June 26, 2015: Volume 14 Number 9
View from the Field
Justin O’Dea (CCE Ulster County) reports several foliar diseases on spring grains. He found rust on oats and net blotch, spot blotch and powdery mildew on malting barley.
Spot Blotch on Malting Barley
Net Blotch on Malting Barley
Rust on oats
There was moderate levels of cereal leaf beetle damage in the small grains. He also reports that there was ergot in a rye field near Red Hook, NY. He suggests that much of the late planted small grains have grassy weeds.
Mike Stanyard (CCE Northwestern NY Dairy and Field Crops Teams) reports finding brown spot in soybeans and a lot of snails in corn. Mike also found a little bit of northern corn leaf blight this week and fusarium head blight in a lot of wheat in western NY. Mike has developed a video on how to scout for soybean aphid. To view click on the following website: https://vimeo.com/131208222
Kevin Ganoe (CCE Central NY Dairy and Field Crops Teams) reports finding potato leafhopper (PLH) adults in alfalfa. He did find that in a new seeding that potato leafhopper was over threshold. Julie Hansen (Cornell Plant Breeding) reports finding lots of PLH nymphs on both new seedings and on late first harvest alfalfa. Paul E. Cerosaletti (CCE Delaware County) reports finding little bit of brown spot on soybeans.
Weather Outlook – June 25, 2015
NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University
Last week temperatures were within 2 degrees of normal for most of the state. Precipitation ranged from ¼ inch to 2 ½ inches for most areas, with less in Niagara to Monroe counties and higher amounts in the Adirondacks. Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 60 to 140. Weekend rain event followed by continued unsettled weather.
Today will sunny and dry for most areas, becoming mostly cloudy with showers and thunderstorms possible in central NY as a low-pressure system moves through. Highs will range from the mid 70’s to low 80’s. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 50’s to low 60’s. Friday will be mostly cloudy with temperatures throughout the 70’s. Scattered showers are possible for central and eastern NY in the morning, then clearing. Low temperatures will be in the mid to upper 50’s. Slow-moving surface low will bring soaking rain over the weekend… Saturday will be partly to mostly cloudy with temperatures in the low to mid 70’s. There is a chance for showers for western and central NY. A large storm system will bring rain and cooler temperatures Saturday through Sunday. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid to upper 50’s. Sunday’s temperatures will be in the upper 60’s to low 70’s with a chance for showers. Overnight temperatures will be in the low to mid 50’s. Monday will be partly sunny with highs in the 70’s and a chance for showers. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 50’s to low 60’s. Tuesday will be partly sunny with highs in the mid to upper 70’s and a chance of showers. Lows will be in the upper 50’s low 60’s. Wednesday’s highs will be in the 70’s. Lows will be in the upper 50’s to low 60’s. The five-day precipitation amounts will range from 1” to 2.5”, with the higher amounts in western and southeast NY. The 8-14 day outlook (July 2-8) is showing below normal temperatures the Great Lakes Regions, central and western NY and above normal precipitation for all of the state. The Drought Monitor has removed some abnormally dry (D0) areas in areas east of Lake Ontario and reduced moderate drought in the Catskills.
Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:
National Weather Service watch/warnings map:
NRCC Drought Page which features the US Drought Monitor map (updated every Thursday):
Storing grain? Not too early to think about protection from post-harvest insect pests
Keith Waldron, NYS IPM
Planning to store wheat on the farm? Are your grain bins ready? Wheat harvest is still a while off but it is not too early to begin thinking about gearing up for the big event. To maintain the profits a good yield can bring, make and follow a plan to protect your grain while it is in storage. Remember: Grain storage will not improve grain quality. However, proper management of grain during storage will protect the quality present at harvest.
The IPM approach for stored grain protection includes a combination of sanitation, well-sealed bins, frequent monitoring for temperature and insect populations, aeration to cool grain in the fall, and pest management treatments as needed. Stored grain management begins with “an ounce of prevention”. This article will highlight some steps one can take now to protect stored grain before it is harvested. The following pre-harvest information was “gleaned” whole or in part from Stored Grain IPM information from Oklahoma State University Stored Products Research & Education Center and Purdue University. Website source URL’s are provided at end of this article.
Insect infestations are the more common stored grain pest issues one might encounter. Insect infested grain can be docked at time of sale. Most common grain bin insect problems can be traced back to infestations in previously stored material, cracked grain and grain fines and trash. Don’t add new grain into storage bins that have not been cleaned and may harbor a collection of stored grain pests. The key to prevention is SANITATION – clean out the bin every time it is emptied. How clean? If you can tell what was stored in the bin the last time it was used, it needs more cleaning. In addition to insects, birds and rodents are also attracted to left over and spilled grain. Lights mounted on or in close proximity to grain bins may attract unwanted stored grain insects.
Who might the likely insect pests be? A variety of beetles, weevils and moths are common to stored grain infestations. Saw-toothed grain beetles, flat grain beetle, red flour beetles, granary weevils, Indian meal moths and Angoumois grain moths to name a few. A picture is worth a thousand words and the following extension factsheets provide information to help identify the insects you may find as you clean out your storage bins: Principal Stored Grain Insect Pests of Indiana, Stored Wheat Insects identification key and Stored grain pests identification .
To prepare for grain harvest and storage the following sanitation practices are recommended.
* Clean harvest and transportation machines before harvest.
* Repair all grain handling equipment before harvest and keep it in good condition.
* Seal unloading auger, auger tube opening, and side door openings before harvest
* Empty storage structures of old grain. The new crop should never be stored on top of old grain.
* Remove and destroy any grain from beneath, around or near the bin area. Sweep and vacuum the floors, false floors, and walls inside empty bins to remove old grain and debris. This debris usually contains insect eggs, larvae, pupae, and/or adults, all ready to infest the new grain. A shop vacuum, broom and scoop are very useful in a cleanup job, and all collected material should be discarded properly.
* Check fan boxes for possible grain pests.
* Remove any spilled grain outside the storage structure.
* Mow / remove weeds at least 10 feet around the bins.
* Check and clean or replace rodent traps / bait stations. Be sure to follow all label directions.
* Check the integrity of screens and porcupine wires to limit bird entry and roosting.
* Insecticides? For additional protection against infestation, the inside and outside surfaces, foundations and floor of a storage facility can be sprayed with residual insecticide, four to six weeks prior to harvest, to kill any insects that were not removed during cleaning and those that migrate into the bin. Use appropriately registered insecticides. Be sure to follow all label directions. Rotate choice of insecticide chemical families to minimize risk of developing insecticide resistance.
* Establish a written sanitation schedule. Keep appropriate records.
Roof leaks commonly lead to columns of spoiled grain. Check for these leaks by looking for light coming into the bin. Moisture coming into the bin through the seal between the bin and concrete will cause spoilage around the perimeter of the bin at the base. Check the seal since sealants do deteriorate. Water will run away from the seal at the base of the bin wall if the concrete is sloped away from the bin. Also check the seals around the doors and hatches.
Besides keeping grain dry, grain storages should be well sealed for two other basic reasons: (1) to minimize grain insect entry problems into base and sidewall grain, and
(2) to minimize leakage should fumigants be used.
In addition, improved insect kill (efficacy), tighter sealed structures require lower dosage rates, which reduce the cost of future fumigations and cover the cost for the sealing materials and labor. When clean grain is transferred into a clean, sanitized structure with base and sidewalls well sealed, the main insect infestation and population growth should be on the grain surface in the structure headspace. Permanently sealing all non-functional base, sidewall and roof openings is the first priority of sealing storages. The second sealing priority is to seal functional openings at all times during the year when the component is not being used.
Source of the above stored grain pest management information:
Oklahoma State University Stored Products Research & Education Center Newsletter – Spring 2004 and Purdue’s Stored Product Pest factsheets:
Two excellent Stored Grain IPM resources:
“Stored Product Protection” – Practical guide to protecting grains and other raw commodities, food processing facilities, finished food, and durable plant and animal products from insects, molds, and vertebrate pests. Illustrated, 350 p. (http://www.ksre.ksu.edu/bookstore/pubs/S156.pdf)
“Maintaining Quality in On-Farm Stored Grain” https://utextension.tennessee.edu/publications/documents/PB1724.pdf
Fusarium Head Blight Update from New York
Gary Bergstrom, , Extension Plant Pathologist, Cornell University
June 22, 2015
Winter cereal fields in New York should be assessed for incidence of Fusarium head blight symptoms at this time to get some idea of the potential for DON contamination in grain. Incidence has been observed from zero to over ten percent in individual fields. Many fields of spring malting barley emerged from the boot over the past week and were sprayed with triazole fungicides at full head emergence. Other spring cereals have not yet emerged from the boot. Predicted risk of FHB is currently high for spring cereals flowering over the next few days in many areas of New York. The triazole products Caramba and Prosaro are the most effective fungicides for suppression of FHB and deoxynivalenol (DON) toxin contamination when applied at full head emergence in barley (anthers begin to appear on barley before heads emerge from the boot) or at at wheat flowering (emergence of anthers on heads). There is an application window of approximately 6 days from the beginning of flowering in which reasonable FHB suppression can be expected.
Fungicide products containing strobilurins should not be applied to headed wheat or barley as they may result in increased levels of DON in grain.
Triazole applications at flowering should provide adequate protection against early developing rust, powdery mildew, and fungal leaf blotches on flag leaves. Leaf rusts and other foliar diseases are now fairly widespread on wheat and barley in New York. Check the Fusarium Risk Assessment Tool
(http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/) and your local weather forecast frequently.
2015 Degree Day Models for Field Crops across New York
GDDs (Base 50 F)
|Black Cutworm April 15|
Base 48 degree days Base 50 degree days
Keith Waldron, NYS IPM
*Walk fields to check general field condition, weed issues
*Watch for crop maturity, stand assessments, weed escapes, lodging issues
*Evaluate established legume stands for approximate days until harvest
*Monitor potato leafhopper and diseases
*Monitor new seedings for potato leafhopper, pythium blight, phytopthora root rot.
*Monitor winter grain fields for growth stage, disease issues, cereal leaf beetle
*Check stands for diseases, cereal leaf beetle, weed escapes
*Monitor winter wheat for signs of Fusarium Head Blight
*Monitor spring grains for potential risk of fungal diseases – consult Fusarium Head Blight prediction model
*Conduct plant population assessments, early-mid season corn pests including seed corn maggot, white grub, wireworm, black cutworm, armyworm, European corn borer, slugs, diseases, weed issues, vertebrate damage
*Post emergence weed evaluation, timely cultivation and/or weed management
*Conduct plant population assessments, early-mid season corn pests including seed corn maggot, slugs, soybean aphid, foliar diseases, weed issues, vertebrate damage
*Check and mend fences as needed.
*Check crop growth
*Invasive species, plants harmful to livestock
*Review/Plan rotation system
*Remove / clean soil and crop debris from equipment
*Arrange for custom weed control or check your own application or cultivator equipment for repairs.
*Carry appropriate / necessary NYS DEC and EPA required documents: (pesticide applicators license, pesticide labels, MSDS sheets, etc.) with application equipment
- planting equipment – maintain records on planting rate per field
- manure spreaders – maintain records on amount spread per field
- pesticide application equipment – Check nozzles, pumps, etc., recalibrate pesticide application equipment before use. Maintain pesticide use records
* Check stored grain bins for temperature, moisture and signs of mold and insects. Aerate, core, transfer grain or treat as necessary
*Check forage allocation and anticipate feed program adjustments as forages from previous year are used up
*Plan where forages should be stored for optimum allocation next feeding season
*Mow around storage bins and facility to minimize pest hiding places
Dairy Cattle Barn Fly Management:
*Monitor animals and barn area for house fly, stable fly and other pest management needs including presence of rodents and birds.
*Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,
*Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation – clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
* Continue fly monitoring: install “3X5″ index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn
*Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards
*Consider purchase and release of Muscidifurax raptor and/or M. raptorellus natural enemies of house and stable fly pupae.
Dairy Cattle on Pasture:
*Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy per animal side, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal (all four legs)
*Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter – spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal exercise yard.
*Check pasture for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
*Check pasture for vegetation poisonous to livestock
*Consider use of pasture fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly populations