Volume 15 Number 16
Pasture Fly IPM/Rotational Grazing/Pasture Soil Health Meeting in Essex County
Date: September 10, 2016
Time: 2:00 pm to 4:00 pm
Location: Gillilland Farm,
444 Mountain View Drive,
To register please email or call Anita Deming
Phone: 518-962-4810 x409
View from the Field
Pest of the week again is two-spotted spider mites on soybeans. Mike Stanyard (CCE Northwest Dairy and Field Crop Team) reports much of the soybeans in their drought stressed beans are having issues with two-spotted spider mites. Many of the growers sprayed the mites but eggs were laid and hatched. Many growers are spraying the beans again for the next generation of mites. For more information see an article I prepared for the last issue: http://blogs.cornell.edu/ipmwpr/#Two-Spotted_Spider_Mites_in_Soybeans
Dr. Gary Bergstrom (Cornell Professor in Plant Pathology) reports that they are seeing charcoal rot in soybeans. Charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) is a soil borne fungus. This disease is associated with drought conditions. Charcoal rot can be mistaken for sudden death syndrome and brown stem rot. The disease produces microsclerotia which look like little black fungus structures that resembles charcoal dust.
Management of the disease:
- A rotation of corn-beans will not control the disease. It is best to have a 3 to 4 year rotation with corn, small grains or other forage crops.
- High seeding rates during dry years will cause the plant to compete with each other for moisture. Keep seeding rates at recommend populations in dry years.
- If you anticipate a dry year use early maturing cultivars to shorten the effect on the dry season at the end of the growing season. There are differences in susceptibility between cultivars.
- Seed treatments and tillage are not effective on reducing levels of the disease. No-tillage may increase the pathogen in the soil allowing it survive on residue.
For more information and images on charcoal rot see the following webpage: http://www.extension.umn.edu/agriculture/crop-diseases/soybean/charcoalrot.html
Western Bean Cutworm
Much of the western bean cutworm moth catches are declining. Last week the moth count was at 4,306 and this week the count is at 966 with 12 traps not reporting. We will continue 2 more of catching moths in the western bean cutworm traps. It is time to go check and look for the larvae in fields that had high trap counts.
Weather Outlook – August 18, 2016
NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University
Last week temperatures ranged from 4 to 10 degrees above normal. Precipitation ranged from 1/2 inch to over 4 inches. Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 140 to 220.
Warming up again through Sat, then a cold front brings chance for rain on Sunday and cooler temperatures…
Today will be a slight chance for showers and thunderstorms with temperatures in the mid 70’s to mid 80’s. Overnight lows will be in the mid 50’s to mid 60’s.
Friday will be dry and warm with highs will be in the 80’s and increasing humidity. Lows will be in the mid 50’s to mid 60’s.
Saturday temperatures will be in the mid 80’s to near 90 and humid with a slight chance for afternoon showers. Overnight temperatures will be in the 60’s.
Sunday highs will be in the mid 80’s to near 90 again, an afternoon/evening cold front will bring a chance for showers and thunderstorms. Overnight temperatures will be in the 60’s.
Monday highs will be cooler, in the upper 60’s and 70’s with a few lingering showers. Lows will be in the 50’s.
Tuesday temperatures will be in the upper 60’s and 70’s. Lows will be in the 50’s.
Wednesday temperatures will be in the 70’s. Lows will be in the 50’s.
The five-day precipitation amounts will range from ¾” to 1.5”.
The 8-14 day outlook (August 25-31) shows increased chances for above normal temperatures for all of the state. There is no indication for precipitation.
The September outlook shows no indication for above or below normal temperatures or precipitation.
The September/October/November outlook show increased chances for above normal temperatures. There is no indication for precipitation.
The Drought Monitor: Enough rain (more than 2 inches) fell for a one-category improvement in extreme southwestern and south-central New York. However, some portions missed out on the heavy rains (e.g. western New York) where less than 0.5 inches fell. Accordingly, conditions deteriorated there, two new D3 areas (Extreme Drought) in western New York, one along the I-90 corridor, and another in the southern Finger Lakes region.
Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:
National Weather Service watch/warnings map:
US Drought Monitor:
CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface):
Planting Winter Small Grains? What are the Pest Issues?
Ken Wise, NYS IPM
Growing cereal grains is on the increase across New York. Many of the winter grains are about to be planted. Many producers are planting small grain cover crops this fall. Some will be planting winter wheat, winter rye, winter triticale and winter malting barley for grain and straw. Sometimes we forget that there are several diseases and insect pest issues with planting winter small grains. Here is a list of items to consider when planting.
- Do not plant cereal grains in the same field that had previously been a small grain. Rotation helps control many diseases like: scald, powdery mildew, Stagonospora nodorum blotch, glume blotch and more.
- Select a cultivar that is adapted for your region. Remember to select one that has resistant to many of the diseases in the area. The diseases you want to think wheat spindle streak mosaic virus, soil borne mosaic virus, barley yellow dwarf virus, powdery mildew, leaf & stem rust, spot blotch, net blotch and more.
- Follow the Hessian Fly Free Date: Make all small grains (cover crop or grain) are planted AFTER the Hessian Fly Free Date! Why? Hessian fly is a pest of small grains. The Hessian Fly Free Date is the point that Hessian fly is not active in the fall. The Hessian Fly Free Date indicates when aphids will not be active in the fields. Aphids alone are not a problem but they can transmit barley yellow dwarf disease to the plants.
- ALWAYS use certified seed when planting. Certified seed is free from weeds and other diseases.
- If planting conventional small grains it is important to use a fungicide on the seed at planting. This will help protect from soil borne fungal diseases.
- Good integrated crop management is also important. Soil health, fertility, tillage practices, proper seed bed preparation, planting depth make for a healthy plant that can withstand more pest pressure.
Western Bean Cutworm Update 8.19.16
Western bean cutworm trap catches continue to drop significantly from the peak flight recorded the week of August 7. While reports are still coming in, the average WBC / trap average this week dropped to 17.8 WBC moths / trap down from last week’s average of 65.3 WBC moths/trap. See summary table below for counts at specific locations.
Now that WBC moth numbers are dropping off it is time to begin monitoring fields for signs of WBC larval activity in corn ears and dry bean pods. WBC eggs take 5 – 7 days to hatch after which the larvae head to corn ears and dry bean pods in the next 10 days. Individual trap catches can vary, even with in a township, based on such factors as local overwintering success and attractiveness of corn stage of development. As trap accumulations approach 100 moths per traps risk of WBC infestation increases and field monitoring for egg masses and young larvae is recommended.
Monitoring WBC in corn ears can be done now and while checking ears for grain maturity. WBC larvae tend to be found towards the ear tip area moving down the ear as they feed. Larger more mature larvae may also bore through the husk or base of the ear. Note that more than 1 WBC may be present at a time compared to a solitary larva per ear more common to infestation by European corn borer, corn ear worm and fall armyworm that may also found in corn ears to time of year. See photos below for examples of WBC in corn ears. Kernel damage caused by WBC feeding can reduce yield and also leaves the ear susceptible to ear infecting fungi including those capable of producing mycotoxins. Corn containing Cry1F and Vip3a genes have protection against WBC. Check your seed bag label or the Handy Bt Trait Table (http://www.msuent.com/assets/pdf/28BtTraitTable2016.pdf ) for more information.
Western Bean cutworm larvae infesting field corn ears.
WBC larva hole in corn ear
WBC larva in corn ear
|St. Lawrence||South Colton||1||2||15||50||55||5|
|St. Lawrence||North Lawrence||0||6||132||316||121||55|
|St. Lawrence||Chase Mills||4||9||31||14||0|
|Avg WBC / Trap||0.0||0.3||1.4||11.6||53.7||101.3||65.3||17.8|
|> 0 WBC||1||14||28||55||63||61||61||48|
|% Traps Catching||3.3%||25.9%||43.8%||82.1%||94.0%||91.0%||92.4%||85.7%|
For additional weekly WBC trap collection information locations see the Sweet Corn Pheromone Trap Network Report http://sweetcorn.nysipm.cornell.edu/.
A Nebraska entomology prediction model has tied western bean cutworm moth emergence to accumulated degree days using a base temperature of 50 F and a starting date of May 1st.
The moth emergence model is: Degree-day accumulations in relation to percent moth emergence (begin May 1, base 50°F).
|Accumulated Degree-Days||% Moth Emergence|
Keith Waldron, NYS IPM
*Walk fields to check general field condition, weed, vertebrate and other issues
*Watch for crop maturity, stand assessments, weed escapes, nutrient deficiencies, lodging issues
*Update crop records and field history
*Evaluate established legume stands for approximate days until harvest
*Monitor potato leafhopper, foliar, systemic and crown rot diseases.
*Monitor new seedings for potato leafhopper, pythium blight, phytopthora root rot.
*Monitor grain fields for growth stage, disease and lodging issues, grain maturity, harvest timing
*Record diseases present, location and types of weed escapes
* Prepare for planting winter small grains after the Hessian Fly Free Date.
*Monitor for mid-season corn pests including European corn borer, corn rootworm, western bean cutworm, slugs, foliar diseases such as northern corn leaf blight and gray leaf spot, weed issues, nutrient deficiencies, vertebrate damage.
*Monitor for growth stage, soybean aphid, defoliators, foliar diseases, white mold, weed issues, vertebrate damage
*Check water sources, mend fences as needed.
*Check crop growth, clip pastures between grazing as needed
*Monitor for invasive species, plants harmful to livestock
* Check stored grain bins for temperature, moisture and signs of mold and insects. Aerate, core, transfer grain or treat as necessary
* Clean and disinfect empty storage bins in preparation for grain harvest
*Check forage allocation and anticipate feed program adjustments as forages from previous year are used up
*Mow around storage bins and facility to minimize pest hiding places
Dairy Cattle Barn Fly Management:
*Monitor animals and barn area for house fly, stable fly and other pest management needs including presence of rodents and birds.
*Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,
*Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation – clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
* Continue fly monitoring: install “3X5″ index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn
*Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards
*Consider purchase and release of Muscidifurax raptor and/or M. raptorellus natural enemies of house and stable fly pupae.
Dairy Cattle on Pasture:
*Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy per animal side, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal (all four legs)
*Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter – spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal exercise yard.
*Check pasture for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
*Check pasture for vegetation poisonous to livestock
*Consider use of pasture fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly populations