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Volume 13 Number 19

 View from the Field

 Northern Corn Leaf Blight

Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) continues to be reported on field corn around the state. Mike Stanyard states (CCE Northwestern NYS Dairy and Field Crops Team) that many farmers have sprayed a fungicide to control NCLB.  Others report that infestation rates are slight to moderate. For more information please refer to the following article: Northern corn leaf blight.

 

northern corn leaf blight

northern corn leaf blight

 Soybean aphids and Western Bean Cutworm

Mike Stanyard reports soybean aphid numbers are still high in some areas of the Finger Lakes. Western bean cutworm moth activity has virtually ended, reports of WBC larvae infesting ears are beginning to come in. See WBC article below.

Common Smut

I found a little bit of common smut (Ustilago zeae) on corn this week. Common smut forms white, soft galls that can be found on most any plant part on the corn plant above the ground. It is suggested that the galls form where hail or machinery have injured the plant. As the smut galls age they fill with dark brown to black spore masses. The good thing is that smut rarely kills the plant, and typically causes little if any yield loss.

Common Smut on Field Corn

Common Smut on Field Corn

Corn smut is also edible at the right stage of growth – (before it produces spores). It is called the maize mushroom (Cuitlacoche) or the Mexican truffle. Many people in Mexico eat the immature smut galls as a delicacy known as Cuitlacoche. Some sweet corn growers produce smut galls as a high value crop and sell them to Mexican restaurants. If you like mushrooms you should like common smut. Check out this website if you think you would like to try maize mushrooms: Common Smut Recipes: Common Smut Recipes

 White mold or Sclerotinia Stem Rot

Reports of White mold or Sclerotinia Stem Rot is being reported statewide in very high infection rates in Western and Central NY. Sclerotinia Stem Rot is the most destructive disease of soybeans in New York. Infections in fields range from small areas to very severe. For more information on white mold in soybeans view the following article: White Mold in Soybeans.

Weather Outlook- September 11, 2014

Drew Montreuil, NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center

Cornell University

Last week, temperatures were mostly 2-4 degrees above normal for most of the state, except eastern and northern New York which was 4-6 degrees above normal. Precipitation was mostly an inch or less with some pockets across Upstate New York exceeding an inch. Base 50 Growing Degree Days were generally between 100-140, with slightly high amounts near New York City and on Long Island and slightly lower amounts in areas of higher terrain. A cold front is crossing the region this morning. A line of showers and maybe some thunder, along with gusty winds, will accompany the front. Additional showers are possible prior to the front as well. High temperatures will generally be in the low 70s this morning before the front. By early this evening, much of the state should be in the upper 50s. Overnight lows will be in the upper 40s to low 50s, with some low and mid 40s in northeast New York. Friday should remain dry, albeit a bit cloudy. High temperatures will mostly be within a couple degrees on either side of 60º, except the Hudson Valley and Downstate areas which will approach or exceed 70º. Overnight lows should be mainly in the mid 40s, though some 30s may be possible across northeast New York. Frost is not expected. Another system will move through on Saturday with occasional rain showers. High temperatures will have a hard time reaching 60º for most places. Overnight lows will again be mainly in the mid 40s with some 30s may be possible across northeast New York and no expected frost. Sunday looks mostly dry, though a lake effect rain shower may be possible across western and central New York. High temperatures will be similar to Friday and Saturday with upper 50s and a few low 60s. Low temperatures will be colder however, with low and mid 40s for most areas and some mid or even low 30s, along with a frost risk, in northeast New York. Monday and Wednesday look mostly dry, but there may be a few showers on Tuesday. Temperatures will moderate somewhat, with highs in the mid and upper 60s on Monday and Wednesday, but cooler temperatures near 60º on Tuesday with the rain. Low temperatures will generally be in the 40s and low 50s. Overall, through the next week, the chance of frost appears very low, except in the normally cold areas of northeast New York, such as Saranac Lake, where some patchy frost may be possible Monday morning. The 5 day precipitation totals will generally be one half to one inch across the Southern Tier and I-81 corridor. Other areas should see less than half an inch. The 8-14 Day outlook calls for more below normal temperatures and below normal precipitation.

GDD_Sep10

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks

National Weather Service watch/warnings map

NRCC Drought Page which features the US Drought Monitor map (updated every Thursday)

 

Western Bean Cutworm Update (9.12.14):

Keith Waldron, NYS IPM

The western bean cutworm (WBC) catch numbers dropped to only 22 moths caught this week in fifty-four traps reporting. The timing of this drop is consistent with what has been observed in previous years signaling the WBC moth trapping season is drawing to a close and trapping has ended in many of our traps statewide.

 

NYS 2014 Western Bean Cutworm Trap Catch by Week

6/29

7/6

7/13

7/20

7/27

8/3

8/10

8/17

8/24

8/31

9/7

Traps Reporting

43

62

66

60

65

65

59

62

64

54

42

WBC Total

0

8

49

355

2399

3171

2443

1357

88

22

10

Avg WBC / Trap

0.0

0.1

0.7

5.9

36.9

48.8

41.4

21.9

1.4

0.4

0.2

“0″ WBC

43

54

39

13

9

7

8

8

33

44

35

> 0 WBC

0

8

27

47

56

58

51

54

31

10

7

% Traps Catching

0.0%

12.9%

40.9%

78.3%

86.2%

89.2%

86.4%

87.1%

48.4%

18.5%

16.7%

 

Any location where WBC moths were collected this season is at risk for larval activity – the larger the accumulated total catch, the higher the potential risk that WBC larvae would be detected. Although 64 of the 66 traps reporting to the NY field corn and dry bean pheromone trap network collected at least 1 WBC moth, seventy-four % of the 9902 moths reported captured to date were from locations in the northern counties of Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Jefferson, Lewis, and St. Lawrence. A summary table of trap catches by location across the state follows later in this report. Various sources are beginning to report WBC larvae being found in corn ears. As more fields are checked for grain maturity reports may increase. Mike Hunter (CCE Jefferson/Lewis Cty) and I checked 1360 WBC susceptible corn fields in areas of Jefferson county where WBC pheromone traps documented presence of WBC moths. Fields varied in WBC incidence and we were able to find WBC larvae in 0.5 – 6.5% of plants inspected. WBC larvae were predominantly found in the tip area of ears, although 1 larvae had bored through the side of the ear. The majority of ears positive for larvae contained only 1 WBC larvae, three ears contained 2 WBC larvae. WBC larvae ranged in size from 0.75 – 1.5 inches in length.

WBC larvae will continue feeding for the next few weeks eventually gaining sufficient size and maturity. As they reach their 6th instar, larvae cease feeding and drop off the plant and burrow into the soil 5 – 10 inches or more in sandier soils, where they construct earthen chambers in which they overwinter. They remain in a quiescent state (pre-pupa) throughout the winter, then pupate and complete development to emerge as moths the following summer beginning towards the end of June.

Capture23

We are very interested in documenting WBC larval activity and potential impacts. Recall that the Cr1F and Vip 3a traits have resistance to western bean cutworm. Monitoring WBC larvae may be done in conjunction with checking corn ears for maturity. To check for WBC larvae enter fields beyond the border edge and check the ears of 10 plants at random in 5 – 10 areas throughout the field. Record the number of plants inspected, number of WBC larvae found and number or % of plants positive for WBC. Note presence of ear molds. Record the hybrid. Let us know what you are finding!

County City

8/3/14

8/10/14

8/17/14

8/24/14

8/31/14

9/7/14

Season

Total

Allegany Belmont

8

NA

0

0

0

NA

58

Allegany Caneadea

0

NA

2

0

0

NA

13

Cattaraugus Randolph

104

27

NA

4

END

END

135

Cayuga Auburn

NA

2

NA

0

0

END

7

Cayuga Aurora

8

8

4

0

0

0

26

Chautauqua Clymer

27

11

8

2

END

END

48

Clinton Chazy

25

20

9

0

0

NA

74

Columbia Valatie

8

4

3

0

0

0

19

Cortland Homer

2

NA

1

1

NA

NA

24

Delaware Oneonta

9

0

1

0

0

NA

33

Delaware Walton

9

4

2

0

0

NA

25

Dutchess Amenia

2

0

0

0

0

1

4

Dutchess Amenia/Millbrook

6

0

1

NA

NA

NA

10

Essex Willsboro

32

14

12

2

1

NA

124

Franklin Bangor

251

165

72

3

5

0

510

Franklin Malone

27

164

78

6

8

0

358

Franklin Moira

222

81

49

1

0

0

442

Genesee Stafford

14

9

4

1

0

0

60

Jefferson Calcium

125

37

31

1

0

0

226

Jefferson Chaumont

41

30

23

0

0

0

165

Jefferson Ellisburg

26

16

10

1

1

0

54

Jefferson Evans Mills

49

12

87

1

0

0

179

Jefferson Hounsfield

153

116

137

7

0

0

603

Jefferson Plessis

47

18

19

0

0

0

161

Jefferson Rodman

23

8

11

1

0

0

46

Jefferson Rutland

93

375

158

3

1

0

633

Lewis Croghan

133

72

25

0

0

0

485

Lewis Denmark

61

33

37

0

0

0

198

Lewis Harrisburg

68

141

24

5

0

0

283

Lewis Lowville

15

21

45

2

0

0

131

Lewis Martinsburg

101

49

43

0

0

0

336

Lewis Turin

83

76

25

2

1

0

280

Lewis Turin

35

42

8

0

0

0

145

Livingston Caledonia

1

1

3

0

0

0

6

Livingston Groveland

4

7

3

1

0

0

15

Monroe Hamlin

105

20

61

2

NA

3

296

Monroe Spencerport

0

11

11

0

0

0

32

Montgomery

Palatine Bridge

37

16

9

0

0

END

126

Niagara Barker

102

106

NA

10

0

2

323

Oneida Clinton

2

0

0

0

0

NA

6

Onondaga Tully

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Ontario Farmington

7

NA

2

0

0

0

26

Ontario Geneva

27

24

4

3

0

0

81

Ontario Hopewell

10

9

6

1

0

0

55

Orange Warwick

0

0

1

0

0

0

4

Orleans Kendall

44

18

21

0

1

0

127

Rensselaer Brunswick

4

NA

0

0

0

0

4

Schuyler Valois

64

43

3

3

0

END

169

St .Lawrence Heuvelton

61

2

2

0

NA

NA

137

St .Lawrence Madrid

75

19

19

0

1

NA

228

St. Lawrence Lawrence

344

372

127

4

NA

1

1019

St. Lawrence Morristown

83

60

53

2

NA

1

235

St. Lawrence Parishville

116

37

19

3

NA

1

245

St. Lawrence Waddington

20

4

4

0

0

NA

57

Steuben Wayland

15

8

11

0

0

0

74

Steuben Wayland

9

13

NA

NA

NA

NA

25

Suffolk Riverhead

0

1

0

0

NA

NA

2

Tompkins Varna

18

17

9

3

2

END

84

Ulster New Paltz

2

0

0

0

0

0

3

Ulster New Paltz

0

0

3

0

0

0

5

Washington

Easton

17

7

4

6

0

1

42

Wayne Alloway

7

NA

5

1

1

1

17

Wayne Lyons

0

NA

0

0

0

0

0

Wayne Willliamson

29

14

4

0

NA

0

74

Wyoming Attica

117

65

40

4

0

0

386

Wyoming Wyoming

44

14

4

2

0

0

105

9903

 Clipboard Checklist

Keith Waldron, NYS IPM

 

General

*Walk fields to check general field condition, weed or other issues

*Watch for crop maturity, stand assessments, weed escapes, lodging issues

 Alfalfa:

*Evaluate established legume stands for approximate days until harvest
*Monitor potato leafhopper
*Monitor new seedings for potato leafhopper, pythium blight, phytopthora root rot.

Small Grains:
*Monitor spring grain fields for growth stage, disease issues, harvest timing

*Prepare for planting of winter wheat

 Corn:

* Monitor fields for plant vigor, growth stage, late season pest issues (European corn borer, western bean cutworm, foliar diseases, nutritional deficiencies, vertebrate damage)
* Monitor for weeds, note presence of “who”, “how many” and “where”
* Monitor reproductive stage corn fields for foliar diseases, stalk standability issues, corn ear damage (insect pests and diseases), grain maturity.
* Prepare storage areas to accept upcoming silage harvest

  Soybeans:

*Conduct mid to late season pest assessment including soybean aphid, white mold and other diseases, weed issues, vertebrate damage

  Pastures:

*Check crop growth
*Review/Plan rotation system

*Check and mend fences as needed.

*Invasive species, plants harmful to livestock

 Storage:

*Check grain storage bins for temperature, moisture and signs of mold and insects. Aerate, core, transfer grain or treat as necessary
*
Check forage allocation and anticipate feed program adjustments as forages from previous year are used up
*Plan where forages should be stored for optimum allocation next feeding season
*Mow around storage bins and facility to minimize pest hiding places

 Dairy Cattle Barn Fly Management:

*Monitor animals and barn area for house fly, stable fly and other pest management needs including presence of rodents and birds.
*Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,
*Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation – clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
* Continue fly monitoring: install “3X5″ index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn
*Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards
*Consider purchase and release of Muscidifurax raptor and/or M. raptorellus natural enemies of house and stable fly pupae.

 Dairy Cattle on Pasture:

*Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy per animal side, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal (all four legs)
*Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter – spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal exercise yard.
*Check pasture for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
*Check pasture for vegetation poisonous to livestock
*Consider use of pasture fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly populations