Research conducted into organic productions systems have been focused on the challenge of growing tree fruit organically in the Northeast.
Resources for planting a high density, slender spindle orchard that we believe provides the most productive and economic means to produce apples organically in the northeast are now available.
Hoying Tall Spindle.14-09-17
The Tall Spindle Pruning and Training
Rosenberger Disease control of organic apples.14-09-17
Small Acreage Organic Orchard Establishment
Projects have incorporated the use of barrier films and late season paraffinic oil to manage pear psylla, exclusion systems of high density apple production, pheromone mating disruption for lepidopteran management in apple, layering the addition of granulosis virus for codling moth reduction and evaluating the use of baited red spheres for apple maggot control. Our NE-183 orchard acted as a large block organic apple trial comparing conventional and organic plant protection programs in 1995. Reported results of the trial is entitled ‘Evaluation of Organic Pest Controls and Fruit Thinning on Multiple Apple Cultivars (Project Leader(s):David Rosenberger, Professor of Plant Pathology, Cornell’s Hudson Valley Lab; Peter Jentsch, Entomology Research Support Specialist, Cornell’s Hudson Valley Lab)
Recent projects include:
Pheromone based mass trapping of the brown marmoraed stink bug has been conducted in vegetable crops while employing reduced risk insecticides for controlling the damage from spotted wing drosophila has been studied in small fruit.
Organic research conducted by the Hudson Valley Laboratory: Jentsch Lab & Cooperators
Department of Entomology
I. Topic: Efficacy studies on small plot apple variety comparisons of organic and conventional insecticides in season long control of insects.
Findings: The use of Surround WP effectively controls apple maggot, a principle late season pest of apple.
II. Topic: Efficacy studies on small plot pear variety comparisons of organic and conventional insecticides insecticides in season long control of insects.
Findings: The use of Surround WP in seasonal use effectively controls pear psylla, a principle season long pest of pear.
III. Topic: Efficacy studies on small plot pear variety comparisons of organic and conventional insecticides insecticides in season long control of insects.
Findings: The use of Surround WP in pre-bloom and early fruit development followed by management using 1% horticultural oils effectively controls pear psylla, a principle season long pest of pear while reducing defoliation of Bosc foliage from fabraea leaf spot, a fungal pathogen of European pear varieties.
IV. Topic: Large block study employing 2 organic insecticides in a season long program in a commercial 5-acre block of European, Bosc and Bartlett pear.
Findings: The use of Surround WP in pre-bloom and early fruit development followed by management using 1% horticultural oils effectively controls pear psylla, a principle season long pest of pear on a commercial scale. Assessment of volume and speed variables showed greatest level of control using 200 GPA and 1.25 mph travel speed.
V. Topic: Efficacy studies on a large plot on 17 apple varieties using organic and conventional insecticides in season long control of disease and insects.
Findings: Results from this trial show that apples can be produced organically in New York, but organic producers will likely need at least a 400% sales premium compared with standard growers. High costs and reduced yields were shown to be associated with organic pest control using OMRI approved insecticides. Report
VI. Topic: Developing Integrated Pest Management Protocols for Northeast Organic Apple Production. We evaluated the use of Surround WP, mating disruption using Isomate twin ties, the granulosis virus Cyd-X for codling moth control, Entrust enhanced GF-120, and ‘Curve Balls’, employed in two Hudson Valley organic orchard pest management programs in 2010.
Findings: Results showed that significantly lower levels of insect damage was observed in season long management of disease resistant varieties on dwarfing M-9 rootstock using a high density slender spindle planting system then in standard apple using similar application strategies. Use of OMRI approved tools in high density systems provided over 89% clean fruit. Dramatic differences in application coverage, spacing and insect density play important roles in observed differences in insect damage between farms.
VII. Determining the commercial viability of an exclusionary production system using disease-resistant columnar apple and sweet cherry cultivars.
Findings: Results demonstrated significant reduction of fruit injury and reduced drift using fixed spray systems using exclusion netting in apple production with greater extension growth with reduced weed growth when wood chip mulch was employed, yet costs of this system outweighed profits gained from organic pricing and reduced yields using columnar apple tree architecture.
VIII. Controlling BMSB using OMRI approved organic insecticides in field and laboratory bioassay studies.
Findings: Results demonstrated low levels of mortality of both adult and nymph stages of the BMSB using most organic insecticides with the exception of the fungal pathogen, Beauvaria bassiana, which provided 80% mortality in directed applications of adults and nymph populations.