Article: Akin, M; Pratt, A; Blackburn, J; Dietzel, A; “Paper-Based Magneto-Resistive Sensor: Modeling, Fabrication, Characterization, and Application”, Sensors, 18 (12)
Abstract: In this work, we developed and fabricated a paper-based anisotropic magneto-resistive sensor using a sputtered permalloy (Ni81Fe19) thin film. To interpret the characteristics of the sensor, we proposed a computational model to capture the influence of the stochastic fiber network of the paper surface and to explain the physics behind the empirically observed difference in paper-based anisotropic magneto-resistance (AMR). Using the model, we verified two main empirical observations: (1) The stochastic fiber network of the paper substrate induces a shift of 45 degrees in the AMR response of the paper-based Ni81Fe19 thin film compared to a Ni81Fe19 film on a smooth surface as long as the fibrous topography has not become buried. (2) The ratio of magnitudes of AMR peaks at different anisotropy angles and the inverted AMR peak at the 90 degrees-anisotropy angle are explained through the superposition of the responses of Ni81Fe19 inheriting the fibrous topography and smoother Ni81Fe19 on buried fibrous topographies.
As for the sensitivity and reproducibility of the sensor signal, we obtained a maximum AMR peak of 0.4%, min-max sensitivity range of [0.17, 0.26] %, average asymmetry of peak location of 2.7 kA/m within two consecutive magnetic loading cycles, and a deviation of 250-850 A/m of peak location across several anisotropy angles at a base resistance of similar to 100 Omega. Last, we demonstrated the usability of the sensor in two educational application examples: a textbook clicker and interactive braille flashcards.
DAAD RISE Germany
This research was partially supported by IP@Leibniz(M.A.), DAAD RISE Germany (A.P.) and Purdue Moves (J.B.) Fellowships.