Cornell Field Crops News

Timely Field Crops information for the New York Agricultural Community

June 23, 2015
by Jennifer Thomas-Murphy
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Fusarium Head Blight Alert – June 22, 2015

From Gary Bergstrom – Extension Plant Pathologist – Cornell University

Winter cereal fields in New York should be assessed for incidence of Fusarium head blight symptoms at this time to get some idea of the potential for DON contamination in grain.  Incidence has been observed from zero to over ten percent in individual fields.  Many fields of spring malting barley emerged from the boot over the past week and were sprayed with triazole fungicides at full head emergence.  Other spring cereals have not yet emerged from the boot.   Predicted risk of FHB is currently high for spring cereals flowering over the next few days in many areas of New York. The triazole products Caramba and Prosaro are the most effective fungicides for suppression of FHB and deoxynivalenol (DON) toxin contamination when applied at  full head emergence in barley (anthers begin to appear on barley before heads emerge from the boot) or at at wheat flowering (emergence of anthers on heads).  There is an application window of approximately 6 days from the beginning of flowering in which reasonable FHB suppression can be expected.  Fungicide products containing strobilurins should not be applied to headed wheat or barley as they may result in increased levels of DON in grain. Triazole applications at flowering should provide adequate protection against early developing rust, powdery mildew, and fungal leaf blotches on flag leaves. Leaf rusts and other foliar diseases are now fairly widespread on wheat and barley in New York.   Check the Fusarium Risk Assessment Tool (http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/) and your local weather forecast frequently.

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June 19, 2015
by Jennifer Thomas-Murphy
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2015 Aurora Farm Field Day

2015-AFFD-FlyerThursday, July 16, 2015 at 9:00am to 3:00pm

Musgrave Research Farm (CUAES) 1256 Poplar Ridge Road Aurora, NY

New York’s farming community is invited to learn about the latest research on field crops, soil and pest management during the annual field day at Cornell University’s Musgrave Research Farm in Aurora, featuring farm tours, demonstrations and presentations.  Hosted by the Integrated Field Crop, Soil, and Pest Management Program Work Team in conjunction with Cornell Cooperative Extension and the Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station.

  • Russ Hahn – Superweeds and other myths about herbicide resistance
  • Keith Waldron – Western Bean Cutworm and other field crop 2015 season pest updates
  • Bill Cox – Corn-soybean-wheat clover rotation under conventional and organic management in the organic transition year
  • Margaret Smith and Judy Kolkman – Northern leaf blight of corn: new research and breeding for resistance
  • Gary Bergstrom, Jaime Cummings, and Alyssa Cowles – Spring malting barley (variety x fungicide management)
  • Quirine Ketterings and Karl CzymmekNitrogen management topics
  • Harold Van Es, Aaron Ristow, Bob Schindelbeck2015 Updates on Soil Health and Adapt-N
  • Matt Ryan, Jeff Leibert, and Sandra WaymanWinter Cereal Cover Crops for Organic No-till Soybean

DEC Pesticide Re-certification and CCA credits requested.

Please distribute the flyer far and wide!

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June 18, 2015
by Jennifer Thomas-Murphy
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Cancelled: 2015 New York Weed Science Field Day

WEED DAY 2015The 2015 New York Weed Science Field Day on July 15th has been cancelled. If you would like to arrange for a private showing of the plots, please contact:

Vegetable Crop Weed Control:

Robin Bellinder
607-255-7890
rrb3@cornell.edu

Field Crop Weed Control:

RJ Richtmyer
rjr39@cornell.edu

If you would like the 2015 Weed Science T-Shirt, please contact Robin Bellinder.

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June 16, 2015
by Jennifer Thomas-Murphy
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NNYADP Farm Research Evaluating Why Some Corn Fields Exceed Yield Expectations

Ketterings2014cornfield3003

Photo Credit: Quirine M. Ketterings

With research in the past 10 years showing notable exceptions in how well predictions of corn yield potential matched actual yields on North Country farms, the farmers of the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program wanted to learn more about the factors influencing the beyond-expectations success.

For science based, real time, on farm data, the NNYADP provided grant funding to Dr. Quirine M. Ketterings, director of the Cornell University Nutrient Management Spear Program in 2013-2015.

Ketterings and the Nutrient Management Spear Program are known for applied research that helps New York farmers more efficiently use the nutrients available in manure, crop rotations, and purchased fertilizer to support crop production and agricultural environmental stewardship.

Newer varieties of corn are higher yielding, as seen in the increase in average corn silage and grain yields in New York State over the past decades. Higher-yielding cornfields, however, do not necessarily require more nitrogen to obtain higher yields. Variations in management, soils, and many other factors impact actual nitrogen need.

‘The farmers were asking if higher yielding varieties require more nitrogen and that generated the idea to evaluate actual corn yields on Northern New York fields and to combine that with an assessment of nitrogen management,’ Ketterings explains.

In 2013 and 2014, Ketterings worked with farmers and farm advisors in Northern New York to compare actual corn yields with yield expectations based on the Cornell Soils Database that is itself the basis for Cornell’s nitrogen application guidelines.

The average yield across 36 cornfields in NNY for 2013 and 2014 combined was 113 bushels per acre, four bushels less than the average yield potential for all sites in the project. However, 25 percent of the 36 cornfields evaluated yielded more than 110 percent of the Cornell yield potential.

With a Northern New York Agricultural Development Program grant for 2015 work, Ketterings will evaluate yield potential using new field technology to gather data on three levels: per farm, per field, and within a field. The results are expected to contribute to the updating of the Cornell corn yield database.

‘The Northern New York Agricultural Development Program research is helping us develop an adaptive N management approach that allows for changes over time to build more precise management guidelines,’ Ketterings says.

The technology Ketterings is using in 2015 includes an optical sensor that evaluates corn plant vigor throughout the growing season based on changing field conditions.

‘It is too early to make changes to the Cornell Soils Database. With participation in this project by a large number of Northern New York farms, we can generate the database needed to support changes,’ Ketterings adds.

Ketterings suggests more farmers get involved in the project, invest in equipment that allows them to actually measure field yields, and share their yield data with the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program project leader.

The Northern New York Agricultural Development Program is a farmer-driven research and technical assistance program serving Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Jefferson, Lewis and St. Lawrence counties. Funding for the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program is supported by New York State Senate leadership and is administered through the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets. For more information on crop production in Northern New York, visit www.nnyagdev.org.

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June 15, 2015
by Jennifer Thomas-Murphy
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Fusarium Head Blight Alert – June 14, 2015

From Gary Bergstrom – Extension Plant Pathologist – Cornell University

Nearly all winter wheat in New York is now past the stage for application of fungicides.  The focus now shifts to spring cereals, particularly spring malting barley, many fields of which will reach full head emergence this week.   The triazole products Caramba and Prosaro are the most effective fungicides for suppression of FHB and deoxynivalenol (DON) toxin contamination when applied at  full head emergence in barley (anthers begin to appear on barley before heads emerge from the boot) or at at wheat flowering (emergence of anthers on heads).  There is an application window of approximately 6 days from the beginning of flowering in which reasonable FHB suppression can be expected.  Fungicide products containing strobilurins should not be applied to headed wheat or barley as they may result in increased levels of DON in grain. Triazole applications at flowering should provide adequate protection against early developing rust, powdery mildew, and fungal leaf blotches on flag leaves.  Predicted risk of FHB is currently high for spring cereals flowering over the next few days in many areas of New York.  Check the Fusarium Risk Assessment Tool (http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/) and your local weather forecast frequently.

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June 8, 2015
by Jennifer Thomas-Murphy
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Fusarium Head Blight Alert – June 5, 2015

From Gary Bergstrom – Extension Plant Pathologist – Cornell University

The previously consistent forecast of ‘low’ risk of Fusarium head blight is now changing to ‘moderate’ or even ‘high’ risk in several locations in New York State following rains this week, with more rain forecast in the days ahead.  While nearly all winter barley and most winter winter fields have flowered and are beyond the growth stage for fungicide application, some late planted winter wheat has just begun flowering or is about to. The triazole products Caramba and Prosaro are the most effective fungicides for suppression of FHB and deoxynivalenol (DON) toxin contamination when applied at wheat flowering (emergence of anthers on heads) or at full head emergence in barley (anthers begin to appear on barley before heads emerge from the boot).  There is an application window of approximately 6 days from the beginning of flowering in which reasonable FHB suppression can be expected.  Fungicide products containing strobilurins should not be applied to headed wheat or barley as they may result in increased levels of DON in grain. Leaf rust has been observed on wheat in northwestern New York and should be expected in other parts of the state as well.  Triazole applications at flowering should provide adequate protection against early developing rust, powdery mildew, and fungal leaf blotches on flag leaves.  Check the Fusarium Risk Assessment Tool (http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/) and your local weather forecast frequently.  I will also comment on conditions later this month as we approach flowering of spring cereals.

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June 1, 2015
by Jennifer Thomas-Murphy
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Fusarium Head Blight Alert – June 1, 2015

From Gary Bergstrom, Extension Plant Pathologist, Cornell University

Generally dry conditions over the past 10 days, when most winter cereals initiated flowering in New York State, have resulted in a low forecast risk of Fusarium head blight epidemics.  However, general rains on May 30 and 31 with a forecast for more rain on June 1 may change the risk predictions for late flowering fields.  Check the Fusarium Risk Assessment Tool (http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/) and your local weather forecast frequently. The triazole products Caramba and Prosaro are the most effective fungicides for suppression of FHB and deoxynivalenol (DON) toxin contamination when applied at wheat flowering (emergence of anthers on heads) or at full head emergence in barley (anthers begin to appear on barley before heads emerge from the boot).  There is an application window of approximately 6 days from the beginning of flowering in which reasonable FHB suppression can be expected.  Fungicide products containing strobilurins should not be applied to headed wheat or barley as they may result in increased levels of DON in grain. Leaf rust has been observed on wheat in northwestern New York and should be expected in other parts of the state as well.  Triazole applications at flowering should provide adequate protection against early developing rust, powdery mildew, and fungal leaf blotches on flag leaves.

Receive FHB Alerts by Cell Phone:
I will be providing weekly New York commentaries on FHB risk through June.  You can subscribe to receive FHB Alerts directly to your Cell Phone (http://scabusa.org/fhb_alert.php).  You can select to receive alerts as 1) Text Message Alerts, 2) Email Alerts, or 3) both Text and Email Alerts.  To receive alerts for New York, select the Northern Soft Winter Wheat option which provides alerts for MI, NY, WI and VT.

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May 22, 2015
by Jennifer Thomas-Murphy
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Fusarium Head Blight Alert

FHBWheatHeadsFrom Gary Bergstrom, Extension Plant Pathologist, Cornell University

Fusarium head blight commentary, May 21, 2015:

Many winter wheat and malting barley fields in New York State are approaching head emergence. The next 10 days will be critical for farmers making fungicide spray decisions for suppression of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and protection of flag leaves from foliar diseases.  The triazole products Caramba and Prosaro are the most effective fungicides for suppression of FHB and deoxynivalenol (DON) toxin contamination when applied at wheat flowering (emergence of anthers on heads) or at full head emergence in barley (anthers begin to appear on barley before heads emerge from the boot).  A flowering application of triazole fungicide should be based on Fusarium head blight (FHB) risk as well as the risks of powdery mildew, rust, and fungal leaf blotches in the upper canopy based on scouting of individual fields.  There is an application window of approximately 6 days from the beginning of flowering in which reasonable FHB suppression can be expected.  Fungicide products containing strobilurins should not be applied to headed wheat or barley as they may result in increased levels of DON in grain. While the current risk of FHB epidemics is low to moderate over most of the state, that risk could increase next week.   Check the Fusarium Risk Assessment Tool (http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/) and your local weather forecast frequently as your crop approaches flowering.

Receive FHB Alerts by Cell Phone:
I will be providing weekly New York commentaries on FHB risk through June.  You can subscribe to receive FHB Alerts directly to your Cell Phone (http://scabusa.org/fhb_alert.php).  You can select to receive alerts as 1) Text Message Alerts, 2) Email Alerts, or 3) both Text and Email Alerts.  To receive alerts for New York, select the Northern Soft Winter Wheat option which provides alerts for MI, NY, WI and VT.

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April 6, 2015
by Jennifer Thomas-Murphy
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Cost-Sharing Available to Protect NNY Alfalfa Crops; Farmers Must Register by May 15

Cornell entomologist Dr. Elson Shields holds an alfalfa plant with a healthy root. His protocol for treating fields infested with alfalfa snout beetle is helping to restore alfalfa crops on NNY farms. The NNYADP is also funding selective breeding of beetle-resistant varieties of alfalfa.  Photo: NNYADP

Cornell entomologist Dr. Elson Shields holds an alfalfa plant with a healthy root. His protocol for treating fields infested with alfalfa snout beetle is helping to restore alfalfa crops on NNY farms. The NNYADP is also funding selective breeding of beetle-resistant varieties of alfalfa.
Photo: NNYADP

Northern NY. The Northern New York Agricultural Development Program, Cornell Cooperative Extension, and the Shields Lab at Cornell University are partnering to offer farmers a cost-sharing opportunity to encourage more growers to treat fields with biocontrol nematodes in areas infected with the highly destructive alfalfa snout beetle.  The deadline for expressing interest in the funding is May 15, 2015.

Alfalfa snout beetle is the major limiting factor in alfalfa production and stand longevity in all six NNY counties: Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Jefferson, Lewis and St. Lawrence. The pest is also known to exist in three other counties in New York State and in southeastern Ontario.

‘Uncontrolled, the beetle can destroy a new alfalfa seeding in just a year or two, with field losses from $250 to $400 per acre,’ says Cornell Cooperative Extension Field Crops and Soils Specialist Kitty A. O’Neil.

To date, the beetle-attacking nematodes have been applied to between 8,000 and 10,000 acres of NNY farmland. A single application is enough to prompt success.

‘Early adopting producers who have applied the nematodes to multiple fields within an area have reported a significant decline in the alfalfa snout beetle population on their farm and are now successfully growing alfalfa again,’ says Cornell Cooperative Extension Field Crops Specialist Michael E. Hunter.

The farmer-driven Northern New York Agricultural Development Program is making funding available to help underwrite the rearing and application of the native nematodes. Extension personnel are serving as the application conduit.

‘On-farm research in Northern New York in the past seven years indicates that just a single application of the biocontrol nematodes is required in a field as the nematodes will persist in the field for many years,’ says Cornell Entomologist Elson Shields.

The most recent research funded by the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program shows that the nematodes will persist through a corn crop grown after alfalfa in the same field.

The project is also encouraging growers to plant varieties of alfalfa that are increasingly resistant to the pest, as identified by the selective breeding project funded by the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program and managed by the Cornell University Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics.

Farmers interested in participating in the cost-sharing program will find guidelines on the home page at www.nnyagdev.org. Requests must be made through Cornell Cooperative Extension for Clinton, Essex, Franklin or St. Lawrence counties to Kitty A. O’Neil at 315-854-1218, kitty.oneil@cornell.edu and for Jefferson or Lewis counties to Michael E. Hunter at 315-788-8450, meh27@cornell.edu.

The funding for the cost-sharing program was made possible through the $600,000 appropriated to the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program in the 2014-2015 New York State Budget.

The nematode biocontrol concept that arose from NNY alfalfa fields is now being evaluated to control pests in berry crops in Northern New York and, with funding through the New York Farm Viability Institute, in grape and organic apple crops elsewhere in New York State.

For more information about the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program, a complete list of 2015 projects, and results of the past projects, visit the Program website at www.nnyagdev.org.

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April 1, 2015
by Jennifer Thomas-Murphy
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Four new disease management reports have been posted with data on disease control in small grain cereals with fungicides, resistant varieties, and integrated management in New York in 2014.  They are available on FieldCrops.org.

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