May 24, 2018

NYS IPM Weekly Field Crops Report-May 24, 2018

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View from the Field

Pest activity remains at low levels this week. Aaron Gabriel (CCE Capital Region) found true armyworm larvae in a hay/alfalfa field.  The last 2 weeks I have caught a total of 5 true armyworm moths in a pheromone trap near Kinderhook, NY. So it seems they have arrived in Eastern, NY. The numbers are low but they can have infest in spotty area with higher infestation levels. Keep an eye out for this insect pest.

True Armyworm

Here is a link to a IPM article on true armyworm:  http://blogs.cornell.edu/ipmwpr/true-armyworm-aka-common-armyworm-pseudaletia-unipuncta-in-field-corn/ .   Western NY has not caught any true armyworm in their pheromone traps this season.

I found a little bird damage in a corn field near Kinderhook, NY this week. It looks as if they crows could not get down to the seed and gave up on trying to eat in the field. The number 1 way to control bird damage is to plant at 1.5 to 2 inches deep if you have the soil that will allow this.

Bird Damage: Pits in soil next to clipped off plants is a sign of bird damage

Kevin Ganoe (CCE Central NY) reports finding minor levels of net blotch and powdery mildew in malting barley fields this week.

FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT commentary is below-The risk is high on winter malting barley this week.

Weather Outlook – May 24, 2018

Jessica Spaccio

NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center

Cornell University

Last week temperatures ranged from 2 degrees below-normal to 8 degrees above-normal. Precipitation has ranged from ½ “ to 3 inches. Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 10-110.

Dry and warm through Friday, showers and thunderstorms possible over the weekend.

Today will be mostly sunny with temperatures in the mid 60s to near 80. Overnight lows will be in the upper 40s and 50s.

Friday will be mostly sunny with highs in the upper 70s to mid 80s. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 50s to mid 60s.

Saturday will be warm and humid with temperatures in the mid 70s to upper 80s, near 90 in southeast NY. Scattered showers and thunderstorms are possible, mostly in the afternoon/evening. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 50s to low 60s.

Sunday will be humid with highs in the 70s to low 80s with showers likely, though not all day, and thunderstorms possible. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 50s to low 60s.

Monday temperatures will be in the throughout the 70s with scattered showers and thunderstorms. Lows will be in mid 50s to low 60s.

Tuesday will have highs in the 70s and low 80s with high pressure bringing clear skies.  Lows will be in the 50s.

Wednesday, temperatures will be in the 70s to low 80s.  Lows will be in the upper 50s to mid 60s.

The seven-day precipitation amounts will range from ½ inch to near 2 inches.

The 8-14 day outlook (May 31-June 6) favors above-normal temperatures. The precipitation outlook favors near-normal amounts for western to central New York, and slightly favors below-normal amounts for northern, eastern and southeast New York.

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:

http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/predictions/814day/index.php

National Weather Service watch/warnings map:

http://www.weather.gov/erh/

US Drought Monitor

http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/Home.aspx

CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface):

http://climodtest.nrcc.cornell.edu

Fusarium head blight commentary, May 21, 2018

Gary Bergstrom: Extension Plant Pathologist, Cornell University

 This is a critical week for management of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in winter malting barley.  Some winter barley fields in New York are fully headed now and many more will head out this later week.  Even though we have had frequent rains, the Fusarium Risk Assessment Map (http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/riskTool.html) shows mostly low risk of Fusarium infection in New York because temperatures have been considered too low for spore production in many areas. A moderate to high risk of FHB is indicated for areas of the Southern Tier, southern Hudson Valley, and Long Island.  Maximal suppression of FHB and grain contamination by deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin results when fully emerged heads of winter malting barley are sprayed with full label rates of Caramba or Prosaro fungicides. A heads emerged spray with these triazole fungicides also helps protect upper leaves against fungal leaf blotches, powdery mildew, and rust.  Foliar sprays of Caramba or Prosaro up to seven days after head emergence may still result in significant FHB and DON suppression.   Fungicide products containing strobilurins should not be applied to headed wheat or barley as they may result in increased levels of DON in grain.

 

Winter wheat is generally a week or more behind in development from winter barley planted on the same fall date.  Winter wheat in New York varies from stem elongation to flag leaf visible stages.  We should reach the critical fungicide application window for winter wheat over the next two weeks.  The triazole products Caramba and Prosaro are the most effective fungicides for suppression of FHB and DON contamination when applied at flowering (emergence of anthers on heads).  A flowering application of triazole fungicide should be based on Fusarium head blight (FHB) risk as well as the risks of powdery mildew, rusts, and fungal leaf blotches in the upper canopy based on scouting of individual fields.  There is an application window of approximately 7 days from the beginning of flowering in which reasonable FHB suppression can be expected.   Check the Fusarium Risk Assessment Tool (http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/ ) and your local weather forecast frequently as your winter wheat crop approaches heading and flowering.

 

New York Field Crop Pest Degree Day Accumulations for selected locations

(May 24, 2018)

 

Station Location

Alfalfa Weevil

(Base 48)

March 1

GDDs (Base 50 F)

March 1

Seed Corn Maggot (base 39)

January 1

Black Cutworm (Base 50)

April 24

Ceres 331 274 712 261
Chazy 229 180 541 180
Geneva 334 278 723 277
Highland 418 356 902 344
Ithaca 330 273 736 271
Massena 250 197 563 197
Valatie 348 291 738 285
Versailles 335 282 752 275
Watertown 218 170 547 170

 

 

Accumulated Degree Days for Peak Occurrence

(50%) of Alfalfa Weevil at a given Life Stages

Stage              Degree Days

Egg hatch                    280 DD

Instar 1                        315 DD

Instar 2                        395 DD

Instar 3                        470 DD

Instar 4                        550 DD

Cocooning                   600 DD

Pupa                            725 DD

Adult emergence         815 DD

 

Black Cutworm Degree Days

Degree Days Stage Feeding Activity
0 Moth Capture Egg Laying
90 Eggs Hatch
91-311 1st to 3rd Instar Leaf Feeding
312-364 4th Instar Cutting Begins
365-430 5th Instar Cutting Begins
431-640 6th Instar Cutting Slows
641-989 Pupa No feeding

Source: University of Minnesota Black Cutworm Trapping Network

Seed Corn Maggot Peak Flight and Fly Maggot Free Degree Days

Base Temp = 390 F Peak 1st Generation Seed corn maggot fly free degree days Peak 2nd Generation Seed Corn maggot fly free degree days Peak 3rd Generation Seed Corn Maggot fly Free degree days
degree days 360 810 1,080 1530 1800 2250

Source: Insect IPM for Organic Field Crops: Seed Corn Maggot by Katelin Holm and Eileen Cullen

 Clipboard Checklist

Keith Waldron, NYS IPM

 General

*Walk fields to check tile flow, check and clear drainage outlets. Look for line breaks
*Note and record location of wet areas on field maps or aerial photo for future tiling considerations and crop decisions, check for areas of soil erosion
*Pre-plant weed evaluation, timing cultivation and/or pre-plant weed management
*Watch for early season weeds: winter annuals, chickweed, henbit, field penny cress, shepherd’s purse, giant and common ragweed, purple deadnettle, lambsquarters, redroot pigweed, velvet leaf, Pennsylvania smartweed, common sunflower, quackgrass, foxtail

Alfalfa:
*Evaluate established legume stands for winter damage (thinning stand, frost heave, Brown root rot), determine average alfalfa stand count adjust crop plans if necessary
*Monitor for alfalfa weevil, crown or foliar diseases
*Monitor new seedings for Pythium blight and Phytopthora Root Rot.
*Monitor for Alfalfa Snout Beetle (In Oswego, Jefferson, Cayuga, Wayne, Lewis, St. Lawrence, Clinton, Essex, and Franklin counties)

Small Grains:
*Monitor winter grain fields for over wintering survival (snow mold and other cold injury issues), weed issues (such, as winter annuals, corn chamomile and chickweed), growth stage, number of tillers, foliar diseases (powdery mildew, rusts)
*Check stands for soilborne virus diseases, Wheat spindle streak mosaic and Soilborne wheat mosaic, check for signs of powdery mildew or other maladies, cereal leaf beetle, weed escapes, goose damage

Corn:
*Prepare land and plant corn as conditions allow
*Pre-plant weed evaluation, timing cultivation and/or pre-plant weed management

*Emergence: assess stand, population count

Soybeans:
*Prepare land and plant soybeans as conditions allow
*Pre-plant weed evaluation, timing cultivation and/or pre-plant weed management

*Emergence: assess stand, population count

Pastures:
*
Check and mend fences as needed.
*Check crop growth
*Monitor fields for invasive species, plants harmful to livestock
*Review/Plan rotation system

Equipment:
*Remove / clean soil and crop debris from equipment
*
Arrange for custom weed control or check your own application or cultivator equipment for repairs.
*Carry appropriate / necessary NYS DEC and EPA required documents: (pesticide applicators license, pesticide labels, MSDS sheets, etc.) with application equipment
*Calibrate:

-planting equipment – maintain records on planting rate per field

-manure spreaders – maintain records on amount spread per field

-pesticide application equipment – Check nozzles, pumps, etc., recalibrate pesticide application equipment before use.

Storage:
* Check stored grain bins for temperature, moisture and signs of mold and insects. Aerate, core, transfer grain or treat as necessary
*
Check forage allocation and anticipate feed program adjustments as forages from previous year are used up
*Plan where forages should be stored for optimum allocation next feeding season