June 18, 2018

NYS IPM Weekly Field Crops Pest Report-June 18, 2018

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Cornell University Willsboro Research Farm Open House

Willsboro, NY – June 6, 2018

The Cornell University Willsboro Research Farm will hold an open house on Tuesday, July 10 from 1:30pm to 4:00pm.  A tour of the facilities and research plots will leave the main office (48 Sayward Lane, Willsboro) at 2:00pm.  Light refreshments will be provided.

Research topics featured at this year’s open house include corn silage variety trials, adaptive nitrogen management for field corn, cover crops, juneberry nursery and production trials, Aronia variety plantings, honeyberry variety trial, high tunnel vegetable production, reduced tillage demonstration plots, season extension for early spring vegetables, organic pepper variety trial, and goldenberry and groundcherry variety evaluations.

In 1982 E. Vreeland Baker, a Willsboro farmer and entrepreneur, donated his 352 acre farm to Cornell University for agricultural research and demonstration.  The facility serves to connect Cornell faculty in Ithaca with the challenges and issues facing North Country farmers.  Willsboro Research Farm is part of the Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station.

This event is free and open to the public.  For more information call 518-963-7492.

 View from the Field

Alfalfa Weevil

Alfalfa weevil is causing issues in alfalfa regrowth (after 1st cutting) across much the state. Remember if a field is having 50% tip feeding on regrowth and alfalfa is still short and larvae are small (1st or 2nd instar) you might consider an insecticide. If larvae are large they will pupate soon and not be a problem. Note, that if you spray alfalfa with an insecticide for alfalfa weevil you are killing the parasitoids that help control alfalfa weevil. Make sure that alfalfa weevil is really causing economic losses to alfalfa before choosing to spray.

IPM for Alfalfa Weevil in Alfalfa

Small Grain Diseases

 Dr. Gary Bergstrom (Cornell University Extension Field Crops Plant Pathologist) is starting to see stripe rust and leaf rust on winter wheat in Monroe County and Seneca County. The following is a photo on how to tell them apart.

Difference between leaf rust and stripe rust

Gary is also reporting that fusarium head blight symptoms are starting to show up in malting barley. This disease makes malting barley unusable for malting. You can check for the risk for fusarium head blight in both spring and winter small grains at the Fusarium head blight prediction center   http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu

Symptoms of Fusarium head blight on wheat (photo taken by Dr. Gary Bergstrom)

Potato Leafhopper

Potato leafhopper is being found statewide at low population levels. With the current heat and possible dry conditions could be an indication potato leafhopper will increase over this time. The combination of heat and dry conditions seem to help potato leafhoppers increase quickly.

How to Scout for Potato Leafhopper

  

Potato Leafhopper Adult

Weather Outlook – June 14, 2018

Jessica Spaccio

NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

Last week temperatures ranged from 6 degrees below normal to 2 degrees above normal. Precipitation has ranged from a trace to one inch. Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 30-110.

Mostly dry through the weekend with increasing temperatures and humidity Sunday to Monday.

Today will be cooler and breezy with temperatures near 60s to the 70s. A few light scattered showers are likely for central to northern areas and gusty conditions are likely in eastern NY where gusts of 30-40mph are expected. Overnight lows will be in the upper 40s to mid 50s.

 

Friday will be sunny and dry with highs in the upper 60s to 70s. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 40’s to Saturday will be a bit warmer with temperatures will be in the 70s to mid 80s. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s to low 60s.

Sunday highs will be in the 80s with high humidity. Overnight temperatures will be in the 60s.

Monday highs will be in the 80s to mid 90s in some locations with showers and thunderstorms possible later in the day. High humidity conditions will continue, the heat index may reach upper 90s in areas of the mid-Hudson Valley. Overnight temperatures will be in the 60s.

Tuesday highs will be in the upper 70s to low 80s with a chance of showers with a frontal passage. Overnight temperatures will be in the upper 50s to mid 60s.

Wednesday highs will be in the upper 70s to low 80s. Overnight temperatures will be in the upper 50s to low 60s.

The seven-day precipitation amounts will range from a quarter of an inch to one inch.

The 8-14 day outlook (June 21-27) favors above-normal temperatures for all of the state. The precipitation outlook favors near-normal amounts for most of the state.

 

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks

National Weather Service watch/warnings map

US Drought Monitor

CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface)

Degree Day Models for Field Crops across New York

New York Field Crop Pest Degree Day Accumulations for selected locations

(June 18, 2018)

 

Station Location

Alfalfa Weevil

(Base 48)

March 1

GDDs (Base 50 F)

March 1

Seed Corn Maggot (base 39)

January 1

Black Cutworm (Base 50)

April 24

Ceres 762 655 1369 642
Chazy 614 514 1151 514
Geneva 819 712 1433 712
Highland 915 803 1624 791
Ithaca 793 686 1425 685
Massena 662 559 1200 559
Northport (Richters) 863 740 1643 719
Valatie 795 689 1410 655
Versailles 822 719 1464 712
Watertown 629 531 1184 531

 

 

Alfalfa Weevil Degree Day Model

Growing degree Days for peak (50%) Occurrence of Alfalfa Weevil growth stage:

Stage

Degree Days

(Base 48)

Egg 280
Instar 1 351
Instar 2 395
Instar3 470
Instar 4 550
Cocooning 600
Pupa 725
Adult Emergence 815

 (Note: for alfalfa weevil predictions use Base Temp of 48F)

 

Alfalfa Weevil Degree Day Map

Alfalfa Weevil Degree Day Map

Base 50 degree day map

Base 50 degree day map

 

Seed Corn Maggot Peak Flight and Fly Maggot Free Degree Days

Base Temp = 390 F Peak 1st Generation Seed Corn Maggot Fly Free degree days Peak 2nd Generation Seed Corn Maggot fly Free degree days Peak 3rd Generation Seed Corn Maggot fly Free degree days
degree days 360 810 1,080 1530 1800 2250

Source: Insect IPM for Organic Field Crops: Seed Corn Maggot by Katelin Holm and Eileen Cullen

 

Black Cutworm Degree Day Model

Degree Days                     Stage                           Feeding Activity

0                Moth Capture              Egg Laying

90              Eggs Hatch

91-311       1st to 3rd Instar           Leaf Feeding

312-364     4th Instar                     Cutting Begins

365-430     5th Instar                     Cutting Begins

431-640     6th Instar                     Cutting Slows

641-989     Pupa                            No feeding

Source: University of Minnesota Black Cutworm Trapping Network

NEWA Growing Degree Days

 

Clipboard Checklist

Keith Waldron, NYS IPM 

 General

*Walk fields to check general field condition, weed issues, areas of soil erosion

*Watch for early season weeds: winter annuals, chickweed, henbit, field penny cress, shepherd’s purse, giant and common ragweed, purple deadnettle, lambsquarters, redroot pigweed, velvet leaf, Pennsylvania smartweed, common sunflower, quackgrass, foxtail

 

Alfalfa:

*Evaluate established legume stands for approximate days til harvest
*Monitor regrowth for alfalfa weevil, potato leafhopper
*Monitor new seedings for Pythium blight and Phytopthora Root Rot.

Small Grains:
*Monitor winter grain fields for growth stage, disease issues, cereal leaf beetle
*Check stands for diseases, cereal leaf beetle, weed escapes

*Monitor wheat for potential risk of fungal disease issues – consult Fusarium Head Blight

prediction model

Corn:
*
Conduct plant population assessments, early season corn pests including seed corn maggot, white grub, wireworm, black cutworm, armyworm, slugs, diseases, weed issues, vertebrate damage

Soybeans:
*
Post emergence weed evaluation, timely cultivation and/or weed management
*Conduct plant population assessments, early season corn pests including seed corn maggot, slugs, soybean aphid, diseases, weed issues, vertebrate damage

Pastures:
*
Check and mend fences as needed.
*Check crop growth
*Invasive species, plants harmful to livestock
*Review/Plan rotation system

Equipment:
*Remove / clean soil and crop debris from equipment
*
Arrange for custom weed control or check your own application or cultivator equipment for repairs.
*Carry appropriate / necessary NYS DEC and EPA required documents: (pesticide applicators license, pesticide labels, MSDS sheets, etc.) with application equipment
*Calibrate:

  • planting equipment – maintain records on planting rate per field
  • manure spreaders – maintain records on amount spread per field
  • pesticide application equipment – Check nozzles, pumps, etc., recalibrate pesticide application equipment before use. Maintain pesticide use records

Storage:
* Check stored grain bins for temperature, moisture and signs of mold and insects. Aerate, core, transfer grain or treat as necessary
*
Check forage allocation and anticipate feed program adjustments as forages from previous year are used up
*Plan where forages should be stored for optimum allocation next feeding season
*Mow around storage bins and facility to minimize pest hiding places

Dairy Cattle Barn Fly Management:
*Monitor animals and barn area for house fly, stable fly and other pest management needs including presence of rodents and birds.
*Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,
*Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation – clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
* Continue fly monitoring: install “3X5″ index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn
*Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards
*Consider purchase and release of Muscidifurax raptor and/or M. raptorellus natural enemies of house and stable fly pupae.

Dairy Cattle on Pasture:
*Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy per animal side, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal (all four legs)
*Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter – spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal exercise yard.
*Check pasture for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
*Check pasture for vegetation poisonous to livestock
*Consider use of pasture fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly populations