New York State IPM Program

May 16, 2017
by Mary M. Woodsen
Comments Off on Keep Off the Grass? IPM for Anyone With a Lawnmower

Keep Off the Grass? IPM for Anyone With a Lawnmower

Now that spring has arrived and you’ve dusted off the lawn mower …

As a kid of about five, I became suspicious of lawns. In a rare moment of TV viewing, I had seen a public-service ad wherein a bundle of green leafy stuff thudded into an eerily vacant playground while a baritone voice boomed out something like “Grass. We think it’s bad for kids. Stay away from it.” My mom insisted this was “bad grass” which did not grow in our yard. However, she declined to elaborate, which fueled my mistrust. So I kept off the lawn a while.

These days, “bread” is no longer money, “mint” is just a flavor, and the pernicious leafy stuff mostly goes by other names. There is only one grass, and it is almost time to cut it again. Jargon may change, but things like paying taxes and mowing lawns don’t seem to.

To help you, or so they say, a bewildering array of lawn-care products have sprouted at big-box stores and garden centers. It’s easy to spend a lot of dough — I mean money — on fertilizers, weed killers, and seed. But it’s hard to make sense of which products are right for you.

Before you shop, a couple of thoughts to help sort things out.

  • Grass is not for everyone. Or everywhere. If an area does not get 4 or more hours of full sun daily from March through September, trying to grow grass there is a waste of time.
  • Steep slopes and high-traffic zones probably need something other than grass, too.

Keep mower blades sharp — it can help reduce disease, plus it looks nicer and saves on mower gas. (Flickr Creative Commons Brian Boucheron)

Comparison spells trouble. Well not literally, but it’s mighty unfair. Fashion models have airbrush artists and makeup consultants. Golf courses have full-time turf experts and a massive budget. With good information and a little work, we and our lawns can both look good, but let’s not compare with deep-pocketed pros.

Dr. Frank Rossi, a leading Cornell Turfgrass Science researcher, puts it this way:

“Chances are you can grow a pretty good lawn without using insecticides, fungicides, or herbicides. You may even be able to do it using little or no chemical fertilizer… Will your lawn look like a putting green? No… But if you arm yourself with an understanding of what grasses need to thrive, and commit to a long-term plan to meet those needs, you can grow a perfectly acceptable lawn…”

Get the dirt on your soil. If your grass looks bedraggled, fertilizer may not be the answer; in fact, early-season nitrogen can weaken grass and make lawns worse in the long run.

At the very least, get a soil pH test—a pH more acidic (lower) than 6.0, or more alkaline (higher) than 7.0 will hinder plants’ ability to absorb nutrients. The majority of samples I get at the office have pH values too high for healthy lawns, sometimes 100 or even 1,000 times too alkaline due to annual lime treatments. Lime is only good if it’s needed.

If it’s been over three years since the soil was tested, you might want to invest in a lab analysis. For under twenty bucks you can get nutrient levels with specific recommendations, plus pH and salt content. This last item may seem odd, but fertilizers, herbicides, wood ash and deicing agents are all sources of salt — which can damage soil structure, harm microbes, and aggravate water stress.

Only fertilize based on soil test results, and only use nitrogen in the fall.

Nature abhors a vacuum, which is why I keep mine hidden away indoors — no sense offending nature if you can avoid it. This hatred of emptiness means that if you don’t re-seed bare or weak spots in the lawn, Nature will fill it with whatever is handy — probably weeds.

Edging along the sidewalk or driveway may produce the look you want, but it also produces a lot of bare earth, so if you have a weed issue, especially crabgrass, breaking this habit will give you an edge on weed control.

Another type of vacuum is a close-cropped lawn. Not only does close mowing cause weak, stunted grass roots (and thus plants), it allows the sun full access to the soil. This gives weeds a tremendous advantage.

Have trouble with ground ivy? Put away the vacuum. Stop shaving the earth and start mowing the grass.

The most important thing you can give your lawn is more of its hair. Studies show that changing to a grass height of 3.5 inches leads to a vast improvement in lawn health. Leaving grass longer will greatly reduce weed pressure, lawn diseases, and fertilizer requirements. Perhaps the most dramatic change with longer grass is a lasting drop in weed population.

If you need to use herbicides to reduce weeds, follow the label instructions closely. Some broadleaf (selective) herbicides contain chemicals that could stress or injure trees. Pre-emergent herbicides inhibit weed germination, and are used for crabgrass control. Apply pre-emergent products around the time forsythia flowers are starting to drop.

Another tip is not to mow more than a third of the grass at a time. For example, to maintain a 3.5-inch turf height, mow before the grass gets over five inches high. Try to keep the blades sharp — it can help reduce disease, plus it looks nicer and saves on mower gas. And it almost goes without saying that grass clippings belong to the lawn, not the landfill. Leave the clippings—that’s your fertilizer.

White grubs — we have five species in northern NY — can become a problem if there are more than ten per square foot of lawn. Several nontoxic and low-toxicity treatments have come on the market in the past few years, but timing varies for all of them. Milky spore treatment is safe, but is not effective up north due to cool soils. You can also use beneficial nematodes to kill grubs. 

There are many solid lawn-care resources out there, but always check the source, which should be from .edu or .gov sites. Cornell Senior Extension Associate Lori Brewer has assembled the work of many experts, including Dr. Rossi, into a comprehensive 47-page book entitled “Lawn Care,” which is free at http://hort.cornell.edu/turf/lawn-care.pdf

I think it will contribute to a better world if we teach our kids to stay grounded and let the grass get high.

See more at Morning Ag Clips.

These nematodes Hetzler mentions — beneficial organisms — are key to good IPM. In fact, good IPM embraces every concept Hetzler stands by. With IPM, prevention is always the best cure. And remember: even herbicides are a type of pesticide, because weeds are pests too. If you’ve ever spent a whole day weeding a not-that-big garden, you know that sometimes weeds are the most difficult contenders we face. — ed. MW.

January 9, 2015
by Mary M. Woodsen
Comments Off on Education and E-ducation: Winter Farm Schools for IPM and More

Education and E-ducation: Winter Farm Schools for IPM and More

It’s not easy, keeping up with the abundance of winter production schools, webinars, and online courses. Here’s a small sampling of options for everything from straight-up greenhouse production to biocontrol (hey, that’s a core tenet of IPM) to a smorgasbord of small-farm options for beginning or diversifying farmers.

Are you a greenhouse grower? Here’s a January 27 two-fer:

  1. Hudson Valley Nursery Greenhouse School Jan 27 in Middletown, NY. For more info, call 845-344-1234 or email cah94@cornell.edu.
  2. Capital District Bedding Plant Conference Nurserymen’s Education Day and Trade Show (whew!)  January 27 in Latham, NY.  Contact Chuck Schmitt <cds34@cornell.edu> for more information

    The Oirus bug eats thrips for breakfast, lunch, and dinner — a real boon for greenhouse growers.

    The Oirus bug eats thrips for breakfast, lunch, and dinner — a great  biocontrol and a real boon for greenhouse growers.

Meanwhile, e-GRO is ready for spring with a LOT of webinars for you. Biocontrol, sponsored by Syngerta, airs on January 30. (Hint: the down-pointing arrow on the right gives you the whole enchilada — who the speakers are, their topics, and when each speaker begins so you can log in for whatever you want. They’ve even scheduled a lunch break!)

By the way, that e-GRO course on LEDs in greenhouse production (February 13) — that could be interesting. And presumably good for your wallet. And here’s another that will help you consider if organic fertilizing options (February 27) are for you. After all, anything that helps you build a healthier soil is foundational to good IPM.

Do you farm veggies — even mushrooms? Are you diversifying and need to explore potential markets and profits? Check out classes from January through March at Cornell’s Northeast Beginning Farmers.

Whatever your passion, the Cornell Small Farm Program helps make it work for you.

Whatever your passion, the Cornell Small Farm Program helps make it work for you.

New this year! Completing all requirements of one or more online courses makes you eligible to be endorsed for a no-interest loan up to $10,000 through Kiva Zip.

Here’s a sampling.

  • BF 102: Markets and Profits – Exploring the Feasibility of Your Farming Ideas
  • BF 103: Taking Care of Business – Understanding the Business, Regulatory, and Tax Implications of Your Farm
  • BF 106: Organic Certification – What, How, and Why (or Why Not)
  • BF 121: Veggie Farming – From Season-Long Care to Market
  • BF 140: Small-scale Organic Grain Production – Is it Right for Your Farm?
  • BF 150: Woodland Mushroom Production – For Fun and Profit
  • BF 203: Holistic Financial Planning – Building Profit into the Picture

Led by experienced educators and farmers, the Beginning Farmer Project offers interactive 5 – 7-week courses that connect you to the people and information you need to start a successful farm business. In fact, many courses apply even if you’ve farmed for years and are maturing or diversifying your operation.

 

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