08/28/15

NYS IPM  Weekly Field Crops Pest Report

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August 27, 2015: Volume 14  Number 17

 

Pasture Fly IPM Meeting in Dutchess County

What’s the Buzz? Flies on cattle on pasture?

Field meeting on pasture fly management!

Beef

Date:               September 15, 2015

Time:               5:00 pm to 7:00 pm

Location:         Meadowland Farm

689 Schultzville Road

Clinton Corners, NY 12514

 Fly pests can affect animal health, decrease milk production and weight gain, transmit disease causing agents, reduce grazing time, annoy and irritate animals and more.

Who are the usual summer time pest species and what can you do about them?
From this field meetings you will learn to correctly identify the most important fly pests affecting cattle on pasture in the northeast. You will also learn techniques to determine if fly populations are at numbers that can cause economic injury. Learn the options available for controlling fly pests affecting animals on pasture including the role of dung beetles, use of effective biting fly catching traps suitable for use on pasture, and what you should know about making insecticide use decisions. This meeting has both organic and conventional options for managing fly pests on cattle and other livestock.

Date:               September 15, 2015

Time:               5:00 pm to 7:00 pm

Location:         Meadowland Farm

689 Schultzville Road

Clinton Corners, NY 12514

DEC Credits have been requested for the meeting.

 

To register please email or call Nancy Halas

Email: nh26@cornell.edu, Phone: 845/677-8223

 View from the Field

White Mold

White Mold on soybeans is the story of the week. Many extension educators are reporting finding white mold in soybeans. This is the most destructive disease of soybeans in New York. Infections in fields range for small areas to very severe. For more information on white mold in soybeans view the following article: White Mold Sclerotinia Stem Rot in Soybeans

White mold and sclerotia on soybeans

White mold and sclerotia on soybeans

Sclerotia on soybeans

Sclerotia on soybeans

 

Soybean Aphids

Soybean aphid infestation levels vary across the state. Some are reporting more than the 250aphid/plant but the beans are past the R5 stage. This means that after the R5 stage there is no economic response to controlling the aphids.

 

Head Smut on Corn

Mike Hunter (CCE Lewis and Jefferson) reports finding a rare disease for the second straight year. This is called head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana)  on corn. This disease can be confused with a similar disease called common smut.  The disease is seed borne and normally starts at the seedling stage. Symptoms are that the ear or the tassel is replaced by fungal growth that gives rise to a mass of dark brown fungal spores or what is called teliospores. These spores can be moved by rain and wind and transported to soils nearby and can remain viable for several years. Once the fungus enters the plant dry and warm conditions (70-86°F) favor fungal development.

 

 

HeadSmut1

Head Smut on Corn Ear (photo taken by Jaime Cummings-Cornell University)

 

HeadSmut2

Head Smut on Corn Ear (photo taken by Jaime Cunnings Cornell University)

Management of Head Smut:

  1. Plant resistant hybrids
  2. Plant early: The spores do not germinate under cooler conditions
  3. Use fungicide seed treatments
  4. Use longer rotations due the longevity of the spores
  5. Soil nutrients maintained at proper levels

 

Corn Foliar Diseases

There are several reports of minor of infestations of foliar corn diseases. This include eye spot, northern corn leaf blight, gray leaf spot and Northern corn leaf blight. We have had a report of corn ear tips exposed to the elements and starting to show some moldy conditions on the kernels. For more information on ear rots and molds see the article below.

Weather Outlook – August 27, 2015

Samantha Borisoff

NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

 

Last week recap:

Last week temperatures generally ranged from the mid 70s to 90 across New York.  These recordings ranged from 2 degrees below average to 7 degrees above average.  The warmest anomalies were across eastern NY, with the coolest across western NY.  Precipitation ranged from ½ inch to 2 inches in most areas. Many areas received over an inch while isolated areas of the Catskills saw up to 3 inches. Base 50 growing degree days ranged from 70 in the Southern Tier and Adirondacks to 190 in southern Westchester and Rockland Counties and across Long Island. [1]

Forecast Overview:

***A dry week with a warmer weather***

A high pressure system will set up over the Mid-Atlantic states this weekend. This will result in mainly dry conditions across our region throughout the forecast period. It will also help to feed a surge of warmer temperatures across New York as we head into next week. Late next week, forecasters will be keeping an eye on the remnants of Tropical Storm Erika.

 

Today & Tonight Partly cloudy skies, becoming clear this evening. An isolated shower possible from the Capital District northward. Highs in the 60s, with 70s along and south of the Hudson Valley. Overnight lows will be in the mid 40s to upper 50s state-wide. Friday & Fri. night Clear skies with calm, dry conditions state-wide. Temperatures reaching the 70s almost everywhere with the Catskills and Adirondacks staying slightly cooler. Overnight lows in the 50s. Saturday & Sat. night An isolated shower possible across western NY.  Warmer with highs reaching the mid 70s everywhere. Lower 80s will be possible from the Mid-Hudson Valley southward and around the major cities along Interstate 90. Overnight lows in the 50s to low 60s. Sunday Morning clouds thinning throughout the day. An early morning shower is possible across southeast NY, otherwise dry everywhere. Highs reaching the lower 80s throughout most areas. Sunday night lows in the mid 50s to mid 60s. Monday Sunny with afternoon clouds, but remaining dry across the state. Highs generally in the lower to mid 80s. Monday night lows in the upper 50s to mid 60s. Tuesday and Wednesday Partly cloudy and dry state-wide with highs in the lower to upper 80s. Overnight lows in the mid 50s to mid 60s. Thursday There is much uncertainty about the strength and track of Tropical Storm Erika, but a few models suggest the remnants may bring some rain to parts of the state late next week. The five-day precipitation amounts through Tuesday morning should be no more than ½ inch with most of the state seeing little if any rain. [2] The 8-14 day outlook (Sept 3rd -8th) features a high probability (50-70%) of above normal temperatures across New York.  Precipitation is expected to be near normal. [3]  The Drought Monitor continues to show abnormal dryness across eastern and southeastern NY. Moderate drought conditions continue across much Long Island, with a one category improvement across western parts. [5]

 

 

What is on Your Ears!

Ken Wise, NYS IPM

 

Have you seen mold in your ears of corn? It is a good time to check for corn ear rots before harvesting silage or grain. Ear rots can cause issues for you later. The first thing is that it can reduce the quality of the corn you are harvesting. The second thing is that certain kinds of ear rots (fungi) can produce mycotoxins. These can be harmful if not fatal to livestock. The third is that ear rots can continue to develop into a problem if grain or silage is stored with an infection. Some of the factors that help contribute to ears becoming infected are susceptible hybrids, birds pealing the husk back exposing the ear, insect pest like western bean cutworm feeding on the ear of corn or European corn borer making holes. These factors expose the ear to fungal spores that may attack the kernels.

 

How do you know if you have a problem?

Check 100 ears of corn. If you have 10% of the ears with fungi that cover more than 25% of the surface area early harvest should be considered.

 

Identification of disease

It is important to correctly identify which ear rots you may have. Some ear rots produce toxins. Ear rots that can potentially produce toxins do not always do so. If you can identify the disease you make better decisions on what to do. If you happen to identify a disease that can produce a toxin you can send a sample for testing to confirm or not whether it has a toxin. The following are types of ear rots we can get in New York:

 

Fusarium Ear Rot (Fusarium moniliforme or Fusarium verticillioides) This disease appears as a white-to-pink or salmon-colored mold. This mold can begin with bird, deer or insect-damaged kernels. Fusarium ear rot may contain fumonisins which are mycotoxins that can be toxic to livestock. Fusarium Ear Rot
Gibberella Ear Rot/Gibberella zeae (Fusarium graminearum)

The symptoms are pink to reddish colored mold. This disease starts near the tip of the ear and progresses down toward base of the ear. Gibberella can produce vomitoxin and zearalenone which is toxic to many kinds of livestock.

 

Gibberella Ear Rot
Diplodia Ear Rot (Stenocarpella maydis)

The symptoms appear as a thick white mold that usually starts near the base of the ear. This disease can also appear on the plant as raised black fruiting bodies on moldy husks or kernels. Diplodia does not produce any known toxins.

 

Diplodia Ear Rot
Cladosporium Ear and Kernel Rot (Cladosporium herbarum or C. cladosporoides)

The symptoms appear as greenish black, blotched or streaked kernels scattered over the ear. This disease can also infect kernels that have been damaged by insects, birds, deer, hail, or frost. The disease can progress after the grain is harvested and stored.

 

Cladosporium Ear and Kernel Rot
Penicillium Ear Rot, Aspergillus Ear rot or blue eye (Aspergillus spp. and Penicillin spp.)

The symptoms range from a powder-like green or blue-green mold that is on and between the kernels and normally on the tip of the ear. If this disease progresses in storage it is referred to as blue eye because the germ is a bluish-green color. Penicillium ear rot can produce a mycotoxin called “ochratoxin”.

 

Penicillium Ear Rot, Aspergillus Ear rot or blue eye

 

 

What can be done to control future ear rots?

  1. Grow resistant hybrids well adapted for your location. Note that no hybrid is 100% resistant but will have much less infection than hybrids that are susceptible.
  2. Rotate Fields. Corn after corn allows fungi to overwinter on crop residue. This increases the risk of infection the next year; especially under conservation tillage.
  3. Good soil fertility. Proper soil fertility and pH creates healthy plants and reduces stress, thus reduces the risk of ear rots
  4. Good insect pest management reduces stress on the plant and risk of infection
  5. If you are harvesting corn grain make sure you clean the grain bins. Keeping the proper temperature, moisture content and good aeration in the grain bin can reduce storage molds from developing. It is important to have regular inspections of the stored grain. This is essential to minimize risk of developing insect and mold associated storage problems.
  6. Harvest silage at recommended maturity and moisture level, and pack silage tightly and exclude air rapidly. Consider using organic acid preservatives if you can’t exclude air or reduce moisture. If you had a lot of stalk rot and were growing for grain consider chopping earlier for silage to minimize lodging and combine losses.
  7. There are kits you can purchase to test your corn for different toxins on your own farm. The following is where you can also test your corn: Dairy One Forage Lab

Western Bean Cutworm Update 8.27.15

Keith Waldron, NYS IPM

Western bean cutworm trap catches continue trickle in this week with more reports of totally empty traps. While reports are still coming in, the average WBC / trap average this week dropped to 2.8 WBC moths / trap down from the 8/2/15 average of 156 WBC moths/trap.  See summary table below for counts at specific locations.

 

Monitoring for WBC larvae in corn ears has picked up and some larval feeding of dry bean pods has been reported in the Finger Lakes region. For example, WBC larvae were found in field corn while sampling in Franklin county this week with 0 – 35% of plants sampled containing WBC larvae. See last week’s WPR for more information on sampling for WBC larvae.

 

7/12/15 7/19/15 7/26/15 8/2/15 8/9/15 8/16/15 8/23/15
Traps Reporting 57 56 60 59 55 50 46
WBC Total 113 941 4272 9216 5008 896 127
Avg WBC / Trap 2.0 16.8 71.2 156.2 91.1 17.9 2.8
“0” WBC 26 6 3 1 0 3 14
> 0 WBC 31 50 57 58 55 47 32
% Traps Catching 54.4% 89.3% 95.0% 98.3% 100.0% 94.0% 69.6%

 

Average Western Bean Cutworm moth captures per location 2010 – 2015 by month

Capture3

 

 

County Town 7/19/15 7/26/15 8/2/15 8/9/15 8/16/15 8/23/15 Total
Cattaraugus Randolph 36 93 202 165 23 1 527
Cattaraugus Randolph 22 120 252 NA NA NA 398
Cayuga Aurora 6 36 8 31 8 1 93
Chautauqua Hamlet 32 103 208 60 5 NA 412
Clinton Chazy NA 1 4 9 6 0 20
Columbia Valatie 0 14 4 2 7 0 28
Cortland Scott NA NA 12 NA 5 NA 17
Delaware Davenport 10 9 8 2 NA 1 36
Delaware Walton 6 15 10 6 NA 0 37
Dutchess Amenia 3 15 4 2 2 0 26
Dutchess Amenia/Millbrook 9 0 2 1 1 NA 14
Essex Willsboro NA 30 28 16 11 1 86
Franklin Bangor 4 114 244 92 38 3 497
Franklin Malone 0 0 743 634 66 16 1463
Franklin Moira 2 92 249 275 23 2 644
Genesee Stafford 22 84 23 13 6 5 153
Jefferson Calcium 4 44 346 170 16 5 585
Jefferson Chaumont 24 59 131 60 10 1 286
Jefferson Ellisburg 70 207 254 168 103 5 809
Jefferson Evans Mills 32 132 273 175 23 3 642
Jefferson Hounsfield 18 86 185 216 26 6 537
Jefferson Plessis 12 13 22 42 9 2 101
Jefferson Rodman 7 93 104 60 12 1 277
Jefferson Rutland 1 76 953 594 53 11 1688
Lewis Croghan 87 393 540 108 15 3 1147
Lewis Denmark 13 92 152 42 11 9 321
Lewis Harrisburg NA 217 337 254 43 5 856
Lewis Lowville 1 85 372 233 51 10 752
Lewis Lowville 7 217 438 NA 32 5 699
Lewis Martinsburg 13 340 438 107 14 5 917
Lewis Turin 9 82 375 147 43 7 663
Lewis Turin 4 149 659 380 41 7 1241
Livingston Avon 10 4 2 NA NA NA 28
Livingston Avon 10 4 2 NA NA NA 17
Livingston Caledonia 13 49 5 5 1 0 78
Livingston Groveland 3 9 14 25 20 2 73
Madison Munnsville 0 3 15 14 1 1 34
Monroe Spencerport 25 92 50 14 3 0 197
MonroLivings Pittsford NA 53 17 45 29 2 156
Montgomery Palatine Bridge 32 80 85 NA 4 NA 205
Niagara Barker 37 43 114 80 NA NA 279
Oneida Clinton 13 13 13 NA NA NA 46
Onondaga Tully 7 23 24 8 0 0 62
Ontario Geneva 4 30 15 52 21 1 125
Ontario Geneva 0 12 16 1 0 0 30
Orleans Kendall 23 32 43 6 NA NA 108
Schuyler Valois 35 57 81 80 17 1 277
St. Lawrence Lawrence 31 141 425 223 24 NA 845
St. Lawrence Lisbon 3 37 48 13 4 NA 107
St. Lawrence Madrid 0 111 53 14 1 NA 180
St. Lawrence Waddington 7 66 111 64 5 NA 253
St. Lawrence DePeyster 15 41 NA 13 NA 0 72
St. Lawrence Heuvelton 12 24 NA 19 NA 0 59
St. Lawrence RennselaerFalls 2 16 NA 18 NA 0 38
Steuben Avoca 2 33 72 30 19 0 157
Steuben Wayland 3 12 15 5 1 3 39
Suffolk Riverhead NA NA 0 2 0 0 2
Tompkins Varna 29 60 47 36 5 0 182
Ulster New Paltz 0 0 3 9 1 1 14
Washington Easton 13 15 7 11 6 1 56
Wyoming Attica 27 67 204 84 31 NA 415
Wyoming Wyoming 131 134 155 73 NA NA 502
    941 4272 9216 5008 896 127 20608

For additional weekly WBC trap collection information locations see the Sweet Corn Pheromone Trap Network Report http://sweetcorn.nysipm.cornell.edu/.

A Nebraska entomology prediction model has tied western bean cutworm moth emergence to accumulated degree days using a base temperature of 50 F and a starting date of May 1st.

The moth emergence model is: Degree-day accumulations in relation to percent moth emergence (begin May 1, base 50°F).

 

Accumulated Degree-Days % Moth Emergence
1319 25%
1422 50%
1536 75%

 

For additional weekly WBC trap collection information locations see the Sweet Corn Pheromone Trap Network Report http://sweetcorn.nysipm.cornell.edu/.

A Nebraska entomology prediction model has tied western bean cutworm moth emergence to accumulated degree days using a base temperature of 50 F and a starting date of May 1st.

The moth emergence model is: Degree-day accumulations in relation to percent moth emergence (begin May 1, base 50°F).

 

Accumulated Degree-Days % Moth Emergence
1319 25%
1422 50%
1536 75%

gdd base 50 may1-aug26

 

Clipboard Checklist

Keith Waldron, NYS IPM

 General

*Walk fields to check general field condition, weed, vertebrate and other issues

*Watch for crop maturity, stand assessments, weed escapes, nutrient deficiencies, lodging issues

*Update crop records and field history

 

 Alfalfa:

*Evaluate established legume stands for approximate days until harvest
*Monitor potato leafhopper, foliar, systemic and crown rot diseases.
*Monitor new seedings for potato leafhopper, pythium blight, phytopthora root rot.

Small Grains:
*Monitor grain fields for growth stage, disease and lodging issues, grain maturity, harvest timing
*Record diseases present, location and types of weed escapes

* Prepare for planting winter small grains after the Hessian Fly Free Date.

 

Corn:

*Monitor for mid-season corn pests including European corn borer, corn rootworm, western bean cutworm, slugs, foliar diseases such as northern corn leaf blight and gray leaf spot, weed issues, nutrient deficiencies, vertebrate damage.

 

 Soybeans:

*Monitor for growth stage, soybean aphid, defoliators, foliar diseases, white mold, weed issues, vertebrate damage

 

 Pastures:

*Check water sources, mend fences as needed.
*Check crop growth, clip pastures between grazing as needed
*Monitor for invasive species, plants harmful to livestock
*Review/Plan rotations

 

Storage:

* Check stored grain bins for temperature, moisture and signs of mold and insects. Aerate, core, transfer grain or treat as necessary

* Clean and disinfect empty storage bins in preparation for grain harvest
*
Check forage allocation and anticipate feed program adjustments as forages from previous year are used up
*Mow around storage bins and facility to minimize pest hiding places

 

Dairy Cattle Barn Fly Management:

*Monitor animals and barn area for house fly, stable fly and other pest management needs including presence of rodents and birds.
*Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,
*Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation – clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
* Continue fly monitoring: install “3X5″ index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn
*Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards
*Consider purchase and release of Muscidifurax raptor and/or M. raptorellus natural enemies of house and stable fly pupae.

 

Dairy Cattle on Pasture:

*Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy per animal side, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal  (all four legs)
*Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter – spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal exercise yard.
*Check pasture for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
*Check pasture for vegetation poisonous to livestock
*Consider use of pasture fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly populations