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Volume 13 Number 11

View from the Field

Ken Wise, Cornell University, NYS IPM

Potato leafhopper populations in alfalfa remain low statewide. Keep a close eye on potato leafhoppers as they can increase very quickly and catch you off guard by reducing yield and the quality of alfalfa.  Soybean aphids remain at low infestation levels in soybeans. A few western bean cutworm larvae had been found in corn in Northern and Western NY.

Fusarium head blight in spring malting barley is starting to show up at the Cornell Research Farm in Valatie. There is also some foliar disease on the malting barley. Much of the foliar diseases appearing on spring grains are stagonospora nodorum blotch, powdery mildew, spot blotch, and scald.

Bacterial blight on soybeans was found in a field in Dutchess County. Bacterial blight (Pseudomoas syringae pv glycinea) is one of the more common diseases of soybeans in New York. You can see it in most fields every year. Most of the time it does not cause yield losses. It is commonly mistaken for septoria brown spot and bacterial pustule and vice versa. As indicated in its name it is a bacterium and NOT a fungus. The bacterium survives on crop residue and or on seed. A major source of infection to plants is from the previous crop’s residue. When it rains the bacterium splashes on to the plant. The disease can infect a plant as early as the V1 stage of development. The ideal conditions are cool wet weather and poorly drained soils. When transmitted to the plant the younger leaves are the most susceptible to the bacteria. When lesions first appear on the leave they are small yellow to brown spots.  The middle of spots will turn dark reddish-brown or black and dry out in time. The spots develop into angular lesions surrounded by water-soaked tissue—which in turn is surrounded by a yellowish-green halo. This halo will distinguish its self from septoria brown spot and bacterial pustule.

Bacterial blight on soybeans

Bacterial blight on soybeans

 

Japanese Beetles in Soybeans

Ken Wise, Cornell University, NYS IPM

 I am starting to see Japanese beetles in soybeans. This is a large adult metallic green beetle with red or brownish wing covers. It is robust at 1/3 to ½ inch. They feed on the leaflets of the soybeans.

The adults start to lay eggs in the soil in lawns and places with grasses in mid to late June. Each adult can lay between 40 to 60 eggs over the course of their life span. An adult can live 30 to 60 days. There is only one generation per year. Eggs will hatch in 10 to 14 days. This larval stage of this insect is called the “white grub”. It feeds on the roots of grasses like lawns, corn, wheat and pastures.  The larvae will over winter in the soil. They will go deep into the soil where it does not freeze. In the spring the come close to the surface as soil temperatures rise. They will pupate and emerge as an adult in early to mid June.  Adult beetles feed on the foliage of 300 different host plants in North America. Adult beetles start feeding on soybeans as soon as they are an adult.

 

Japanese beetle in soybean

Japanese beetle in soybean

They generally feed through June and July. The adult beetle can damage soybeans by feeding on leaflets. The leaflets look skeletonized and turn the leaf brown.

adult beetle can damage soybeans

adult beetle can damage soybeans

The damage can look really bad … but rarely causes yield loss. Soybeans can take a good deal of defoliation before loss occurs.

 

Western Bean Cutworm Update

Keith Waldron, Cornell University, NYS IPM

 Western bean cutworm moth captures increased slightly this week with 20 of 23 trap locations catching WBC moths.  Overall trap captures ranged from 0 to 6 moths per trap with an average of 0.91 WBC moths captured per trap.

Most moths were caught in central, western and northern NY traps. These numbers are similar to those observed for this time in previous years. Midwestern data suggests field monitoring for WBC egg masses and larvae should begin when accumulated trap counts approach and exceed 100 WBC moths per trap. Obviously we have a ways to go before that number is reached this season. Maximum WBC moth captures have occurred the last week or so of July since we began monitoring for this insect in 2010. Stay tuned…

6/22/14

6/29/14

7/6/14

7/13/14

Traps Reporting

34

39

55

43

WBC Total

0

0

8

39

Avg WBC / Trap

0.00

0.00

0.15

0.91

“0″ WBC

34.00

39.00

47.00

23.00

> 0 WBC

0.00

0.00

8.00

20.00

Capturegraph

Clipboard Checklist

Keith Waldron, NYS IPM

 General

*Walk fields to check general field condition, weed issues

*Watch for crop maturity, stand assessments, weed escapes, lodging issues

Alfalfa:

*Evaluate established legume stands for approximate days until harvest
*Monitor potato leafhopper
*Monitor new seedings for potato leafhopper, pythium blight, phytopthora root rot.

Small Grains:
*Monitor winter grain fields for growth stage, disease issues, cereal leaf beetle
*Check stands for diseases, cereal leaf beetle, weed escapes

*Monitor winter wheat for signs of Fusarium Head Blight

*Monitor spring grains for potential risk of fungal diseases – consult Fusarium Head Blight prediction model

  Corn:

*Conduct plant population assessments, early season corn pests including black cutworm, armyworm, corn rootworm larvae, slugs, diseases, weed issues, vertebrate damage

  Soybeans:

*Post emergence weed evaluation, timely cultivation and/or weed management
*Conduct early to mid season pest assessment including soybean aphid, diseases, weed issues, vertebrate damage

  Pastures:

*Check and mend fences as needed.
*Check crop growth
*Invasive species, plants harmful to livestock
*Review/Plan rotation system

 Equipment:

*Remove / clean soil and crop debris from equipment
*
Arrange for custom weed control or check your own application or cultivator equipment for repairs.
*Carry appropriate / necessary NYS DEC and EPA required documents: (pesticide applicators license, pesticide labels, MSDS sheets, etc.) with application equipment
*Calibrate:

  • planting equipment – maintain records on planting rate per field
  • manure spreaders – maintain records on amount spread per field
  • pesticide application equipment – Check nozzles, pumps, etc., recalibrate pesticide application equipment before use. Maintain pesticide use records

 Storage:

* Check stored grain bins for temperature, moisture and signs of mold and insects. Aerate, core, transfer grain or treat as necessary
*
Check forage allocation and anticipate feed program adjustments as forages from previous year are used up
*Plan where forages should be stored for optimum allocation next feeding season
*Mow around storage bins and facility to minimize pest hiding places

 Dairy Cattle Barn Fly Management:

*Monitor animals and barn area for house fly, stable fly and other pest management needs including presence of rodents and birds.
*Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,
*Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation – clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
* Continue fly monitoring: install “3X5″ index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn
*Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards
*Consider purchase and release of Muscidifurax raptor and/or M. raptorellus natural enemies of house and stable fly pupae.

 Dairy Cattle on Pasture:

*Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy per animal side, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal (all four legs)
*Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter – spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal exercise yard.
*Check pasture for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
*Check pasture for vegetation poisonous to livestock
*Consider use of pasture fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly populations