New York State IPM Program

August 26, 2016
by Mary M. Woodsen
Comments Off on World-class Golf Comes Home. Thank You, IPM

World-class Golf Comes Home. Thank You, IPM

The Barclays PGA Tournament kicks off the FedEx Cup playoff in professional golf. This year it’s right here, right now — at Bethpage State Park on Long Island in downstate New York. The IPM (integrated pest management) piece of this story? Here’s where we tested, developed, and showcased preventive, threshold-based IPM protocols that can steeply reduce year-in, year-out pesticide use on any golf course, anywhere — all while protecting habitat for pollinators and many other creatures. In fact, we’ve scored environmental impact quotients up to 96 percent lower than conventional practices.

Happening as we speak — at Bethpage State Park, also home to IPM research that informs thoughtful, preventive tactics for golf-course care.

Happening as we speak — at Bethpage State Park, also home to IPM research that informs thoughtful, preventive tactics for golf-course care.

The IPM tactics we honed on Bethpage’s Green Course over 12 years are also used on its Black Course — among the most challenging courses you could find anywhere. Think of it. Putting greens buzz-cut to within an inch of their life. Talk about stress! (Technically, that’s an 1/8th inch of their life.) Fairways mowed to about ½ inch. Roughs to an inch or so — and even that’s a height we don’t recommend trying at home.

Which is why we can’t stress how important long-term, real-world research is. Whether it’s searing heat and no rain or relentless rain and chilly weather — or any combination thereof — well, you just don’t get truly useful results until you’ve tested your work in widely differing seasons and situations. And in dealing with pests on golf courses, it’s all about the season. It gets even more impressive when you consider that Bethpage (along with the other 24 public-park golf courses across New York) is open to all comers, facing heavy traffic and tight budgets.

92-plus: that's an impressive number of pollinators to find in mid-April 2015 after a long, difficult winter.

92-plus: that’s an impressive number of pollinators to find in mid-April 2015 after a long, difficult winter.

We’ve always known how important beneficial insects and other organisms are to ecosystem health. In fact, many of our IPMprotocols are built around using beneficials and biocontrols to keep pests at bay. Equally as important: protecting nontarget organisms — frogs, for example — safe from exposure to pesticides. Which is why we were happy to find this fine fella hanging out at Bethpage in a marshy verge during an Earth Day trek around Bethpage. And a 2015 survey of pollinators in naturalized areas at Bethpage revealed at least 92 species of bees, wasps, and other pollinators as well as a diversity of plants that attract them.

Good stuff. Thank you, Integrated Pest Management.

A green frog? Bullfrog? From this angle, hard to tell.

A green frog? Bullfrog? From this angle, hard to tell.

August 24, 2016
by Matt Frye
Comments Off on Fighting Waterbugs — with Water

Fighting Waterbugs — with Water

Plumbing issues lead to pest problems — there’s little doubt about that. Leaks offer standing water to rodents, and clogged, scummy drains are breeding sites for flies. How curious that one of the most common plumbing-related pest problems I see is drains and pipes without water.

Unused, uncapped drains are an open door for cockroaches and more.

Unused, uncapped drains are an open door for cockroaches and more.

Case Study
At a multi-story office building, workers reported the presence of waterbugs, aka American cockroaches, on unconnected floors. Sanitation at the site was great, and no obvious leak created harborage for cockroaches: both excellent IPM practices. But a thorough inspection uncovered an unused bathroom on one floor where the water had been shut off during renovation. Not only could we smell sewer gasses — this bathroom contained several dead American cockroaches, suggesting this was the source for that floor. On another floor a drainpipe in a mop closet was open, and we could see cockroach frass.

A drain trap — and never mind the large gap at the wall. Exclusion is an entirely different topic.

A drain trap — and never mind the large gap at the wall. Exclusion is a whole different matter.

Plumbing Traps 101
If you’ve ever looked under a  sink, you’re familiar with a plumbing trap: that U-shaped pipe that changes the flow of water from vertical to horizontal. Its job: to create a water seal that prevents odors and harmful sewer gasses from escaping into the living or work space. Each time the drain is used, fresh water replaces standing water in the trap to maintain a permanent seal.

Uncapped and unused.

Uncapped, unused — except as a highway for pests.

As side benefit, this design deters pests from using pipes to move within or between buildings. Sure, cockroaches and rodents (especially rats) can overcome plumbing traps by crawling through a small amount of water (see National Geographic video on rats in toilets). But when drains are regularly used, they’re unlikely to harbor pests.

Drain Fails
Problems with trap seals occur when drains are infrequently used and water evaporates over time, or if drains are clogged with debris. Floor drains are susceptible to drying out if

  • no one wet-mops the floors
  • they’re in production areas with lots of small spilled items or
  • they’re near a deep fryer
Water cannot penetrate drain grates clogged with dirt and debris. This drain should be cleaned (drain brush or shop vacuum) and flushed with water.

Water can’t penetrate clogged drains. Clean (drain brush or shop vacuum) and flush with water.

Inspection Tips and Solutions
Another core IPM practice: owners or facilities maintenance personnel need to check drains often to verify that water is present in the trap. Check them each time floors are cleaned. For traps that have dried out the solution is easy – pour water down the drain until the trap is full. While you’re at it, make sure that drains are clear of debris. If the pipe is cut and no longer used, cap the end for a permanent seal.

August 16, 2016
by Matt Frye
Comments Off on Ultrasonic Devices? Ultra-Ineffective

Ultrasonic Devices? Ultra-Ineffective

Sometimes I get questions about using ultrasonic devices for coping with pests. “Mrs. Jones uses them and she never sees a mouse!” is often how it goes. I understand the appeal: plug in this thing and my problem is solved. Sure! They also have great marketing campaign: this device will emit a sound you can’t hear that scares or annoys pests — forcing them to leave.

If it seems too good to be true, it probably is.

Cute, but ... wrong place, wrong time.

Cute, but … wrong place, wrong time.

History Lesson
The concept of using sound or vibration to deter pests was invented long before electricity. Ancient civilizations might well have used wind and water-powered devices to create vibration, movement or sound to ward off pests. And the concept of ultrasound as deterrent? Well, that might be based on the observation that some insects such as moths and crickets avoid high frequencies that mimic bat predators; similarly, certain sounds could distress rodents.

The Science
This theoretical frameworks aside, there’s no proof that ultrasonic devices really deter pests. In fact, scientific evaluations of ultrasonic devices have found no effect on target pests: German cockroaches, bed bugs and rodents. (See Literature section below.) In some cases, the frequency and intensity manufacturers claim don’t match up with actual output. Not only that, but some devices exceed limits imposed by the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) for human tolerance of sound exposure.

Can this really repel all of the above? Think twice before you invest.

Can this really repel all of the above? Think twice before you invest.

What Does Work?
So why doesn’t Mrs. Jones have mice? Well, prevention is cardinal to good IPM, and perhaps her house is well constructed and sealed against outdoor pest invasions. Or perhaps she keeps a clean home with no spilled food or water. Again, prevention is numero uno in IPM.

If a pest did invade her home, her best chance at management would involve eliminating access to food, water and shelter, then reducing the pest population by trapping or baiting. Again, core IPM.

Next time you’re dealing with a pest problem, figure out why they’re there and address that issue. Consult our IPM pest fact sheets to guide your way. And put away those ineffective ultrasonic devices.

Selected Literature

  • Bomford, M, & PH O’Brien. 1990. Sonic Deterrents in Animal Damage Control: A Review of the Device Tests and Effectiveness. Wildlife Society Bulletin 18(4): 411-422.
  • Gold, RE, TN Decker, & AD Vance. 1990. Acoustical Characterization and Efficacy Evaluation of Ultrasonic Pest Control Devices Marketed for Control of German Cockroaches (Orthoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 77: 1507-1512.
  • Koehler, PG, RS Patterson, & JC Webb. 1986. Efficacy of Ultrasound for German Cockroach (Orthoptera: Blattellidae) and Oriental Rat Flea (Siphonoptera: Pulicidae) Control. Journal of Economic Entomology 79: 1027-1031.
  • Shumake, SA. 1997. Electronic Rodent Repellent Devices: A Review of Efficacy Test Protocols and Regulatory Actions. In (ed.) JR Mason: Repellents in Wildlife Management (August 8-10, 1995, Denver, CO). USDA, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, CO.
  • Yturralde, KM, & RW Hofstetter. 2012. Efficacy of Commercially Available Ultrasonic Pest Repellent Devices to Affect Behavior of Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 105(6): 2107-2114.

 

August 10, 2016
by Mary M. Woodsen
Comments Off on Climate, Weather, Data Conference: farm, landscape, and human health

Climate, Weather, Data Conference: farm, landscape, and human health

Climate change. Farming (and pests), landscapes (and pests) — even human health (and pests). How we track pests, monitor them, predict and plan for them — looking ahead, these provide critical information for growers, gardeners, landscapers, and public health officials.

Which is why NYS IPM is hosting a new conference: Climate, Weather, Data: Protecting Our Crops and Landscapes. The date: August 15, 2016. The place: Albany County’s Cornell Cooperative Extension Office, 24 Martin Rd., Voorheesville, NY, 12186. Register and check out the agenda at The Climate and Weather Conference webpage.

We’re honored that Richard Ball, the Commissioner of the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets, will kick off the conference. Speakers from New York and across the Northeast will discuss the current state of knowledge on climate change, changes in weather patterns, and how collecting climate and weather data can help predict and manage pests. Open discussion sessions are included so you can ask your own questions. Join us.

Space is limited. Preregister here by August 10 — today! The Climate, Weather, Data portal has maps, the agenda and registration details. Questions about registration? Email or call Amanda Grace at 315-787-2208.

The program runs from 9:00-4:15 and costs $45 and includes lunch, breaks and materials. Yes, get NYS DEC credits, too!

August 8, 2016
by Lynn A. Braband
Comments Off on Wasps and Festivals

Wasps and Festivals

One of the great things about living in New York State in the summer and fall is the availability of numerous festivals. It seems like every area has several each weekend. Hard to choose! In addition to sudden downpours, yellowjacket wasps are one of the consistent nemeses of festival attendees. This is especially true in late summer and early autumn when the wasps are present in seasonally high numbers and are attracted to sweets and other food of the ubiquitous concession stands.

Yellowjacket

Yellowjacket

Reduce attractants

Although not eliminated, the risks associated with yellowjackets can be reduced. Festival managers and vendors need to pay particular attention to reducing the vulnerability of drinks, food, and waste. Trash cans should be emptied frequently and have lids that close tightly. Regularly police the grounds for discarded trash. Keep exposed food and drinks to a minimum, and provide lids for beverage containers. Every one of these tactics are core to the premise of sound IPM: prevention is your best defense.

Trapping yellowjackets

Some festival organizers have reduced the number of reported stings after adding yellowjacket container traps. The wasps are attracted to a sweet liquid inside the trap and then drown. On-going research at Cornell indicates that use of these traps may reduce the number of yellowjackets by as much as 30%. We and our partners have largely established traps on poles surrounding the concession stand area. Some vendors trap in the immediate vicinity of the concessions.

The suggested protocol is to start trapping about a week before the festival and to continue trapping through the festival. The traps should be serviced daily, especially immediately before and during the festival. There is also evidence that the traps do not merely intercept wasps that would have been present anyway but attract wasps. Thus the best use of the traps is probably when there will already to an attractant, such as concession stands. Some wasps may be able to escape the traps. Use of a surfactant, as dishwater soap, may reduce this.

Personal protection

IPM gets personal: Light-colored clothing is less attractive to wasps than dark- or brightly-colored clothes. Perfumes and strong-smelling soaps and perfumes may also attract them. Avoid erratic movement when a wasp is flying or crawling near you — by which we mean don’t try to shoo them away — or worse, swat them. Keep your food and drinks covered. It is far from pleasant to drink down a wasp! Insect repellents will not deter wasps.

For more information

Please check out our video on yellowjackets and other stinging insects.

August 2, 2016
by Mary M. Woodsen
Comments Off on Climate, Weather, Data: Crops and Landscapes

Climate, Weather, Data: Crops and Landscapes

With all the talk about climate change you might wonder how it will affect food production, pests, and even landscapes—and what you can do about it. From the Valentine’s Day massacre winter freeze to plant life gasping for water, changing weather patterns have affected our crops all over the Northeast. Learn how gathering information on weather and climate can help growers, gardeners and landscapers plan for changes. Find details on The Climate and Weather Conference webpage.

Remember the adage "knee high by the 4th of July"? This year it was ankle high. And dry.

Remember the adage “knee high by the 4th of July”? This year it was ankle high. And dry.

Climate, Weather, Data: Protecting Our Crops and Landscapes. It’s all happening August 15, 2016 at the Albany County Cornell Cooperative Extension Office, 24 Martin Rd., Voorheesville, NY, 12186.

We’re honored that Richard Ball, the Commissioner of the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets, will kick off the conference. Speakers from New York and across the Northeast will discuss the current state of knowledge on climate change and changes in weather patterns. We’ll also learn how collecting climate and weather data can help us predict and manage pests. Open discussion sessions are included so you can ask your own questions. Join us.

Space is limited. Preregister here. Preregistration closes on August 10. The Climate, Weather, Data portal has maps, the agenda and registration details. Questions about registration? Email or call Amanda Grace at 315-787-2208.

The program runs from 9:00-4:15 and costs $45 and includes lunch, breaks and materials. Yes, get NYS DEC credits, too!

July 27, 2016
by Mary M. Woodsen
Comments Off on Hiring Now: Four New NYS IPM Posts

Hiring Now: Four New NYS IPM Posts

The New York State IPM Program seeks four new staff to amplify our IPM outreach and research for farms and communities around New York. Here are the positions (three of them new) we seek to fill:

  • Biocontrol Specialist (Extension Associate)
  • Alternative Weed Management Specialist (Extension Associate)
  • Coordinator for the Network for Environment and Weather Applications (Extension Associate)
  • Coordinator for Livestock and Field Crops IPM (Senior Extension Associate)

Our mission: to develop sustainable ways to manage disease, insect, weed, and wildlife pests; and to help people use methods that minimize environmental, health, and economic risks. Our agricultural and community programs have overlapping issues and settings. Agricultural IPM programming includes fruits, vegetables, ornamentals, and livestock and field crops. Community IPM promotes insect, weed, plant disease and wildlife management in schools, homes, and workplaces as well as on lawns, playfields, golf courses, parks and landscapes; it also includes invasive species and public health pests. NYSIPM is a national leader in developing and promoting IPM practices.

Hands-on workshops held on neighborhood farms are a tried and true way to get IPM practices to stick.

Hands-on workshops held on neighborhood farms are a tried and true way to get IPM practices to stick.

We foster a collegial and cooperative environment where teamwork is emphasized and appreciated. We also collaborate with Cornell University faculty, staff, and Cornell Cooperative Extension educators, as well as with specialists from other states and universities. These positions will be housed either in Geneva (NYSAES) or Ithaca (Cornell campus).

Education and Experience

All applicants must have an MS (required) or PhD (preferred) degree in entomology, plant pathology, horticulture or other suitable field. A minimum of two years professional experience in extension education and research or demonstration in required for extension associates and eight years for the senior extension associate. We will consider experience as a graduate student.

Additional Information AND HOW TO APPLY

For more information and application instructions, click here. Applications will be accepted until 8/31/2016 or until a suitable candidate is found.

July 19, 2016
by Matt Frye
Comments Off on Early Detection – Rapid Response

Early Detection – Rapid Response

I’m an urban entomologist with expertise in pest management, so you might think my house is free from pests. Not true. My recent adventure confirmed the importance of addressing an issue at the onset. Otherwise, things can get pretty ugly.

The Situation
A small portion of my basement is a dirt floor crawl space. When I moved in (August 2014) it was clear that this was not only a raccoon latrine, but mice had been nesting in the insulation above, so the dirt floor was covered in droppings and old cached food items. I sealed the exterior foundation from future intrusion and installed 5-mil thick plastic over the soil to reduce moisture and provide a good surface to crawl on for other projects that needed my attention.

My Mistake

A meal moth, Pyralis farinalis.

—A meal moth, Pyralis farinalis.

In the fall of 2015 I noticed a few meal moths (Pyralis farinalis) fluttering around the basement, which seemed pretty odd. Something made me look under the plastic and I saw that where there had been organic matter was now mold. Caterpillars were feeding in this area on the organic debris, leaving behind their pellet-shaped frass and head capsules. (Frass is caterpillar poop.)

And head capsule? Remember that caterpillar skin doesn’t grow along with the caterpillar. It needs to molt as it grows. The first thing it sheds is the skin around its head — the head capsule.

But back to my story. I decided that the mold was probably a bigger concern than the moths, so I kept the plastic down and decided I’d tackle the issue later.

Pellet-shaped frass and orange head capsules from caterpillars feeding.

—Pellet-shaped frass and orange head capsules from caterpillars feeding.

Beginning this spring, the number of moths in the basement rose steadily. When it warmed up, I decided to open the windows, pull up the plastic, and dry out the soil. Big mistake. For every moth flying around, there were a dozen more under the plastic. I had unleashed a blizzard of insects. Entomologist dream come true? Nope, not really.

IMG_2791

—Mold and pellet-shaped frass.

What I Did
I removed moths from the walls with a handheld vacuum. Meanwhile I noticed two things about them:

  • they aggregate in certain areas, likely due to the presence of a female emitting pheromones
  • they’re negatively phototactic; they avoid light

This meant I could crawl in my dimly lit space to suck up dozens of meal moths at a time, reducing mating opportunities. Wearing the right gear — a HEPA mask, goggles and gloves — I turned the soil, opened the windows and used a box fan to keep the space dry. Even if more adults emerged (which they did), the larval food source was eliminated, preventing more breeding.

What I Should Have Done
As soon as I saw the first moth and found the source, I should have addressed the issue – the breeding material. The ideal solution was (and is) to remove the contaminated soil that holds frass and other organic material, then take it outdoors where it will degrade over time. Covering up a problem doesn’t make it go away but makes it worse.

The Lesson
If you come across a pest problem, attend to it right away. Identify and remove sources of food, especially breeding sites. It is much easier to deal with a small, confined population than a large dispersed one.

July 14, 2016
by Karen English
Comments Off on Register now! Cornell Fruit Field Day

Register now! Cornell Fruit Field Day

The registration deadline is Friday, July 15, for the Cornell Fruit Field Day, which will be held Wednesday, July 20. Walk-in registration won’t be available.

Register now!  Register on the Cornell Fruit Field Day Event registration page.

The Cornell Fruit Field Day will be in Geneva, NY on Wednesday, July 20. The 2016 version of this triennial event will feature ongoing research in berries, hops, grapes, and tree fruit, and is being organized by Cornell University, the NYS Agricultural Experiment Station (NYSAES), the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Fruit Program Work Team, and Cornell Cooperative Extension. All interested persons are invited to learn about the fruit research under way at Cornell University.  Attendees will be able to select from tours of different fruit commodities.The event will feature a number of topics, including:

Berries

Spotted wing drosophila (SWD) research update | Hummingbird use | SWD monitoring network | Exclusion netting against SWD in fall raspberries | Monitoring and SWD management decisions in summer raspberry & blueberry | Behavioral control of SWD with repellents and attract & kill stations | Effect of habitat diversity on ecosystem services for strawberries | High tunnel production of black and red raspberries | Day-neutral strawberries and low tunnel production

Tree Fruits

Apple breeding & genetic studies | Research updates on fire blight, apple scab, powdery mildew | Bitter pit in Honeycrisp | 3D camera canopy imaging | Ambrosia beetle management trials | Malus selections for cider production | Precision spraying in orchards | Role of insects in spreading fire blight in apples | Bacterial canker of sweet cherry | Rootstocks & training systems for sweet cherry | NC-140 rootstock trials on Honeycrisp & SnapDragon | Pear rootstocks & training systems

Grapes & Hops

Sour rot of grapes | VitisGen grape breeding project | Precision spraying in grapes | Managing the spread of leafroll virus in Vinifera grape using insecticides & vine removal | Early leaf removal on Riesling | Overview of NYSAES hops planting | Powdery & downy mildew management in hops | Hops weed management & mite biocontrol | Update on malting barley research

Also food safety information!

FSMA (Food Safety Modernization Act) Produce Safety Rule

Fruit Field Day details

The event will take place at the NYSAES Fruit and Vegetable Research Farm South, 1097 County Road No. 4, 1 mile west of Pre-emption Rd. in Geneva, NY.

Arrive at 8:00 AM to get settled in. Tours begin promptly at 8:30 AM and are scheduled in the morning from 8:30 to 11:30 and in the afternoon from 1:30 to 5:00. Lunch will be served at the exhibit tent area between 11:30-12:30.

Luncheon speakers are Dr. Susan Brown, Director of the NY State Agricultural Experiment Station (NYSAES), and Dr. Kathryn Boor, Dean of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.

Visit sponsors anytime from 11:30-1:30! Learn about products and services from Agro Liquid | Arysta Life Science | Dow AgroSciences | Dupont | Farm Credit East, ACA | Finger Lakes Trellis Supply | LaGasse Works, Inc. | Lakeview Vineyard Equipment | NY Apple Sales | OESCO, Inc | Red Jacket Orchards | Superior Wind Machine Service | Valent USA Corp. | Wafler Farms | beer tastings from War Horse Brewing and Nedloh Brewing

Register now!

Admission fee is $50/person ($40 for additional attendees from the same farm or business). Your admission covers tours, lunch and educational materials. Pre-registration is required. Walk-in registration won’t be available. Register on the Cornell Fruit Field Day Event registration page.

July 13, 2016
by Joellen Lampman
Comments Off on Invasive Species Are on the Move — Help Stop Them

Invasive Species Are on the Move — Help Stop Them

It’s the 3rd Invasive Species Awareness Week (ISAW) in New York. Groups statewide have sponsored activities July 10 – 16. We invite you to join in and learn how to protect your favorite natural areas.

What’s at stake? Some of the greatest harm both to our environment and agriculture is caused by invasive plants and animals — organisms that have been introduced to new areas, whether accidentally or intentionally, then spread uncontrollably.

Last year, PRISM organized more than 100 invasive species activities were held statewide. This year, the regional New York PRISMs (Partnership for Regional Invasive Species Management) are poised and ready with a lineup of even more great activities and events to mark the occasion. Invasive Species Awareness Week offers many opportunities to learn more about invasives — including how prevent and manage their spread.

Japanese barberry is one example of a common landscape plant that has escaped cultivation and invaded natural areas.

Japanese barberry is one example of a common landscape plant that has escaped cultivation and invaded natural areas.

What makes a species invasive? Most reproduce in high numbers, lack predators and are highly adapted to their new environment. They can be costly, affect your health or vastly change ecosystems. Examples? Emerald ash borer, giant hogweed, and Japanese stiltgrass — to name but a few.

Invasive species removal events are scheduled throughout the state this week. Photo: Joellen Lampman

Invasive species removal events are scheduled throughout the state this week. Photo: Joellen Lampman

Invasive species are often spread unknowingly. A gardeners’ plant swap, dumping a bait bucket, moving firewood to a campsite miles away — it can be as simple as that.

You can help manage and control invasive species; in fact, people like you are often the first line of defense in reporting new infestations. How? By:

  • keeping a sharp eye out for unwanted hitchhikers in the plant and animal kingdoms
  • learning about which invasive species are of local concern by visiting your local PRISM website
  • reporting sightings to www.nyimapinvasives.org

Stop the invasion. Protect New York from invasive species: that’s our state’s slogan. The line-up of events across New York includes an array of activities such as removing invasive species, screenings of “The Hemlock Woolly Adelgid” documentary, and invasive species workshops. The full schedule of events is online at http://www.nyis.info/blog/events/. Events are free, but preregistration for some events may be requested.

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