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Raspberries are just about the most susceptible fruit crop grown in New York State. It’s time to learn how to protect this crop! Fruit that is ripening and ripe is at risk of infestation. SWD has been caught at all but one of the monitoring locations across the State and raspberry harvests are underway.

Picture showing SWD on a raspberry.
Meet and greet - male (right) and female (left) SWD - on a raspberry fruit.

This year summer raspberry (floricane types) won’t escape infestation simply because their fruiting season is earlier than fall raspberry (primocane types). Both types of raspberries will be highly vulnerable.

An insecticide program is an essential component of managing SWD in fall raspberries; this year it will be in summer raspberries, as well. Things to consider regarding insecticide programs for SWD, with specific emphasis on materials registered for raspberries:

  • Population growth models for SWD calculate, theoretically, that using the most efficacious insecticide first will more successfully lower SWD numbers by knocking the population back to close to zero and delaying population growth. (This is strikingly similar to classic principles of plant disease epidemiology and tactics in plant disease management.)
  • Rotate use among insecticides with different IRAC groups — related to the mode of action of the insecticide — to reduce selection pressure for insecticide-resistant populations of SWD.
  • Insecticides with probable excellent efficacy include – Delegate WG (1 day), Bifenture 10DF (3 days), Brigade WSB 2(ee) (3 days), Brigade EC 2(ee) (3 days), Danitol 2.4EC (3 days), and Mustang Maxx (1 day). Of these, choose first the one with the longest pre-harvest interval (given in parentheses) that you can accommodate; some may be out of the question at this point. Rotate to other insecticides with shorter pre-harvest intervals for closer to harvest.
  • After using a highly efficacious insecticide, for the subsequent application, it is usually adequate to use an insecticide that has lower efficacy – Entrust Naturalyte 2(ee) (1 day), Entrust SC 2(ee) (1 day), Assail 30SG 2(ee) (1 day), Malathion 5EC 2(ee) (1 day), Malathion 8 Aquamul 2(ee) (1 day), Malathion 57 2(ee) (1 day), or Molt-X (0 days).
  • For organic production, Entrust 2(ee) (1 day) (Naturalyte and SC formulations) is the most efficacious organically-approved insecticide. Rotate this material with either Pyganic (0 days), AzaSol (0 days), Grandevo (0 days), or Venerate (0 days).
  • The spray interval column in the Insecticide Quick Reference Guide table relates to use of the same product back-to-back. When switching to another mode of action, weekly applications are OK and are suggested against SWD.
  • Research on berries has shown Mustang Maxx isn’t very rain fast, so plan to re-cover if significant rain occurs during the spray interval.
  • Don’t stretch intervals between sprays more than about seven days.
  • Get excellent coverage. Spray every row (no alternate row spraying.)

Review the Quick Reference Guide to SWD Insecticides for berries at www.hort.cornell.edu/fruit/pdfs/swd/berry-insecticides.pdf

Other tactics that can help considerably are:

Picture of a male SWD on a blackberry.
Male SWD on blackberry in August.

Re-set raspberry and blackberry fields: Because raspberry and blackberry continue to flower and set fruit over a protracted period of time, it is possible and advisable to “re-set” the field. When fruit infestation is found via salt flotation or high numbers of SWD are caught in traps in the field, clean pick all ripe and cull fruit. Remove this fruit from the planting and solarize it or freeze it to kill SWD. Solarize in sealed, clear plastic bags set in the sun. After clean picking, spray insecticide. Choose a material with excellent efficacy against SWD and an appropriate days-to-harvest interval.

Sanitation: Pick off and remove all cull fruit from the planting. Routine sanitation can be very beneficial in IPM — it eliminates SWD food and egg-laying resources and slows population growth. And when done routinely, it takes a lot less time and is a lot more effective. Cull fruit can be placed in clear plastic bags and left in the sun to bake or placed in a freezer to kill SWD larvae.

Mowing: Keeps the environment in the plant’s microclimate hot, sunny, and dry. On diversified farms, do be careful when timing mowing or renovation of strawberry fields so as to reduce movement of SWD from that crop into the next ripening crop on your farm. See last year’s blog, Renovate strawberry plantings promptly, blogs.cornell.edu/swd1/2018/06/27/renovate-strawberry-plantings-promptly/.

Weed management: Keeps the environment in the plant’s microclimate hot, sunny and dry, and provides no alternate hosts.

Pruning: Keeps the environment in the plant’s microclimate hot, sunny and dry, and improves spray penetration and deposition. Find out details about how this can be done in raspberry on this blog, Pruning caneberries to minimize SWD habitat within the planting, blogs.cornell.edu/swd1/2017/06/27/pruning-caneberries-to-minimize-swd-habitat-within-the-planting/

Cold storage: Put harvested fruit into a cooler at 32-34 F as soon as possible after harvest. Hold it there to slow and kill SWD larvae and eggs. Raspberries can tolerate 32 F storage conditions.

Consult Cornell Fruit Resources SWD Management, fruit.cornell.edu/spottedwing/management/.

Monitoring tips for SWD

Salt flotation: Routinely sample a subset of fruit that’s being harvested using salt flotation to alert you to the presence of larvae in fruit. A simple method for this is in Guidelines for Checking Fruit for SWD Larvae in the Field by Laura McDermott, available on Cornell Fruit Resources SWD pages at cpb-us-e1.wpmucdn.com/blogs.cornell.edu/dist/0/7265/files/2017/01/SaltFloatation-2kmt284.pdf.

A grower checks a blueberry fruit sample for SWD larvae using salt flotation.
Checking fruit for larva with salt flotation at the Albany workshop.

Two growers describe their success using salt flotation to monitor infestations in blueberries, detailed on the blog, Use salt flotation to check for SWD, blogs.cornell.edu/swd1/2018/09/11/use-salt-flotation-to-check-for-swd/

Traps: It is relatively easy to use red or yellow sticky cards to monitor for distinctive male SWD's in fruit plantings. Set the sticky card traps on the edge of the planting where it is convenient to read them daily. Use a coffee stirrer to scrape off and discard the stuck insects daily and replace the sticky card when its stickiness has worn off. Here’s one place you can order trap and lure supplies – Great Lakes IPM, www.greatlakesipm.com/.

SWD populations will build rapidly when fruit is available for oviposition sites, during warm, humid, cloudy weather, and wherever crop canopies are dense and weeds are not managed or mowed. A mated female can lay about 1-3 (or more) eggs per fruit, 7-16 eggs per day, and about 350 eggs during her life span of about three weeks.

So stay informed!

Comprehensive information on SWD IPM is available in Spotted Wing Drosophila IPM in Raspberries & Blackberries from the NE IPM Center SWD Working Group, neipmc.org/go/swdpub1

Consult Cornell Fruit Resources SWD Management, fruit.cornell.edu/spottedwing/management/.

Refer to the Cornell Pest Management Guidelines, cropandpestguides.cce.cornell.edu/ and always have the latest version -- the 2019 version for Berry Crops.

For organic growers, Management Recommendations for Spotted Wing Drosophila in Organic Berry Crops, www.canr.msu.edu/ipm/uploads/files/SWD/SWDOrganicBerryCrops.PDF

SWD prefers nice ripe fruit — like we do! Let’s keep our fruit to ourselves!

Sustained SWD catch in Eastern NY — Columbia County 5 SWD, Clinton County 5 SWD, & Orange County 36 SWD — and Wayne County 4 SWD. Berries and cherries are being harvested and will continue ripening over the next several weeks. Risk from SWD infestation will be high from this point forward in the growing season.

Monitor your crops for infestation by sampling fruit at each harvest period and doing a salt flotation test. Methods described in Guidelines for Checking Fruit for SWD Larvae in the Field by Laura McDermott, available on Cornell Fruit Resources SWD pages, fruit.cornell.edu/spottedwing/.

Picture of a raspberry fruit with tiny breathing tube threads where an egg is inserted under the skin.
Tiny threads of the SWD egg breathing tubes indicate where an egg was laid in a raspberry. Two eggs were found in 40 fruits examined.

Pay attention to SWD -- look for symptoms of leaky fruit; flat, sunken, & dull spots or dimples on the fruit surfaces; or distorted & disintegrating fruit. Protect ripe and ripening fruit crops from infestation with an insecticide program.

Details about each County's sustained catch:

  • Orange: 6/14/2019, 23 females & 3 males, raspberry & gooseberrytotal 36
  • Columbia: 7/8/2019, 4 females & 1 male, tart cherry – total 5
  • Clinton: 7/9/2019, 3 females & 2 males, blueberry – total 5
  • Wayne: 7/9/2019, 3 females & 1 male, raspberry – total 4

The sustained catch report in Orange County was a month ago! This report slipped my attention, but it underlines that SWD has been found in many fruit plantings for upwards of a month now.

The sustained catch in Columbia County of only 5 SWD in the tart cherries after the prior week’s catch of 32 underlines the impact of an insecticide program on SWD populations and trap catch.

Refer to the insecticide quick guides online. Choose a material with excellent efficacy against SWD and an appropriate days-to-harvest interval.

SWD Insecticides for Berries, www.hort.cornell.edu/fruit/pdfs/swd/berry-insecticides.pdf

SWD Insecticides for Stone Fruit & Grapes, www.hort.cornell.edu/fruit/pdfs/swd/treefruit-grape-insecticides.pdf

Thank you for monitoring SWD in the Counties with sustained catch!

  • Andy Galimberti, CCE Eastern NY Commercial Horticulture Program (Clinton County)
  • Natasha Field, CCE Eastern NY Commercial Horticulture Program (Columbia County)
  • Nate Mengaziol and Laura McDermott, CCE of Orange County and Eastern NY Commercial Horticulture Program (Orange County)
  • Ryan Parker and Juliet Carroll, CCE NYS IPM Program (Wayne County)

Four SWD, 2 females and 2 males, were caught in traps set in a blueberry planting in Onondaga County on July 10, 2019. Traps were checked by Ryan Parker and Juliet Carroll, NYS IPM Program.

This completes first catch for all locations in the SWD Monitoring Network. We'll continue to report sustained catch and provide updated management information to keep you up-to-date on SWD.

SWD distribution map picture.
SWD distribution map for New York. SWD has been found in all the counties in the network, as of July 10, 2019. Counties in white don't have traps or reports in.

Yikes! After catching nothing last week... First catch had 26 SWD caught in four traps set in a blueberry planting in Tioga County — 15 females and 11 males. These traps are being monitored by Barb Neal, CCE of Tioga County and Shona Ort, CCE of Chemung County.

I'd say it's time to protect the crop at this location! We want to bring in a good crop and protect it. For comprehensive information on protecting blueberries from SWD, download and read the new IPM guide from the SWD IPM Working Group.

Spotted Wing Drosophila IPM in Blueberries
neipmc.org/go/swdpub2

Also, refer to the insecticide quick guide to augment the information in the above IPM guide.

A picture showing two male SWD on a blueberry.
Two male SWD on a blueberry, photographed in early September 2013. SWD populations typically build to very high levels in late summer and early autumn.

A single female SWD was caught in a blueberry planting in Orleans County, in traps checked on July 9, 2019 by Liz Tee, Lake Ontario Fruit Program of CCE. While the number is low, it is likely that the SWD catch will be greater next week, but possibly not.

This picture shows the SWD females ovipositor which can slice the skin of ripening fruit and gently place an egg within.
Detail of the spotted wing Drosophila female's abdomen showing the extended ovipositor and the dark, saw-toothed edge used to cut into fruit to lay her eggs inside.

That's one of the things that makes this insect so unnerving — it can explode when you least expect it.

Make sure you keep an eye on how ripe your crop is. No-choice lab tests proved SWD females can lay eggs in blueberries that are pink.

Take the time to carefully plan out your management strategy now. Review resources available online to help you learn how to protect ripe and ripening fruit crops from infestation.

First catch was obtained on July 8, 2019 in Herkimer County. Nine SWD — 3 females and 6 males, distributed both within and on the edge of the planting. Numbers of SWD being caught are starting to escalate.

Photo of a male SWD on a blueberry.
A male spotted wing drosophila (SWD) on blueberry; another likely SWD is in the background.

It's time to get an insecticide program geared up for ripening and ripe fruit. This season will be demanding and all tactics should be brought to bear on SWD to keep it in check!

Refer to the quick reference guides for:

Other tactics that can help are:

  1. Sanitation – pick off and remove all cull fruit from the planting.
  2. Mowing – keep the environment hot, sunny, and dry.
  3. Weed management – keep the environment hot, sunny and dry, and provide no alternate hosts.
  4. Pruning – keep the environment hot, sunny, and dry, and improve spray penetration and deposition.
  5. Cold storage – immediately after harvest, place harvested fruit into a cooler at 32°-34° F and hold it there, to kill larvae and eggs, until sold.

Trent Davis, Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management, and the New York State Berry Growers Association (NYSBGA) want your feedback (Cornell-NYSBGA-Labor-Survey http://bit.ly/Cornell-NYSBGA-Labor-Survey ) on labor and wage rates in berry production. The information you provide will be used to better understand what an increase in the New York State minimum wage rate from the current $11.10/hr to $15.00/hr will have on berry production in New York.

Results will be used to let the New York State government comprehend the direct impacts farmers will face with a minimum wage increase of this magnitude. Our survey is meant specifically for farmers who produce blueberries, strawberries, or raspberries.

Access the Cornell-NYSBGA-Labor-Survey here: http://bit.ly/Cornell-NYSBGA-Labor-Survey

Picture showing a field crew harvesting strawberries.
Field crew harvesting strawberries.

We need to know — for 2018 — about how long certain berry production practices take, the compensation those working on these practices receive, the types of employment utilized on your farm, and potential future changes you plan for your farm.

You don't need to be a member of NYSBGA to take the survey! The more respondents the better!

The survey will take roughly 7-10 minutes. We suggest before starting the survey that you gather, or think about, the hourly wage rates you paid berry production workers in 2018.

Please complete the survey by Friday, July 12thClick this link to access the survey. Thank you so much for your participation!

http://bit.ly/Cornell-NYSBGA-Labor-Survey

If you have any questions or concerns feel free to email me!

Trent J. Davis, tjd233@cornell.edu 

M.S. Graduate Research Assistant
Applied Economics and Management - Development Economics
Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management
Cornell University, Ithaca, NY

One female SWD was caught in two traps placed in a small raspberry patch in Livingston County. Traps were checked on July 3, 2019 by Dave Thorp, CCE Association of Livingston County.

Only four counties in the network, two added just last month, have not yet caught SWD — Herkimer, Onondaga, Orleans, and Tioga. All these counties have traps set in blueberry fields. In Orleans a second site has traps set in raspberry.

Picture of a Scentry trap for monitoring SWD that is set in a raspberry planting.
Scentry trap for SWD set in a raspberry patch.

Fruit that is ripe is at risk of infestation. Consult Cornell Fruit Resources SWD Management, fruit.cornell.edu/spottedwing/management/.

More information on SWD is online:

Review the Quick Guide to SWD Insecticides at

www.hort.cornell.edu/fruit/pdfs/swd/berry-insecticides.pdf for berries

www.hort.cornell.edu/fruit/pdfs/swd/berry-insecticides.pdf for stone fruit and grapes

 

32 SWD were caught in four traps set on the edge of and within a tart cherry orchard in Columbia County. Fruit is ripe in the orchard. These traps, checked on July 1, 2019, are being monitored by Natasha Field, Cornell Cooperative Extension Eastern NY Commercial Horticulture Program.

A trap to monitor SWD set in a tart cherry tree.
Scentry SWD trap set in a tart cherry. Fruit are coloring and will soon be ripe for harvest. When ripening and ripe, cherries can be infested by SWD.

Numbers caught in traps, especially in Eastern NY, are climbing, with totals in the double and triple digits. Typically, we don’t see numbers climb up this rapidly in the SWD trap monitoring network. Fruit that is ripe is at risk of infestation. Consult Cornell Fruit Resources SWD Management, fruit.cornell.edu/spottedwing/management/.

Things to consider regarding insecticide programs for SWD, with specific emphasis on materials registered for cherries:

  • Population growth models for SWD theoretically calculate that using the most efficacious insecticide first will more successfully lower SWD numbers by knocking the population back to close to zero and delaying population growth. (This is strikingly similar to classic tactics in plant disease epidemiology – think knocking back primary apple scab infections.)
  • Insecticides with probable excellent efficacy include – Exirel (3 days), Minecto Pro (21 days), Danitol 2.4EC (3 days), Mustang Maxx (14 days), and Imidan 70W (7 days). Of these, choose first those with the longest pre-harvest interval (given in parentheses) that you can accommodate; some may be out of the question at this point. (Remember – Imidan can’t be used on sweet cherry.) Rotate to other insecticides with shorter pre-harvest interval for later in the season, closer to harvest.
  • Research on berries has shown Mustang Maxx isn’t very rain fast, so plan to re-cover if significant rain occurs during the spray interval.
  • Rotate use among insecticides with different IRAC groups to reduce selection pressure for resistant populations of SWD. (In a Finger Lakes vineyard last year, insecticide-resistant Drosophila melanogaster (SWD = D. suzukii) were identified. D. melanogaster is targeted with insecticide for controlling sour rot in grapes.)
  • For the second insecticide application, switch to a product with Good to Excellent or Moderate efficacy – Entrust 80WP (7 days), Entrust 2SC (7 days), Delegate (7 days), Asana XL (14 days), Lambda-Cy EC (14 days).
  • The spray interval column in the Insecticide Quick Reference Guide table relates to use of the same product back-to-back. When switching to another mode of action, weekly applications are OK and are suggested against SWD.
  • Don’t stretch intervals between sprays more than about seven days.
  • Make sure you are getting excellent coverage. Spray every row (no alternate row spraying.)

Review the Quick Guide to SWD Insecticides at

www.hort.cornell.edu/fruit/pdfs/swd/berry-insecticides.pdf for berries

www.hort.cornell.edu/fruit/pdfs/swd/berry-insecticides.pdf for stone fruit and grapes

Sustained SWD catch in Eastern NY with some site totals in the double to triple digits — the Capital District, Mohawk Valley, and Champlain Valley. Berries are being harvested and will continue ripening over the next several weeks. This will create an SWD paradise for fruit infestation.

Farms with trap catch in the double to triple digits should sample fruit and do a salt flotation test to assess fruit infestation. Methods described in Guidelines for Checking Fruit for SWD Larvae in the Field by Laura McDermott, available on Cornell Fruit Resources SWD pages.

It's time to pay attention to SWD and protect ripe and ripening fruit crops from infestation with an insecticide program.

Details about each County's sustained catch:

  • Essex: 7/2/2019, 22 females & 9 males, blueberrytotal 31
  • Montgomery: 7/1/2019, 40 females & 24 males, raspberrytotal 65
  • Rensselaer: 7/2/2019, 1 female & 2 males, blueberry – total 3
  • Schoharie: 7/1/2019, 67 females & 44 males, raspberrytotal 111
  • Washington: 6/24/2019, 4 females, blueberry – total 4
Photo of a female SWD on a raspberry.
Female SWD laying eggs in a raspberry.

Re-set raspberry and blackberry fields:
Because raspberry and blackberry continue to flower and set fruit over a protracted period of time, it is possible and advisable to “re-set” the field. When fruit infestation is found via salt flotation or high numbers of SWD are caught in traps in the field, clean pick all ripe and cull fruit. Remove this fruit from the planting and solarize it or freeze it to kill SWD. Solarize in sealed, clear plastic bags set in the sun. After clean picking, spray insecticide. Choose a material with excellent efficacy against SWD and an appropriate days-to-harvest interval.

See insecticide quick guides online:

SWD Insecticides for Berries, www.hort.cornell.edu/fruit/pdfs/swd/berry-insecticides.pdf

SWD Insecticides for Stone Fruit & Grapes, www.hort.cornell.edu/fruit/pdfs/swd/treefruit-grape-insecticides.pdf

More information on SWD is online:

Thank you for monitoring SWD in the Counties with sustained catch!

  • Andy Galimberti, CCE Eastern NY Commercial Horticulture Program (Essex County)
  • Natasha Field, CCE Eastern NY Commercial Horticulture Program (Montgomery and Schoharie Counties)
  • Crystal Stewart, CCE Eastern NY Commercial Horticulture Program (Montgomery and Schoharie Counties)
  • Laura McDermott, CCE Eastern NY Commercial Horticulture Program (Rensselaer and Washington Counties)
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