Our work specifically addressing the impact of important invasive insect pest species across the major commodities grown in the Northeast, specifically those impacting the Hudson Valley, has been conducted since 2010. Monitoring invasive insects is our first concern. Determining early emergence, presence and development provides real time data for threshold establishment and the basis for pest management decision making. Intensive scouting is then conducted to validate the presence in agricultural crops. From these data we hope to construct developmental models to initiate management and keep the agricultural community apprised of county distribution, management timing and economic injury levels throughout the region.
The invasive insects of greatest concern in the Hudson Valley include:
Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD): Drosophila suzukii:
Is a newly invasive insect pest of small fruit, stone fruit (cherry) and grape. As a drosophila in the family of vinegar flies, it has a modified ovipositor that can penetrate immature unripened fruit to lay its eggs. This provides the SWD a non-competitive niche, adding greatly to its reproductive success.
Managing the Spotted Wing Drosophila in New York State to the 589th Meeting of the New England Vegetable and Berry Growers’ Association And New England Cooperative Extension Saturday, January 31, 2015 Hudson Lodge of Elks, Hudson, MA
Insecticides for use against SWD
Hudson Valley Pest Alert
• The 2015 season has been off to a slow start for SWD.
• Low numbers have been captured throughout the Hudson Valley with populations building-up this week (July 31st, 2015).
• As of mid-August, injury to late season sweet cherry has been high (Orange Co.), Raspberry and Blackberry fruit has been low (July 28th, 2015).
• Egg laying and larva presence ranges between 0% and <1% in patches using organic management for raspberry and blackberry. • Hudson Valley Trap Captures have shown low numbers compared to 2012-13.
Pest Alert: July 30th SWD Update
Presentation on SLF, Orange County 21 July, 2015
In October 2014, the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture reported the first detection of an invasive hemipteran pest in the US that could potentially impact agriculture and forestry industries ranging from tree fruit and wine to lumber.
The exotic pest, commonly called spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula (White) was detected in Berks County, PA. Spotted lanternfly, a planthopper belongs to the family Fulgoridae in the order Hemiptera. Fulgorids are moderate to large in size, referred to as lanternflies because of the extended front portion of the head was thought to be luminous.
Spotted lanternfly is native to China (Anhui, Beijing, Guangdong, Hebei, Jiangsu, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai, Sichuan, Tianjin, Zhejiang), Japan (at least in Honshu), Korea Republic (introduced in the 2000’s and invasive), Taiwan and Vietnam. When it was reported in South Korea in 2006 it rapidly spread to different parts of the country.
Spotted lanternfly feeds on a variety of host plants including fruit trees, ornamental trees, woody trees, and vines. Apples, birch, cherry, dogwood, grapes, Korean Evodia, lilac, maple, poplar, stone fruits, and tree-of-heaven are among more than 70 species of hosts attacked by this pest.
Tree-of-heaven, which contains high concentrations of cytotoxic alkaloids, is one of the favorite hosts. It appears that the spotted lanternfly has a high preference for hosts that contain toxic secondary metabolites. Spotted lanternfly has a wider host range early in life as young nymphs
Spotted lanternfly showed a strong preference for grape vine feeding in studies conducted in South Korea. Sugar content of the host plant also appears to play a role in their choice with a preference for hosts containing high sucrose and fructose content.
Brown Marmorated Stinkbug (Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) found in 2007 in NY State in Westchester and urban boroughs of NYC; in 2012 began causing injury to pome fruit and vegetable. BMSB is an invasive species that made its way from Asia to North America and was first officially documented in Allentown, PA in 2001 (it probably arrived several years earlier). The insect has spread across a number of Eastern US States, and its presence has now been documented in Oregon and California, as well. The species was first documented in NY in the Hudson Valley Region in 2008. The size and distribution of this pest in NY are increasing based on reports of sightings and field trapping since 2010.
African Fig Fly, Zaprionus indianus, is an invasive insect found in 2012 in the Hudson Valley of NY State in grape. It has been reported to cause injury to grape in New jersey.
The AFF appearance of a fly is striking with red eyes and a bright red thorax containing white stripes bordered by black lines. Unlike SWD, AFF does not have a specialized ovipositor yet is considered a potential pest to soft fruit cultivars such as fig.
Western Bean Cut Worm, Richia albicosta (Smith), a pest to bean crops, field and sweet corn has been seen in NY since 2012. No damage to corn has been reported in the Hudson Valley.