Cornell Field Crops News

Timely Field Crops information for the New York Agricultural Community

June 30, 2016
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Weather Outlook – June 30, 2016

Weather Outlook – June 30, 2016

From Jessica Spaccio, NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

Last week temperatures were near to slightly above normal for most of the state. Precipitation ranged from a tenth to 2 inches. Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 90 to 150.

GDD48_Mar1_Jun29 GDD48_May1_Jun29 GDD50_Mar1_Jun29 GDD50_May1_Jun29

Cold front brings scattered shower on Friday, otherwise dry period with warming temperatures…

Today will be sunny and dry with temperatures in the mid 70’s to mid 80’s. Overnight lows will be in the 50’s to low 60’s.

Friday a cold front will bring the possibility of scattered showers and thunderstorms with highs in the 70’s to low 80’s. Lows will be in the 50’s to low 60’s.

Saturday temperatures will be in the 70’s to low 80’s, slight chance of afternoon showers in the North Country, Mohawk Valley, and Capital Region. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50’s, a few upper 40’s.

Sunday’s highs will be in the 70’s to low 80’s. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50’s.

Monday temperatures will be in the 70’s to mid 80’s. Lows will be in the 50’s and low 60’s with some isolated showers possible.

Tuesday temperatures will be in the mid 80’s to low 90’s.  Lows will be in the 50’s and low 60’s with showers possible.

Wednesday temperatures will be in the mid 80’s to low 90’s. Lows will be in the upper 50’s to low 60’s.

The five-day precipitation amounts will range from 1/10” to ½”.

The 8-14 day outlook (July 7-13) shows an increased chance for above normal temperatures and above normal precipitation.

The Drought Monitor: Abnormally dry conditions have persisted and Moderate Drought conditions have been introduced. Many of the drought areas have reported less than 50 percent of normal rainfall over the past 90 days, and streamflows remained historically low (5th percentile or lower).

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:
http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/predictions/814day/index.php

National Weather Service watch/warnings map:
http://www.weather.gov/erh/

US Drought Monitor:
http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/Home.aspx

CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface):
http://climodtest.nrcc.cornell.edu

 

 

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June 27, 2016
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on PRO-DAIRY Forage Management: Perennial Forage Cutting Height

PRO-DAIRY Forage Management: Perennial Forage Cutting Height

From Joe Lawrence, Cornell PRO-DAIRY

In a recent farm visit, the farmer had just purchased a nice new discbine. On the day I was there, he and the equipment dealer were replacing the shoes on the cutter bar with thicker ones. This farm has predominately grass forages and the farmer recognized that this new machine was cutting much shorter than his former haybine, and he knew this was not good for the grass.

This topic has been written about several times over the last decade, but warrants a refresher. Recommended cutting height is not a “one size fits all” scenario. Consider the crop species, field conditions, ash content of the harvested forage, time of year and age of the stand. As this scenario demonstrates, new machines may not be set up appropriately for your forage stands.

The prevalence of discbines over the last few decades allows a closer cut to the ground (if you choose) without as much risk of costly damage that often occurred with traditional sicklebar mowers. This makes it very tempting to lower the cutting height a few inches to get extra yield. Research from Miner Institute indicates that up to ½ ton DM/season (three cuttings) can be gained by lower cutting height from 4 inches down to 2 inches, without a sacrifice of quality.

So if increased yield is the benefit, what are the issues? From a mowing standpoint, there is a risk of scalping an uneven field and increasing the ash content (amount of dirt and debris) in the forage. Tom Kilcer, Advanced Ag Systems refers to this as “minimum-till haylage.”

Nutritionists indicate that the presence of ash in forages is becoming a chronic problem on many dairies. It has been reported that a 2 percent increase in ash (from 9 to 11 percent) can reduce milk by 1.9 lbs/cow/day (Sniffen, Fencrest, LLC.). That is certainly significant.

In addition to the connection between cutting height and ash content, improperly set up rakes can add to this issues as well. While rakes need to be able to pick up all the hay, they are often set closer to the ground than needed.

Crop species is a critical factor in determining an appropriate cutting height. Because alfalfa generates new shoots from the crown of the plant after each cutting, it can generally tolerate a very low cutting height. Conversely, a low cutting height on grass can be very detrimental. Grasses have to re-grow from the stubble left in the field. Therefore, if grasses are cut too short, the plant is robbed of the energy reserves it needs to re-grow.

In research conducted at Miner Institute, the effect of cutting height on orchardgrass and reeds canarygrass was measured in a greenhouse experiment. This work showed that first year reeds canarygrass was completely killed at a 2 inch cutting height. The orchardgrass did regrow, but at a much slower rate. The 2-inch orchardgrass required 38 days to reach a height of 16 inches. In contrast, at the 4 inch cutting height, both grasses responded quickly after cutting and measured 16 inches of regrowth in just 21 days.

Recommendations:
Alfalfa

  • Manage cutting height based on field conditions, time of year and considerations for ash content in forage.
  • Consider higher cutting height in fall to help capture and retain snow cover.

Grass

  • A minimum of 3 to 4 inches of stubble is critical.
  • Grass stands are even more sensitive in the seeding year.
  • The loss in grass stand productivity from cutting too low far outweighs any yield boost you might get from harvesting a few extra inches in that one cutting.

Mixed Stands

  • In mixed stands cutting height could actually be used as a management tool for stand composition by choosing a cutting height that either favors grass or alfalfa.
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June 24, 2016
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on NYS IPM Weekly Field Crops Pest Report: June 23, 2016

NYS IPM Weekly Field Crops Pest Report: June 23, 2016

June 24, 2016
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Weather Outlook – June 23, 2016

Weather Outlook – June 23, 2016

From Jessica Spaccio, NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

Last week temperatures ranged from normal to 4 degrees above normal for most of the state. Precipitation ranged from less than ¼” to 1”, with isolated areas getting over 1”. Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 70 to 150.

GDD48_Mar1_Jun22 GDD48_May_Jun22 GDD50_Mar1_Jun22 GDD50_May1_Jun22

Sunny skies, warm temperatures, little rain…

Friday fog is possible in the morning then clearing to sunny skies with highs in the mid 70’s to mid 80’s. Lows will be in the 50’s to low 60’s.

Saturday temperatures will be in the upper 70’s to upper 80’s. Overnight temperatures will be in the upper 50’s and 60’s.

Sunday’s highs will be in the 80’s to low 90’s. Overnight temperatures will be in the upper 50’s and 60’s.

Monday temperatures will be in the 80’s to low 90’s with some scattered showers possible. Lows will be in the upper 50’s and 60’s.

Tuesday a cold front will bring cooler temperatures in the 70’s and lower 80’s and the possibility of scattered showers and thunderstorms. Lows will be in the 50’s.

Wednesday temperatures will be in 70’s and lower 80’s. Lows will be in the 50’s.

The five-day precipitation amounts will range from 1/10” to ½”.

The 8-14 day outlook (June 30 – July 6) shows an increased chance for above normal temperatures. The precipitation outlook shows increased chances for above normal precipitation for the eastern half of the state.

The Drought Monitor: Abnormally dry conditions have persisted and expanded due to declining streamflows (locally below the 10th percentile) and a lack of rain over the past 90 days (less than half of normal).  In fact, many of the Northeast’s D1 areas are now running rainfall deficits in excess of 6 inches over the past 6 months.

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:
http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/predictions/814day/index.php

National Weather Service watch/warnings map:
http://www.weather.gov/erh/

US Drought Monitor:
http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/Home.aspx

CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface):
http://climodtest.nrcc.cornell.edu

 

 

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June 16, 2016
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Weather Outlook – June 16, 2016

Weather Outlook – June 16, 2016

From Jessica Spaccio, NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

Last week temperatures ranged from 4 to 10 degrees below normal for most areas. Precipitation was less than 1” for most of the state. Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 10 to 70.

GDD48_Mar1_Jun15 GDD48_May1_Jun15 GDD50_Mar1_Jun15 GDD50_May1_Jun15

Sunny skies, warm temperatures, little rain…

Today there is a chance of light showers and isolated thunderstorms in central and western NY, other areas will remain dry, with temperatures in the mid 70’s to low 80’s. Overnight lows will be in the upper 40’s and 50’s.

Friday will be mostly dry, but isolated showers are possible, with highs in the mid 70’s to low 80’s. Lows will be in the upper 40’s and 50’s.

Saturday temperatures will be in the upper 70’s to mid 80’s with sunny and dry conditions. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50’s.

Sunday’s highs will be in the upper 70’s to upper 80’s. Overnight temperatures will be in the upper 50’s and 60’s.

Monday temperatures will be warmer, in the upper 70’s to low 90’s. Lows will be in the upper 50’s and 60’s.

Tuesday a cold front will bring slightly cooler temperatures in the mid 70’s to low 80’s with scattered showers and thunderstorms possible. Lows will be in the upper 50’s and 60’s.

Wednesday temperatures will be in the 70’s. Lows will be in the mid 50’s to low 60’s.

The five-day precipitation amounts will rang from none to over a ½” in a small corner of western NY, with most of the state getting less than ¼” of rain.

The 8-14 day outlook (June 23-29) shows an increased chance for below normal temperatures for eastern NY and near normal temperatures are expected for the rest of the state. The precipitation outlook shows increased chances (33-40%) for above normal precipitation for the entire state.

The Drought Monitor: Abnormally dry conditions as little precipitation has fallen to improve conditions. Moderate Drought conditions are now in Orange, Rockland and Westchester counties.

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:
http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/predictions/814day/index.php

National Weather Service watch/warnings map:
http://www.weather.gov/erh/

US Drought Monitor:
http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/Home.aspx

CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface):
http://climodtest.nrcc.cornell.edu

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2016 Cornell NYS Commercial Corn Silage Trials

June 10, 2016 by Cornell Field Crops | Comments Off on 2016 Cornell NYS Commercial Corn Silage Trials

Corn Silage Plots 2016Hybrid entries from various seed companies evaluated for forage yield and quality.  Results will be published in the fall to help growers make buying decisions for corn silage hybrids.

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June 10, 2016
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on NYS IPM Weekly Field Crops Pest Report: June 9, 2016

NYS IPM Weekly Field Crops Pest Report: June 9, 2016

June 9, 2016
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Weather Outlook – June 9, 2016

Weather Outlook – June 9, 2016

From Jessica Spaccio, NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

Last week temperatures ranged from 2 to 6 degrees above normal for most areas. Precipitation ranged from ¼” to 3”.  Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 60 to 140.

GDD48_Mar1_Jun8 GDD48_May1_Jun8 GDD50_Mar1_Jun8 GDD50_May1_Jun8

Below normal temperatures continue through the weekend…

Today will be cool, dry, and windy with temperatures in the 60’s to low 70’s. Overnight lows will be in the low 40’s to low 50’s.

Friday high pressure will bring another dry day with highs in the mid 60’s to low 70’s. Lows will be in the mid 40’s to low 50’s. Showers and thunderstorms are possible late Friday night into Saturday in western NY.

Saturday temperatures will be in the 70’s. Scattered showers and thunderstorms are likely with severe weather possible (damaging winds & large hail possible). Overnight temperatures will be in the 50’s.

Sunday’s highs will be in the low 60’s to mid 70’s. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 40’s to low 50’s.

Monday temperatures will be in the 60’s to low 70’s. Lows will be in the upper 40’s to mid 50’s.

Tuesday will be in the70’s. Lows will be in the 50’s.

Wednesday temperatures will return to normal, in the mid 70’s to low 80’s, with a low chance of showers in western NY. Lows will be in50’s.

The five-day precipitation amounts will rang from 1/10” to over 1”, with the higher amounts in western NY.

The 8-14 day outlook (June 16-22) shows an increased chance for above normal temperatures for western NY and near normal temperatures are expected for the rest of the state. The precipitation outlook shows increased chances (40-50%) for below normal precipitation for the entire state.

The Drought Monitor: Abnormally dry conditions continue and have expanded. Western New York around Buffalo generally received less than a half inch of rain, which is well below normal for this time of year.  Continued above-normal temperatures (4-8 degrees) combined with below-normal streamflow called for a small expansion of D0 in localized areas near the Finger Lakes.

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:
http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/predictions/814day/index.php

National Weather Service watch/warnings map:
http://www.weather.gov/erh/

US Drought Monitor:
http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/Home.aspx

CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface):
http://climodtest.nrcc.cornell.edu

 

 

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June 6, 2016
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Fusarium head blight and stripe rust commentary, May 27, 2016

Fusarium head blight and stripe rust commentary, May 27, 2016

From Gary Bergstrom, Extension Plant Pathologist, Cornell University

PART_1464351739582_IMG_20160527_081116248_HDRWinter wheat in New York is either beginning to flower now or will do so over the next week. The triazole products Caramba and Prosaro are the most effective fungicides for suppression of FHB and DON contamination when applied at flowering (emergence of anthers on heads).  There is an application window of approximately 6 days from the beginning of flowering in which reasonable FHB suppression can be expected.  Fungicide products containing strobilurins should not be applied to headed wheat or barley as they may result in increased levels of DON in grain. Caramba or Prosaro applied at flowering will also provide protection of flag leaves against stripe rust (see photo) – an imminent threat at this time.  Based on the finding of severe stripe rust (photo courtesy of Mark Avery of Carovail) in some fields in northern Cayuga County this week and high levels of stripe rust in much of the north central, southern and eastern U.S. that could provide spores for aerial transport into New York, I am advising New York wheat growers to consider fungicidal protection of flag leaves against stripe rust infection at this time.  The variants of stripe rust being found affect wheat but not barley.

Most winter malting barley fields experienced head emergence and flowering during the past several days and many had Prosaro or Caramba applied at full head emergence.  For fields less than a week after head emergence, a triazole spray may still be warranted. Other disease being observed in winter malting barley include scald, powdery mildew, and seedborne loose smut in certain cultivars.

While the current risk of FHB epidemics is low over most of the state, that risk could increase.  Check the Fusarium Risk Assessment Tool (http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/) and your local weather forecast frequently as your crop approaches heading and flowering.

Receive FHB Alerts by Cell Phone:
I will be providing weekly New York commentaries on FHB risk through June.  You can subscribe to receive FHB Alerts directly to your Cell Phone (http://scabusa.org/fhb_alert.php).  You can select to receive alerts as 1) Text Message Alerts, 2) Email Alerts, or 3) both Text and Email Alerts.  To receive alerts for New York, select the Northern Soft Winter Wheat option which provides alerts for MI, NY, WI and VT.

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