Print Friendly

Volume 13 Number 12

View from the Field

Western bean cutworm (WBCW) flights have increased this week in NY. There are many reports of WBCW moths being caught in pheromone monitoring traps. They ranged from 0 to 90 moths/trap this week. See article below for more details.

Soybean aphids are on the increase in western and central NY. There are fields over threshold in these areas of the state. In Northern and Eastern NY report no fields over threshold.  See article below on scouting and management of soybean aphid.

Kevin Ganoe (Area Field Crop Specialist-Central NY) report finding minor amounts of gray leaf spot on corn in Central NY. Jeff Miller (CCE Oneida County) reports finding crown rust in oats.

Ken Wise-NYS IPM: I am finding a lot of Japanese beetles in corn and soybeans. The good thing they generally do not cause yield losses. The beetles have been feeding on the leaves of both corn and soybeans. Soybean compensates very well to feeding and can with-stand up to 20% defoliation during the reproductive stages. Japanese beetles also like to feed on the silks of corn. The thing with Japanese beetles is that they prefer to feed on browning silks. When the silk has turned brown the ear of corn has already been pollinated. Japanese beetles also clump in certain areas of the field. Many times this is along edges and not the rest of the field. Sometimes beetles are early enough and populations are high they will feed on new silks. The good thing is that even a damaged silk can still receive pollen and will fertilize the ear. Reduced fertilization can only occur when the silk is clipped to less than a ½ inch long before pollination.

Weather Outlook – July 24 2014

NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

Jessica Spaccio (Rennells)

Last week temperatures ranged from normal to 6 degrees below normal. Most areas received a trace to an inch of precipitation; part of eastern NY had over an inch.  Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 60 to 140. A couple dry and sunny days before unsettled weather arrives with the passage of a warm front on Saturday and lasts into early next week. Today will be mostly sunny and considerably less humid with temperatures throughout the 70’s.  Overnight temperatures will be in the upper 40’s to mid 50’s. Friday will be sunny with highs in the mid 70’s to low 80’s.  Low temperatures will be throughout the 50’s. Saturday will be partly sunny with highs in the upper 70’s to low 80’s with showers and thunderstorms beginning in western NY during the afternoon ahead of a warm front.  The front and associated showers and thunderstorms will track east throughout the evening.  Overnight temperatures will be in the low 60’s. Sunday will be partly sunny with highs in the upper 70’s to low 80’s and showers and thunderstorms likely.  Overnight temperatures will be in the upper 50’s and low 60’s. Monday we’ll have a continues chance for scattered showers and thunderstorms with highs in the mid 70’s and low 80’s.  Overnight temperatures will be in the upper 50’s to low 60’s. Tuesday will be partly sunny and a morning passage of a front will bring cooler air with highs in the upper 60’s to mid 70’s.  There will still be a possibility of scattered showers and thunderstorms.  Lows will be in the 60’s. Wednesday’s highs will be in the 70’s.  Lows will be in the 50’s. The five-day precipitation amounts will range from ¾” to 1”; 7-day amounts will range from 1” to 1 ½”. The 8-14 day outlook (July 31 – Aug 6) is showing below normal temperatures for central to western NY and above normal precipitation for all but the northernmost counties.

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks

National Weather Service watch/warnings map

NRCC Drought Page which features the US Drought Monitor map (updated every Thursday)

Scouting Soybean Aphid

Keith Waldron-Cornell University, NYS IPM

Soybean aphid (SBA) populations appear to be on the increase in western and central NY. There are a few fields over the 250 SBA’s/ PLANT threshold. It is the time to begin checking soybean fields for soybean aphid.

What to look for:
Check the under surface of leaves for presence of very small aphids. If present, the aphids are usually seen in small clusters near the leaf veins. They are tiny, 1/16″ long at their largest, with distinctive black cornicles (tail pipes).  Soybean aphids are the only aphids to successfully colonize soybean plants. These aphids may or may not have wings.

Infested fields may also be stunted, have areas leaf curling and the sticky “honey dew” residue associated with a high aphid population and relatively low numbers of natural enemies. A large colony of soybean aphids often includes white, shed skins and brownish carcasses killed by fungal pathogens. Plants with very high SBA populations can also attract ants that can be seen on and in the plant canopy.

(photo)

Threshold guideline:
SBA threshold guideline is 250 soybean aphids per plant if populations are actively increasing on 80% or more of the plants prior to early pod fill (R4). The 250 SBA / plant action threshold is based on an average of aphids per plant over 20-30 plants sampled throughout the field. This threshold incorporates an approximate 7-day lead time between scouting and treatment to make spray arrangements and handle weather delays. Midwestern research has found that treating earlier than this threshold in most cases does not pay for itself. When scouting the early vegetative stages of soybeans for soybean aphid, it is just as important to watch for the aphid’s natural enemies, including ladybugs, syrphid fly larvae, parasitic wasps, and fungal pathogens.
If fields are approaching threshold, a follow up field visit is recommended within a week, particularly following rain storms, to determine if SBA populations are increasing, assess potential impact of natural enemies and re-assess if rains have affected aphid numbers on plants.

Treatment:

Insecticides labeled in NY for treatment of SBA’s are shown in Cornell Guide for Integrated Field Crop Management. If fields are treated, re-evaluate fields for SBA numbers at least 7-10 days following treatment. Information from any treat / no treat side-by-side comparisons is always appreciated.

Western Bean Cutworm Update

Keith Waldron, Cornell University, NYS IPM

 They’re here….

We have seen a big increase in WBC numbers being collected across the state this week. We are still tabulating our field corn and dry bean trap location numbers. So far 40 of the 50 traps reporting have caught at least 1 WBC moth with trap numbers ranging from 1 to 38 WBC’s per trap. This week Sandy Menasha (Suffolk Cty CCE) caught the first WBC moth on Long Island, our farthest east trap location, since trapping began there in 2010. The largest number of moths collected in a field corn or dry bean trap location was 38 in Attica (Wyoming County). However, the largest trap catch this week 96 WBC moths was in an Eden (Erie County) sweet corn field location. See: Sweet Corn Pheromone Trap Network Report. http://sweetcorn.nysipm.cornell.edu/2014/07/22/wny-sweet-corn-trap-network-report-7-22-14/. In addition, we have heard of WBC larvae being found in corn at two locations, one of them in Canandaigua (Ontario County). Marion Zuefle (NYS IPM Vegetable Program) reports finding a WBC egg mass in a sweet corn field in Oswego County.

 

Based on trap collections since 2010 we anticipate peak WBC moth collection to occur during the weeks of 7.27.14 or 8.3.14.

6/22/14

6/29/14

7/6/14

7/13/14

7/20/14

Traps Reporting

34

41

53

54

50

WBC Total

0

0

8

48

296

Avg WBC / Trap

0.00

0.00

0.13

0.79

5.92

“0″ WBC

36

42

52

35

10

> 0 WBC

0

0

8

26

40

% Traps Catching

0.00%

0.00%

13.33%

42.62%

80.00%

 

Pre-tassel corn is the preferred site for WBC egg laying. Midwestern US entomologists recommend monitoring fields for presence of egg masses when trap collections reach an accumulation of 100 moths per trap. WBC egg masses are easy to scout for in corn.

Monitoring for WBC In Corn: Examine the upper surfaces of plant leaves for egg masses and/or small larvae. WBC will usually lay eggs on the upper side of the top 1-3 leaves of pre-tassel corn, close to the leaf base. After tasseling has finished WBC seek out younger corn or dry beans. Egg masses may contain 20 to 200 eggs (averaging ~ 50) per mass. The eggs have been described as looking like tiny cantaloupes (see photo).  In addition to checking for egg masses, examine tassels for larvae before pollen shed. Check for larvae in silks and tips of any ears found. Check 10 consecutive plants in at least 5 random locations in the field. The threshold guideline for treating corn for WBC’s is when 5% of plants are infested with WBC egg masses. WBC eggs are white when first laid and gradually turn purplish just before hatching. WBC prefer pre-tassel corn for egg laying. Sample corn of different planting dates or sample hybrids with different maturities within a field separately. Several ear infesting larvae may occur during this time of year including corn ear worm, European corn borer, corn ear worm and western bean cutworm. Larvae of the first three species are cannibalistic and do not take kindly to competition in the same ear… So if they are present you would expect to find only 1 of these per ear. By contrast, WBC larvae will accept another WBC larvae or two feeding in the same ear. Multiple larvae feeding per ear is a diagnostic for this species. An average of 1 WBC larva per ear has been associated with as much as a 3.7 bu/acre yield loss. Extensive damage to kernels leaves ears vulnerable to attack by ear molds including those that may produce mycotoxins.

Monitoring for WBC In Dry Beans: WBC monitoring in dry beans is much more difficult, In contrast to WBC feeding in corn where larvae may be found during the daytime, WBC larvae feed on beans at night and retreat to the soil during the daytime. For this reason it is suggested that dry bean fields be monitored for signs of pod damage when nearby WBC trap catches approach 100 WBC’s per trap or local corn fields reach threshold.

WBC Egg Mass on pre-tassel sweet corn. (Photo K. Waldron)

WBC Egg Mass on pre-tassel sweet corn. (Photo K. Waldron)

WBC Egg Mass (Photo J. Gardner)

WBC Egg Mass (Photo J. Gardner)

For more information see: http://ipm.illinois.edu/vegetables/insects/western_bean_cutworm/

2014Western Bean Cutworm Trap Catch Data by location.

 

County City

6/22

6/29

7/6

7/13

7/20

Total

Allegany Belmont

0

0

1

2

9

12

Allegany Caneadea

0

0

0

1

0

1

Cattaraugus Randolph

NA

NA

0

0

NA

0

Cayuga Auburn

NA

NA

0

0

0

0

Cayuga Aurora

0

0

0

0

NA

0

Chautauqua Clymer

NA

NA

0

0

NA

0

Clinton Chazy

0

NA

0

0

3

3

Columbia Valatie

NA

NA

0

1

0

1

Cortland Homer

NA

0

NA

NA

1

1

Delaware Oneonta

0

0

0

0

NA

0

Delaware Walton

0

0

0

0

NA

0

Dutchess Amenia

NA

NA

0

0

0

0

Dutchess Amenia/Millbrook

0

0

0

0

1

1

Essex Willsboro

0

NA

0

1

17

18

Franklin Bangor

0

0

0

3

7

10

Franklin Malone

0

0

0

0

2

2

Franklin Moira

0

0

0

0

4

4

Genesee Stafford

0

0

0

0

6

6

Jefferson Calcium

0

0

0

1

0

1

Jefferson Chaumont

NA

0

0

2

10

12

Jefferson Ellisburg

0

0

0

0

0

0

Jefferson Evans Mills

0

0

0

0

2

2

Jefferson Hounsfield

0

0

0

0

28

28

Jefferson Plessis

NA

NA

NA

2

13

15

Jefferson Rodman

0

0

0

0

1

1

Jefferson Rutland

0

0

0

0

1

1

Lewis Croghan

0

0

0

0

7

7

Lewis Denmark

0

0

0

0

4

4

Lewis Harrisburg

0

0

1

1

15

17

Lewis Lowville

NA

0

1

1

1

3

Lewis Martinsburg

0

0

1

0

8

9

Lewis Turin

0

0

0

0

14

14

Lewis Turin

0

0

0

1

2

3

Livingston Caledonia

0

0

0

0

0

0

Livingston Groveland

0

0

0

0

0

0

Monroe Hamlin

NA

NA

0

6

NA

6

Monroe Spencerport

0

0

0

2

6

8

Montgomery

Palatine Bridge

NA

NA

1

0

7

8

Niagara Barker

NA

NA

0

1

NA

1

Oneida Clinton

0

0

0

0

0

0

Onondaga Tully

0

0

0

0

NA

0

Ontario Farmington

NA

NA

NA

0

5

5

Ontario Geneva

0

0

0

2

5

7

Ontario Hopewell

NA

0

0

1

18

19

Orange Warwick

NA

0

0

0

3

3

Orleans Kendall

NA

NA

0

1

NA

1

Rensselaer Brunswick

NA

0

0

0

NA

0

Schuyler Valois

0

0

1

1

12

14

St. Lawrence Lawrence

NA

NA

0

1

18

19

St. Lawrence Morristown

NA

NA

0

2

2

4

St. Lawrence Potsdam

NA

NA

0

0

1

1

St.Lawrence Heuvelton

NA

NA

0

2

NA

2

St.Lawrence Madrid

NA

NA

1

0

2

3

St.Lawrence Waddington

NA

NA

0

0

0

0

Steuben Wayland

0

0

0

2

12

14

Steuben Wayland

NA

0

0

0

NA

0

Suffolk Riverhead

0

0

0

0

1

1

Tompkins Varna

0

0

1

4

7

12

Ulster New Paltz

0

0

0

0

1

1

Ulster New Paltz

0

0

0

0

1

1

Washington

Easton

0

0

0

NA

NA

0

Wayne Willliamson

NA

NA

0

2

NA

2

Wyoming Attica

NA

NA

0

4

38

42

Wyoming Wyoming

NA

0

0

1

1

2

Clipboard Checklist

 General

*Walk fields to check general field condition, weed issues

*Watch for crop maturity, stand assessments, weed escapes, lodging issues

 Alfalfa:

*Evaluate established legume stands for approximate days until harvest
*Monitor potato leafhopper
*Monitor new seedings for potato leafhopper, pythium blight, phytopthora root rot.

Small Grains:
*Monitor spring grain fields for growth stage, disease issues

  Corn:

*Monitor for mid to late season corn pests including European corn borer, armyworm, corn rootworm larvae/adults, foliar diseases, weed issues, vertebrate (birds, deer) damage

 Soybeans:

*Conduct mid season pest assessment including soybean aphid, diseases, weed issues, vertebrate damage

  Pastures:

*Check crop growth
*Review/Plan rotation system

*Check and mend fences as needed.

*Invasive species, plants harmful to livestock

Storage:

*Check grain storage bins for temperature, moisture and signs of mold and insects. Aerate, core, transfer grain or treat as necessary
*
Check forage allocation and anticipate feed program adjustments as forages from previous year are used up
*Plan where forages should be stored for optimum allocation next feeding season
*Mow around storage bins and facility to minimize pest hiding places

 Dairy Cattle Barn Fly Management:

*Monitor animals and barn area for house fly, stable fly and other pest management needs including presence of rodents and birds.
*Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,
*Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation – clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
* Continue fly monitoring: install “3X5″ index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn
*Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards
*Consider purchase and release of Muscidifurax raptor and/or M. raptorellus natural enemies of house and stable fly pupae.

 Dairy Cattle on Pasture:

*Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy per animal side, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal (all four legs)
*Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter – spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal exercise yard.
*Check pasture for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
*Check pasture for vegetation poisonous to livestock
*Consider use of pasture fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly populations