Article: Rameau, J; Follette, KB; Pueyo, L; Marois, C; Macintosh, B; Millar-Blanchaer, M; Wang, JSJ; Vega, D; Doyon, R; Lafreniere, D; Nielsen, EL; Bailey, V; Chilcote, JK; Close, LM; Esposito, TM; Males, JR; Metchev, S; Morzinski, KM; Ruffio, JB; Wolff, SG; Ammons, SM; Barman, TS; Bulger, J; Cotten, T; De Rosa, RJ; Duchene, G; Fitzgerald, MP; Goodsell, S; Graham, JR; Greenbaum, AZ; Hibon, P; Hung, LW; Ingraham, P; Kalas, P; Konopacky, Q; Larkin, JE; Maire, J; Marchis, F; Oppenheimer, R; Palmer, D; Patience, J; Perrin, MD; Poyneer, L; Rajan, A; Rantakyro, FT; Marley, MS; Savransky, D; Schneider, AC; Sivaramakrishnan, A; Song, I; Soummer, R; Thomas, S; Wallace, JK; Ward-Duong, K; Wiktorowicz, S; “An Optical/Near-infrared Investigation of HD 100546 b with the Gemini Planet Imager and MagAO”, Astronomical Journal, 153 (6)
Abstract: We present H band spectroscopic and H alpha photometric observations of HD 100546 obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager and the Magellan Visible AO camera. We detect H band emission at the location of the protoplanet HD 100546 b, but show that the choice of data processing parameters strongly affects the morphology of this source. It appears point-like in some aggressive reductions, but rejoins an extended disk structure in the majority of the others. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this emission appears stationary on a timescale of 4.6 years, inconsistent at the 2 sigma level with a Keplerian clockwise orbit at 59 au in the disk plane. The H band spectrum of the emission is inconsistent with any type of low effective temperature object or accreting protoplanetary disk. It strongly suggests a scattered-light origin, as this is consistent with the spectrum of the star and the spectra extracted at other locations in the disk. A nondetection at the 5 sigma level of HD 100546 b in differential H alpha imaging places an upper limit, assuming the protoplanet lies in a gap free of extinction, on the accretion luminosity of 1.7 x 10(-4) L-circle dot and M(M) over dot < 6.3 x 10(-7) M-Jup(2) yr(-1) for 1 R-Jup. These limits are comparable to the accretion luminosity and accretion rate of T-Tauri stars or LkCa 15 b. Taken together, these lines of evidence suggest that the H band source at the location of HD 100546 b is not emitted by a planetary photosphere or an accreting circumplanetary disk but is a disk feature enhanced by the point-spread function subtraction process. This non-detection is consistent with the non-detection in the K. band reported in an earlier study but does not exclude the possibility that HD 100546 b is deeply embedded.
Funding Acknowledgement: DPAC; Fonds de Recherche du Quebec; NASA through the Sagan Fellowship Program; NSF [AST-1411868, AST-141378]; NASA [NNX14AJ80G, NNX15AD95G, NNX16AD44G]; U.S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [DE-AC52-07NA27344]
Funding Text: This work is based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF) on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the NSF (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministerio da Ciencia, Tecnologia e Inovacao (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovacion Productiva (Argentina). This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (http://www.cosmos.esa,int/gaia), processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, http://www.cosmos.esaint/wetvrgaia/cipac/consortium). Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. J.R., R.D. and D.L. acknowledge support from the Fonds de Recherche du Quebec. K.B.F. and J.R.M.’s work was performed in part under contract with the California Institute of Technology (Caltech)/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) funded by NASA through the Sagan Fellowship Program executed by the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute. This work was supported by NSF grants AST-1411868 (K.B.F. and B.M.) and AST-141378 (G.D.). This work is supported by NASA grants NNX14AJ80G (E.L.N., S.C.B., B.M., F.M., and M.P.), NNX15AD95G (B.M., J.E.W., T.M.E., R.D.R., G.D., J.R.G., P.G.K.) and NNX16AD44G (K.M.M., T.S.B., and L.M.C.). Portions of this work were performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.