NYS IPM Weekly Field Crops Pest Report: September 4, 2019

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Volume 18, Number 18

 

View from the Field

Regional Reports:

 Josh Putman (CCE Southwest New York Dairy, Livestock & Field Crops) Reports high levels of corn foliar diseases (gray leaf spot, northern corn leaf blight, possible southern corn leaf blight) in Alleghany County.

Jeff Miller (CCE Oneida County-Field Crops) reports soybeans with low to moderate levels of downy mildew and Cercospora leaf blight. Jeff suggests that there is high infestation levels of Japanese beetle and grasshopper damage in soybeans. Note that even at 20% defoliation by Japanese beetles and grasshoppers in the reproductive stages of soybeans will not affect yield. He also is reporting moderate soybean aphids.  The threshold for soybean aphids is an average of 250 aphids per plant from the R1 to R5 growth stages. Beyond the R5 stage, research has shown no economic benefit to treating a field for aphids.

Kevin Ganoe (CCE Central NY Dairy, Livestock and Field Crops) reports gray leaf spot at low levels in cornfields he scouted. While scouting soybeans he also found low levels of white mold and soybean aphids.

Christian Malsatzki (CCE Ulster County) reports finding low levels of gray leaf spot in corn.

Mike Stanyard (CCE Northwest New York Dairy, Livestock & Field Crops) reports low levels of soybean aphids in soybeans. He also reports finding red-headed flea beetle in hemp.

Dale Dewing (CCE Delaware County) reports finding moderate levels of leaf spots and vascular wilts in hemp.

Aaron Gabriel (CCE Capital District Team) reports finding low levels of northern corn leaf blight in corn fields and  low levels of soybean aphids in soybeans.

Jaime Cummings (NYS IPM-CCE) reports that northern corn rootworm beetle numbers are getting high in some areas. She found a very bad patch of corn leaf aphid and the corn that was covered in sooty molds from the honey dew. Jaime also found very low levels of northern corn leaf blight in field corn.  There are two soybean fields in Tompkins County that had high infestations of northern stem canker as well as frogeye leaf spot. Jaime discovered low levels of soybean vein necrosis virus and Cercospora leaf blight in those same fields.  She is still finding moderate Japanese beetle and grasshopper damage in soybean fields.  Stalk borer damage was prevalent in some hemp fields in Tompkins county, along with low fungal leaf blights and low vascular wilts (Fusarium wilt).  She reports plenty of fields with unmanaged herbicide resistant marestail in Tompkins county.

Ken Wise (NYS IPM-CCE):  reports finding a moderate amount of gray leaf spot in Dutchess County. He also reports finding Cercospora leaf blight and downy mildew in soybeans.

 

 

House Flies in Dairy Barns

Housefly populations in dairy barns are going to start increasing as the nights start to get cooler, because inside the barn is warmer than outside. While houseflies do not bite, they do annoy cattle and can transmit diseases.

Remember that SANITATION is the key to reducing fly populations around the barns. ANY AREA that has moist organic matter rotting on the ground like: hay, feed and straw can produce thousands of flies. This week I looked at an area that had hay laying on the ground near a waterer at the edge of a pasture near the barn. I took subsamples in an area of about 200 square feet, and there was an average of 25 maggots and pupae per square foot. That is close to 5,000 flies produced from that small area next to the barn. Unfortunately, I have seen it even higher than that in other cases. Houseflies are attracted to feed that might be on the ground in the barn.

You can use sticky fly glue traps in the barn to aid in controlling the flies, such as Catchmaster 930 Spider Web Fly Glue Trap, hung in the rafters. These can catch more than 100,000 flies each.

Spiderweb Glue Traps

Spiderweb Glue Traps

Also, place fly glue strips in certain areas of the barn that might have a lot of flies, like the windows, feeding areas in the milk house, etc.

 

 

One that is effective but I have not yet tested is the string glue trap:

String Fly Glue Trap

String Fly Glue Trap

Weather Outlook – September 13, 2019

Jessica Spaccio

NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

High pressure brings sunny but cooler weather today, followed by a cold front bringing some scattered showers of Friday.

Today will be sunny & cooler with temperatures in the 70s. Slight possibility for a shower in the northern areas. Overnight lows will be in the 50s.

Friday temperatures will be in the mid 70s to low 80s with a cold front bringing scattered showers & possibly some storms in central and eastern NY. Overnight temperatures will be in the 40s and 50s.

Saturday will be a dry day with temperatures in the upper 60s to 70s. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s.

Sunday highs will be in the mid 60s to low 70s with rain likely. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s.

Monday temperatures will be in the upper 60s to 70s with some lingering showers. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s.

Tuesday highs will be in the low 80s with clearing conditions. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 50s to mid 60s.

Wednesday highs will be in the low to mid 80s. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 50s to mid 60s.

Will keep an eye on Hurricane Dorian…

The seven-day precipitation amounts will range from a tenth of an inch to one and a half inches.

The 8-14 day outlook (September 5-11) favors below-normal temperatures for the state. The outlook slightly favors below-normal precipitation for southeast NY and near-normal precipitation for the rest of the state.

 

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:

http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/predictions/814day/index.php

National Weather Service watch/warnings map:

http://www.weather.gov/erh/

US Drought Monitor:

http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/Home.aspx

CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface):

http://climodtest.nrcc.cornell.edu

Yellow Foxtail in Hayfields

Jennifer Fimbel CCE Dutchess with assistance from Ken Wise and Mike Hunter

On one of my site visits, I noticed a local hayfield that the manager (estate manager) has been trying to eliminate a considerable stand of milkweed in had turned yellow. The farm employees have been diligently mowing this field very short to prevent the milkweed from growing (not my advice). I brought it back to the office and Ken Wise and I determined that it was Yellow Foxtail, shorter than what is stated in the descriptions, but Foxtail it is. The field almost looks like it had been seeded down with it! In the fall of 2018, the field was treated with an herbicide to kill it and was replanted in grasses with a no-till seeder. They were able to get a first cutting grass hay crop this Spring, but up came the milkweed and now Yellow Foxtail.

I gave the manager a quick text with the bad news and went out to the farm this week. All, but one of their hayfields is infested with Yellow Foxtail! The grasses for a second cutting aren’t quite a foot tall, they fertilize appropriately, but tend not to reseed the hayfields. My recommendation after consulting with Ken Wise and Mike Hunter, was to round bale the fields, put it in the horse manure composting area and cover and turn regularly to help kill the seed. I also made the recommendation that all equipment be thoroughly washed down to ensure that seeds aren’t transported elsewhere inadvertently.

After, returning to the office, I received a call from an English Springer Spaniel breeder who is running a Field Trial on a piece of property locally and wanted to know if “Mean Seed” was going to be an issue. Mean Seed is just another name for Yellow Foxtail, Virginia Wild Rye and Canadian Wild Rye in the dog world.

The importance here in this newsletter? Foxtail and other barbed seed heads present real issues not only to livestock and horses, but also to those in the dog world. Those barbs lodge in the lips, nose, eyes, ears and feet and can cause serious problems if left untreated. Horse people will complain that their horse has mouth blisters, livestock producers may not notice until infection sets in and the dog trial people are requesting that fields be inspected beforehand of the presence of these grass seed heads.

So my next site visit is to the field to look for evidence of “Mean Seed” for a dog trial!

Hay field infested with yellow foxtail

Hayfield infested with yellow foxtail

 

Western Bean Cutworm Moth Monitoring Ends for the Season 9.3.19

 The western bean cutworm pheromone trap monitoring season has ended for 2019. A few traps report an occasional WBC moth but the majority of locations are coming up empty, as traps are being pulled and silage harvest begin in the near future.

See summary table below for total accumulated WBC counts at specific locations.

WBC larvae will continue to feed and grow, and over the next several weeks will move out of corn ears and drop to the ground and dig their way into the soil to reach their subterranean overwintering site. Those that survive the winter can be expected to emerge as moths midsummer next year.

We are very interested in documenting the incidence and possible economic impacts of WBC damage this season. If you suspect WBC damage please contact your local field crop cooperative extension educator.

For additional weekly WBC trap collection information locations see the Sweet Corn Pheromone Trap Network Report http://sweetcorn.nysipm.cornell.edu/.

 

Clipboard Checklist

Keith Waldron, NYS IPM

 General

*Walk fields to check general field condition, weed, vertebrate and other issues

*Watch for crop maturity, stand assessments, weed escapes, nutrient deficiencies, lodging issues

*Update crop records and field history

 

 Alfalfa:

*Evaluate established legume stands for approximate days until harvest
*Monitor potato leafhopper, foliar, systemic and crown rot diseases
*Monitor new seedings for potato leafhopper, Pythium blight, Phytophthora root rot

Small Grains:
*Monitor grain fields for growth stage, disease and lodging issues, grain maturity, harvest timing
*Record diseases present, location and types of weed escapes

* Prepare for planting winter small grains after the Hessian Fly Free Date

 

Corn:

*Monitor for mid-season corn pests including European corn borer, corn rootworm, western bean cutworm, slugs, foliar diseases such as northern corn leaf blight and gray leaf spot, weed issues, nutrient deficiencies, vertebrate damage

 

 Soybeans:

*Monitor for growth stage, soybean aphid, defoliators, foliar diseases, white mold, stem canker, Fusarium wilt, brown stem rot, weed issues, vertebrate damage

 

 Pastures:

*Check water sources, mend fences as needed
*Check crop growth, clip pastures between grazing as needed
*Monitor for invasive species, plants harmful to livestock
*Review/Plan rotations

 

Storage:

* Check stored grain bins for temperature, moisture and signs of mold and insects. Aerate, core, transfer grain or treat as necessary

* Clean and disinfect empty storage bins in preparation for grain harvest
*
Check forage allocation and anticipate feed program adjustments as forages from previous year are used up
*Mow around storage bins and facility to minimize pest hiding places

 

Dairy Cattle Barn Fly Management:

*Monitor animals and barn area for house fly, stable fly and other pest management needs including presence of rodents and birds
*Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage
*Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation – clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
* Continue fly monitoring: install “3X5″ index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn
*Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards
*Consider purchase and release of Muscidifurax raptor and/or M. raptorellus natural enemies of house and stable fly pupae

 

Dairy Cattle on Pasture:

*Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy per animal side, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal  (all four legs)
*Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter – spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal exercise yard
*Check pasture for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
*Check pasture for vegetation poisonous to livestock
*Consider use of pasture fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly populations