Cornell Field Crops News

Timely Field Crops information for the New York Agricultural Community

May 26, 2016
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Weather Outlook – May 26, 2016

Weather Outlook – May 26, 2016

From Jessica Spaccio, NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

Last week temperatures ranged from 4 degrees below normal to 2 degrees above normal. Precipitation was less than an inch for the state, with most areas seeing less than ¼”.  Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 20 to 70.

GDD48_Mar1_May25[1] GDD48_May1_25 GDD50_Mar1_May25 GDD50_May1_25

Summer-like weather (warm, humid, afternoon thunderstorms)…

Today mostly sunny and warm with temperatures will in the upper 70’s and 80’s. Isolated afternoon showers and thunderstorms are likely. Overnight lows will be in the upper 50’s and 60’s.

Friday will be mostly sunny and warm again in the 80’s, even 90 possible. Scattered thunderstorms are possible in the afternoon. Lows will be in the upper 50’s and 60’s.

Saturday temperatures will be in the upper 70’s to 80’s, 90 possible, with isolated afternoon showers and thunderstorms. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid to upper 60’s.

Sunday’s highs will be in the mid 70’s to mid 80’s. Isolated afternoon showers and thunderstorms are possible. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 50’s to low 60’s.

Monday temperatures will be slightly cooler in the 70’s, some low 80’s, with an increased chance of showers and thunderstorms from a cold front. Lows will be in the mid 50’s to low 60’s.

Tuesday will be in the mid 70’s to low 80’s with a continued chance of showers and thunderstorms. Lows will be in the upper 50’s to low 60’s.

Wednesday will be in the 70’s and some low 80’s possible. Lows will be in upper 50’s to low 60’s.

The five-day precipitation amounts will range ¼” to over 1 ½”.

The 8-14 day outlook (June2-8) shows equal chances for above or below normal temperatures fro all but the southeast corner of the state that has an increased chance (33-40%) of below normal temperatures. Most of the state has an increased chance (33-40%) of above normal precipitation.

June outlook shows increased chances (40-50%) of above normal temperatures for the entire state. There are equal chances of above or below normal precipitation.

The June/July/August outlook shows increased chances (50-60%) of above normal temperatures for the entire state. There is an increased chance (33-40%)for above normal precipitation in the northeast portion of the state.

The Drought Monitor: Abnormally dry conditions have expanded in the Adirondacks due to short-term precipitation deficits, low streamflows, and dry soils.

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:
http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/predictions/814day/index.php

National Weather Service watch/warnings map:
|http://www.erh.noaa.gov/er/hq/

US Drought Monitor:
http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/Home.aspx

CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface):
http://climodtest.nrcc.cornell.edu

 

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May 25, 2016
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on NNYADP Dairy Forage Research Evaluating Alfalfa-Grass Combination Options

NNYADP Dairy Forage Research Evaluating Alfalfa-Grass Combination Options

NNYADP-funded research by Cornell University is evaluating winter-hardy grass-alfalfa crop combinations in support of the dairy industry. In this photo, USDA researchers examine frost-stressed forage in West Virginia, 500 miles south of New York’s harsher northern winters. Photo: Peggy Greb, USDA

NNYADP-funded research by Cornell University is evaluating winter-hardy grass-alfalfa crop combinations in support of the dairy industry. In this photo, USDA researchers examine frost-stressed forage in West Virginia, 500 miles south of New York’s harsher northern winters. Photo: Peggy Greb, USDA

Northern NY.   The Northern New York Agricultural Development Program has posted the results of a 2013-2015 research project evaluating ways to improve dairy cattle forage options, specifically with alfalfa-grass combination crops. The results are posted on the NNYADP website at www.nnyagdev.org.

Project leader and Cornell University Soil and Crop Sciences Professor Jerry H. Cherney says, ‘Research to identify the best combinations of alfalfa and grass for regional growing conditions will help dairy farmers maximize forage quality to support milk production.’

Alfalfa-grass mix crops are popular as forage for dairy cattle in the Northeastern U.S, especially so in northern New York where more than 95 percent of the alfalfa acreage is planted as an alfalfa-grass mix.

Cherney cites Cornell University and University of Wisconsin research trials that concluded alfalfa-grass forage fed to dairy cows can result in as much milk production as feeding pure alfalfa.

‘An alfalfa-grass survey we conducted in New York State in 2015 showed a range of grass species planted, and a very wide range in seeding rates for both alfalfa and grass, well outside recommended rates,’ Cherney notes.

NNYADP-funded trials planted in 2013-2015 at Miner Institute in Chazy, NY, and at the Willsboro Research Farm in Willsboro, NY, provided initial data on eight grass cultivars. Those trials showed the severe impact that northern New York winter weather can have on crops.

The grass plantings in the early trials in NNY, however, averaged 3.5 percentage units higher in neutral detergent fiber digestibility, NDFD, a measure of the feed value of forage crops. High NDFD forages encourage dairy cows to eat well to meet their daily energy needs.

‘With new higher quality grass options and several new types of high quality alfalfa available, we want to test various combinations on farms to develop the best planting and management strategies for the dairy industry,’ Cherney says.

In 2016, Cherney is overseeing trials on NNY dairy farms to continue the search for the best alfalfa-grass combinations and management practices for the northern New York state climate and growing conditions.

Cherney is particularly focused on meadow fescue, which is winter hardy, as an option for alfalfa-grass stands. He will plant two new meadow fescue cultivars recently developed in Wisconsin in the 2016 field trials funded by the farmer-driven Northern New York Agricultural Development Program.

Funding for the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program is supported by the New York State Senate and administered by the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets. NNYADP economic impact reports, project reports, and resource links are posted on nnyagdev.org.

More than 100 farmers provide input to the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program on dairy, crops, fruit, greenhouse, livestock, maple and vegetable production.

Media Contacts:
. NNYADP Co-Chairs: Jon Greenwood, 315.323.4814; Joe Giroux, 518.565.4739; Jon Rulfs, 518.572.1960;
. NNYADP Publicist Kara Lynn Dunn, 315.465.7578, karalynn@gisco.net

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May 24, 2016
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Grain Bin Rescue Simulator and Firefighters and EMS Training Opportunity: Register Now

Grain Bin Rescue Simulator and Firefighters and EMS Training Opportunity: Register Now

grain bin rescueSeneca Falls, NY.  The New York Center for Agricultural Medicine and Health is bringing the National Education Center for Agricultural Safety, NECAS, grain bin simulator to New York State for the August 9, 10, and 11, 2016 Empire Farm Days. Firefighters and rescue personnel will have a free, four-hour, hands-on training opportunity after the show closes on Tuesday, August 9, and Wednesday, August 10.

The free training from 6 pm to 10pm is with NECAS Director Dan Neenan, a Paramedic Specialist with a Firefighter Specialist degree. The training includes one hour or classroom time and three hours of hands-on experience with the grain bin rescue unit filled with 100 bushels of corn.

Trainees will practice lockout, tag out, and extrication of engulfed victims. Registration for the special training is required by contacting Jim Carrabba with the New York Center for Agricultural Medicine and Health at 800-343-7527 extension 2216 or jcarrabba@nycamh.com.

Throughout each day of Empire Farm Days, Neenan will offer 20-minute safety education demonstrations at the grain bin exhibit at the largest outdoor agricultural show in the northeastern U.S. He ill cover the four most common ways people become entrapped in grain bins, the equipment every bin operator should have on site, and how to protect yourself from grain dust and mold when working near a bin.

The demonstrations and special training opportunity are sponsored by the New York Center for Agricultural Medicine and Health, the National Education Center for Agricultural Safety, and Empire Farm Days with additional sponsorship provide by Farm Credit East and the NY Farm Bureau Member Services Safety Group 486.

Find more information on the training opportunity and on Empire Farm Days online at www.empirefarmdays.com.

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May 20, 2016
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Well Begun is Half Done – Delaware County Scissors Cut Results – May 19, 2016

Well Begun is Half Done – Delaware County Scissors Cut Results – May 19, 2016

Delaware County Scissors Cut Results Header

From Dale Dewing, Field Crop and Nutrient Management Specialist for farms in the New York City Watershed

ed2b5bbc-76ce-4f43-87dc-871b76c00610As I write this note, many farms have mown the first fields of the 2016 harvest season. Many fields sampled this week have NDF in the high 40’s. We expect these fields will be at target fiber content by the time you receive this message. Indeed, it is time for first cutting to begin.  There were a couple grass fields tested in the lower 40’s that may not reach 50% NDF before next week, and fields with high legume content appear to be more than one week from optimum harvest.  Grasses and legumes grew an average of 3½ – 4 inches over the week and NDF increased about 0.7 points per day.  We will sample again on May 24, and send results on Thursday May 26.

A few harvest tips to keep in mind

  • Mow with a 4in stubble height – less chance of soil in the forage, faster grass regrowth, and the little bit of yield you might gain is all low quality stems anyway.
  • Mow in a wide swath – rapid drying saves sugars, gets forage to proper dray matter faster and gets harvest in faster
  • Pay attention to forage moisture (aka Dry Matter) – For bunkers shoot for 35% to 40% DM (65%-60% moisture), for Bags a bit dryer, and for baleage between 50% and 60% DM is best.
  • Density matters – for bunkers, make sure you have adequate packing capacity, the faster the silage is coming in the more tins you need on the bunk, for balegae – dryer forage packs better, but however make bales as dense as possible.
  • Cover/Wrap quickly – Get bunkers filled and cover as quickly as possible, wrap bales within 3 or 4 hours.  Oxygen is the enemy of good silage, cover it quick and keep birds and rodents from spoiling the seal.
  • Park the corn planter? – Unless you have labor enough to do two things at once, getting first cut done at the optimum time will gain you more than you may lose by delaying corn planting.  Harvest your core hay fields at optimum stage and plant corn later.

The results are in the chart below.
Click here to download the PDF of the full report.

We have a Factsheet: How to Interpret Forage Analysis that will help you understand forage analysis terms.

Screen Shot 2016-05-20 at 10.42.42 AM

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May 19, 2016
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Weather Outlook – May 19, 2016

Weather Outlook – May 19, 2016

From Jessica Spaccio, NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

Last week temperatures ranged from 2 to 4 degrees below normal for most of the state. Precipitation ranged from ¼ inch to 1 inch for most of the state.  Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 5 to 45.

GDD48_Mar1_May18 GDD48_May1_18 GDD50_Mar1_May18 GDD50_May1_18

Mild conditions & warming temperatures…

Today a few afternoon showers and thunderstorms will be possible (small hail possible), temperatures will in the mid 50’s to upper 60’s. Overnight lows will be in the mid 30’s to mid 40’s, frost possible.

Friday will be mostly sunny with highs returning to normal – in the mid 60’s to mid 70’s. There is a slight chance of showers in southern areas. Lows will be in the mid 40’s to low 50’s with light showers possible in southeast NY.

Saturday temperatures will be in the mid 60’s to mid 70’s. The weather will be a mix of partly sunny and dry to partly cloudy and light showers. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 30’s to 40’s.

Sunday will be partly to mostly sunny with highs in the upper 60’s to mid 70’s. Isolated afternoon showers are possible. Overnight temperatures will be in the upper 40’s to low 50’s.

Monday temperatures will be in the 70’s with a slight chance of showers in southeast NY. Lows will be in the 40’s.

Tuesday will be in the 70’s with a slight chance of showers. Lows will be in the 40’s to low 50’s.

Wednesday will be in the 70’s and some low 80’s possible. Lows will be in the 50’s.

The five-day precipitation amounts will range from 0 in western NY to ½ inch in the Catskill/southern Hudson Valley region.

The 8-14 day outlook (May 26 – June1) shows increased chances for above normal temperatures for all of the state. Near normal precipitation is expected for the western half of the state, and there is an increased chance of below normal precipitation for the eastern half of the state.

June and May/June/July outlooks shows increased chances of above normal temperatures for the entire state. There is equal chances of above or below normal precipitation.

The Drought Monitor: Abnormally dry conditions have slightly expanded in upstate NY where short-term (30-day) precipitation deficits exist and stream flows are below normal.

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:
http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/predictions/814day/index.php

National Weather Service watch/warnings map:
http://www.erh.noaa.gov/er/hq/

US Drought Monitor:
http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/Home.aspx

CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface):
http://climodtest.nrcc.cornell.edu

 

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May 18, 2016
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Abnormal Alfalfa Growth

Abnormal Alfalfa Growth

Jerry Cherney – E.V. Baker Professor of Agriculture, Soil and Crop Sciences Section

Alfalfa growth is generally stunted this spring, while grass is moving along, probably heading about normally, but probably shorter than normal.

We sampled alfalfa-fescue at the end of last week and tested our app. Alfalfa was 12” max height and had a rosette-type growth. Our alfalfa-grass computer/phone app (http://52.90.125.233:8080/) over predicted grass% in the mixture by about 10% units, likely due to the compact alfalfa growth. The correlation between our predicted grass% and the actual separated DM grass % was very good at 0.95, but was biased upward on the app due to the alfalfa stunting. 12” alfalfa is marginal height for any equation estimations of either percent or NDF.

As far as spring harvest, it depends on the grass% in the mixture:
More than 50% grass in the stand: Harvest like a grass stand and ignore the alfalfa. Orchardgrass is in boot stage now in many locations.
Less than 25% grass in the stand: Wait for a little more alfalfa growth (more like a PEAQ chart), to minimize chances of damaging alfalfa stand. Grass will be more mature than normal.
25-50% grass: Something in between. Harvest a little earlier than normal for alfalfa.

Not clear if the alfalfa is going to bolt once temperatures rise or just start growing at a normal pace.
Most likely alfalfa height will not have a normal relationship with NDF as it typically does. Keep in mind that the alfalfa has continued to mature (increase in fiber, lignify) even if it is not growing upward much.

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May 17, 2016
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Fusarium head blight commentary, May 16, 2016

Fusarium head blight commentary, May 16, 2016

Gary Bergstrom, Extension Plant Pathologist, Cornell University

Most winter malting barley fields from Niagara Falls to the Hudson Valley are in the boot to heads fully emerged stages.  Despite the common dogma that anthers begin to be extruded on barley heads before the heads emerge, we are finding that the majority of just emerged winter barley heads in New York aren’t showing anthers until a few days after emergence under our unseasonably cool conditions.  Temperature and varietiy play a more important role in anther development than I previously realized.  Still, based on the preponderance of experimental evidence, the best time to apply triazole fungicides for Fusarium head blight (FHB) and deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin suppression is within a few days after full head emergence.  We have observed low levels of powdery mildew, spot blotch, scald and trace levels of barley leaf rust in New York. This will be a critical week for foliar fungicide application to barley and I urge close observation of crop development and weather forecasts.

Winter wheat in New York is at stem elongation to flag leaf visible stages, so flowering is still about two weeks off.  The triazole products Caramba and Prosaro are the most effective fungicides for suppression of FHB and DON contamination when applied at flowering (emergence of anthers on heads).  A flowering application of triazole fungicide should be based on Fusarium head blight (FHB) risk as well as the risks of powdery mildew, rust, and fungal leaf blotches in the upper canopy based on scouting of individual fields.  We have observed low levels of powdery mildew, Septoria tritici spot, and trace levels of wheat leaf rust in New York.  There is an application window of approximately 6 days from the beginning of flowering in which reasonable FHB suppression can be expected.  Fungicide products containing strobilurins should not be applied to headed wheat or barley as they may result in increased levels of DON in grain. While the current risk of FHB epidemics is low over most of the state, that risk could increase.  Check the Fusarium Risk Assessment Tool (http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/) and your local weather forecast frequently as your crop approaches heading and flowering.

Receive FHB Alerts by Cell Phone:
I will be providing weekly New York commentaries on FHB risk through June.  You can subscribe to receive FHB Alerts directly to your Cell Phone (http://scabusa.org/fhb_alert.php).  You can select to receive alerts as 1) Text Message Alerts, 2) Email Alerts, or 3) both Text and Email Alerts.  To receive alerts for New York, select the Northern Soft Winter Wheat option which provides alerts for MI, NY, WI and VT.

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May 13, 2016
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on NYS IPM Weekly Field Crops Pest Report: May 12, 2016

NYS IPM Weekly Field Crops Pest Report: May 12, 2016

May 12, 2016
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Weather Outlook – May 12, 2016

Weather Outlook – May 12, 2016

From Jessica Spaccio, NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

Last week temperatures were below normal again, by 2 to 4 degrees across most of the state. Precipitation ranged from less than ¼ inch in western NY to over 1 inch in a few isolated areas.  Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from near zero to over 20.GDD50_Mar1_May11GDD50_May1_11

Warm & dry Thursday, then turning cooler & unsettled…

Today high pressure will provide dry and sunny conditions. Temperatures will be above normal, throughout the 70’s and some areas reaching 80. Afternoon thunderstorms are possible in western areas as a cold front approaches and will bring overnight showers moving west to east over the state.

Overnight lows will be in the mid 40’s and 50’s.

Friday will be cloudy with rain likely as the cold front passes. Highs will be in the 60’s, with some low 70’s. Eastern areas of the state will warm before the front moves in. Lows will be in the mid 40’s to low 50’s.

Saturday will be cloudy with showers as another cold front moves through. Temperatures will be in the mid 50’s to low 60’s, eastern areas will reach upper 60’s. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 30’s to 40’s with light wet snow possible.

Sunday will be partly cloudy and cooler yet with highs only in the mid 40’s to mid 50’s. Showers are still possible as they move out of the state. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 30’s to 40’s.

Monday temperatures will be in the mid 50’s to mid 60’s. Lows will be in the mid 30’s to low 40’s.

Tuesday will be in the upper 50’s to low 60’s. Lows will be in the mid 30’s to mid 40’s.

Wednesday will be in the mid to upper 60’s. Lows will be in the 40’s.

The five-day precipitation amounts will range from ½ to ¾ inch in the Catskill/southern Hudson Valley region up to 2 inches in northern NY.

The 8-14 day outlook (May 19-25) shows increased chances for above normal temperatures in western NY and equal chances of above or below normal temperatures for the rest of the state. Near normal precipitation is espected for the entire state.

The Drought Monitor: Abnormally dry conditions have expanded in the Hudson Valley/Eastern Plateau regions and a new area was added in northern NY.

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:

http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/predictions/814day/index.php

National Weather Service watch/warnings map:

http://www.erh.noaa.gov/er/hq/

US Drought Monitor:

http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/Home.aspx

CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface):

http://climodtest.nrcc.cornell.edu

 

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