jentsch, Hudson Valley Research Laboratory
Sharon Bachman, Erie County CCE
Special thanks go to Laura McDermott!
Laura McDermott, Eastern NY Commercial Horticulture Program (ENYCHP), has gone above and beyond to support the SWD monitoring network from its inception in 2013 by building a strong collaboration in Eastern NY with a goal of having a trapping location in every county in the ENYCHP. This year, 9 of 17 counties in ENYCHP participated in SWD monitoring. I know Laura would say she couldn't do this without the willing collaboration of her colleagues in the ENYCHP, in Ulster County CCE, and in the Hudson Valley Research Lab. But, we know that without her efforts in bringing us all together, SWD monitoring in Eastern NY wouldn't be as comprehensive as it is. Thank you Laura!
“Our office has received questions from a few New Yorkers who have received unsolicited packages allegedly sent from China that are marked as containing jewelry (or other items) but which actually contain plant seeds. Similar packages have been received in other states and the United States Department of Agriculture is investigating. People who receive seeds should not plant or handle the seeds. They should store them safely in a place children and pets cannot access and email USDA immediately at email@example.com for instructions. Seeds imported into the United States are rigorously tested to ensure quality and prevent introduction of invasive species, insects and diseases. We will continue to monitor this issue and will pass along guidance as it is received from USDA.” – Statement from Richard A. Ball, New York State Commissioner of Agriculture
The above statement from Commissioner Ball comes as the number of mysterious packages, which have been received by people across the country for a while now, has increased recently.
To date, we don’t know what kind of seeds they are of if they might be carrying some kind of plant pathogen. The recommendation from the USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is to immediately email the USDA and hold onto the seeds and packaging, including the mailing label, until someone from your State department of agriculture or APHIS contacts you with further instructions. Do not plant seeds from unknown origins.
APHIS ends their press release on the subject with “USDA is committed to preventing the unlawful entry of prohibited seeds and protecting U.S. agriculture from invasive pests and noxious weeds. Visit the APHIS website to learn more about USDA’s efforts to stop agricultural smuggling and promote trade compliance.”.
At the NYS IPM Program, research, demonstrations, education, and outreach are part of a comprehensive plan to make IPM the safe, effective pest management solution for all New Yorkers. For more information about our efforts to combat invasive species, visit our Invasives Species page. For updates on this, and other pest related subjects, follow us on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram.
Sustained catch at the final three sites in the SWD monitoring network: two in Orleans County and one in Wayne County. In raspberries in Orleans County, 8 SWD were caught in 2 traps (3 males and 5 females). In blueberries in Orleans and Wayne Counties 4 (3 males and 1 female) were caught in 2 traps and 5 (2 males and 3 females) in 4 traps, respectively. Growers of the berries on these farms have had an active insecticide program in place for SWD. Insecticide treatments had kept numbers low to non-existent on these farms until now.
SWD populations are building up across New York. In some plantings we are monitoring for research, with minimal to no insecticide program, average catch has been over 5 SWD per trap this week in 12 traps — that's 50 to 100 SWD total.
One female SWD was caught in a trap set in a blueberry planting in Monroe County. The traps were checked on July 21, 2020. Fruit is ripe and U-pick is open. These traps are being monitored by Janet van Zoeren, Lake Ontario Fruit Program, Cornell Cooperative Extension. This marks the last county in the SWD monitoring network to reach first catch.
The grower at this location has had an active SWD management program, including insecticide protection. The low trap catch numbers at this location likely are associated with an insecticide program being in place in the planting. As the season progresses, SWD will become more numerous and the risk of fruit infestation will become greater. Consider everything you can do to thwart this insect that either will enhance the efficacy of the insecticide management program or will lower the risk of fruit infestation.
Pest Management for SWD includes:
Mowing – to reduce humidity and habitat for SWD and to increase sun penetration.
Weed management – to reduce humidity, alternate fruiting hosts and habitat and to increase sun penetration.
Pruning – to reduce humidity and to increase sun and spray penetration.
Monitoring – to know if SWD is present and at what level.
Sanitation – to reduce reproduction harborage and overall SWD population.
Cold storage – below 37° F, to slow or kill any eggs and larvae in harvested fruit.
Sustained catch, was obtained in seven counties in NY between June 29 and July 14; numbers hit a high of 57 at one location. Read about the five key tactics that contribute to an aggressive SWD management program below. It may be imperative to begin a spray program to protect ripe fruit. SWD build-up has coincided with harvest season and has translated into a challenging year for SWD management. Harvest is underway in raspberries, blueberries, cherries and winding down in June strawberries.
Sustained catch on June 29
Chemung County – 2 males and 3 females in two traps in a blueberry planting.
Livingston County – 1 female in two traps in a blueberry planting.
Tioga County – 1 male and 2 females in four traps in a blueberry planting.
Sustained catch on July 2
Wyoming County – 1 male and 11 females in 6 traps set in two raspberry plantings.
Sustained catch on July 7
Herkimer County – 1 female in four traps in a blueberry planting, down from the prior week, possibly due to the hot and dry weather.
Steuben County – 5 males in two traps in a blueberry planting.
Sustained catch on July 14
Onondaga County – 34 males and 23 females in four traps in a blueberry planting.
If adult SWD are present on your farm, which they probably are by now, manage them aggressively now that harvests are underway.
Aggressive management entails 5 key tactics:
Excellent sanitation will reduce SWD populations.
Fruit should be harvested frequently and completely to prevent the buildup of ripe and over-ripe fruit. Unmarketable fruit should be removed from the field and either frozen, “baked” in clear plastic bags placed in the sun, or disposed of in bags off-site. This will kill larvae, remove them from your crop, and prevent them from emerging as adults.
Canopy and water management will make the environment less favorable.
Prune to maintain an open canopy, increase sunlight and reduce humidity. This will make plantings less attractive to SWD and will improve spray coverage. Repair leaking drip lines and avoid overhead irrigation when possible. Allow the ground and mulch surface to dry before irrigating.
Insecticide sprays will kill SWD adults and thereby reduce egg laying:
Insecticide treatments should begin when either regional monitoring alerts about the first SWD trap catch or when highly susceptible fruit crops begin to ripen. Treatments should be applied at least every seven days and repeated in the event of rain. Choose the most effective insecticides with pre harvest intervals that work for your picking schedule. Rotate insecticides according to their modes of action.
Check the Cornell Guidelines (cropandpestguides.cce.cornell.edu/) for the latest list of approved pesticides. Special needs labels are being sought for NY berries. Always read and follow the pesticide label instructions.
Regular fruit sampling:
At least 100 fruit per block per harvest should be observed for infestation. Talk to your local CCE agent about a monitoring program. Fruit can be inspected for evidence of larval feeding. Small holes in berries where the eggs were laid may leak juice when the berry is gently squeezed; this is especially diagnostic on blueberry. Infested red raspberry fruit may leave a red juice stain on the berry receptacle when the fruit is picked. Fruit with small indents or bruises where the berry surface appears to have flattened or deflated may be damaged.
A salt flotation method, immersing fruit in a solution of 1 Tbsp. (14.8 cc) table salt per 1 cup (236.6 ml) water, may cause larvae to float to surface. At least 100 fruit per block per harvest should be observed for infestation. Suggested methods were adapted for NY growers in Guidelines for Checking Fruit for SWD Larvae in the Field (cpb-us-e1.wpmucdn.com/blogs.cornell.edu/dist/0/7265/files/2017/01/SaltFloatation-2kmt284.pdf).
Cool berries immediately:
Chilling berries immediately after harvest to 32° – 33° F will stop the development of larvae and eggs in the fruit, and may kill them. U-Pick customers should be encouraged to refrigerate fruit immediately to maintain fruit quality at home. Below 37° F SWD stops developing in fruit.
In a blueberry planting in Herkimer County six SWD were caught in four traps during the week ending June 30, 2020. No zero catch was obtained at this site. Traps were initially set on June 23. These traps are being monitored by the grower at this location.
Across New York there is only one location in the SWD Monitoring Network where SWD hasn't been caught yet, in Western, NY. Weather in Western NY has been hot. Temperatures have reached or exceeded 90° F during the past several days. Lack of rain has occurred in many areas.
In a blueberry planting in Steuben County, we now have first catch. A single male was found in a trap set on the edge of the planting that was checked on July 1, 2020 by Ariel Kirk, Agriculture Educator, Steuben County Cornell Cooperative Extension. A big shout out to Ariel. This is her first year with the network.
In many areas of New York State, blueberries are ripe, but in others, they are still green. Make sure you tailor your SWD Management accordingly, because green and hard fruit aren't susceptible to SWD.
Some help from a treefrog? Or is the treefrog enjoying easy pickings? I think this is the common gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor). No matter, these insectivores help reduce the number of insects in our fields. This toad helped Grace Marshall, NYS IPM, check an SWD trap this spring when blueberries were in full bloom.