Cornell Field Crops News

Timely Field Crops information for the New York Agricultural Community

May 24, 2018
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Weather Outlook – May 24, 2018

Weather Outlook – May 24, 2018

NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

Last week temperatures ranged from 2 degrees below-normal to 8 degrees above-normal. Precipitation has ranged from ½ “ to 3 inches. Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 10-110.

Dry and warm through Friday, showers and thunderstorms possible over the weekend.

Today will be mostly sunny with temperatures in the mid 60s to near 80. Overnight lows will be in the upper 40s and 50s.

Friday will be mostly sunny with highs in the upper 70s to mid 80s. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 50s to mid 60s.

Saturday will be warm and humid with temperatures in the mid 70s to upper 80s, near 90 in southeast NY. Scattered showers and thunderstorms are possible, mostly in the afternoon/evening. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 50s to low 60s.

Sunday will be humid with highs in the 70s to low 80s with showers likely, though not all day, and thunderstorms possible. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 50s to low 60s.

Monday temperatures will be in the throughout the 70s with scattered showers and thunderstorms. Lows will be in mid 50s to low 60s.

Tuesday will have highs in the 70s and low 80s with high pressure bringing clear skies.  Lows will be in the 50s.

Wednesday, temperatures will be in the 70s to low 80s.  Lows will be in the upper 50s to mid 60s.

The seven-day precipitation amounts will range from ½ inch to near 2 inches.

The 8-14 day outlook (May 31-June 6) favors above-normal temperatures. The precipitation outlook favors near-normal amounts for western to central New York, and slightly favors below-normal amounts for northern, eastern and southeast New York.

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:
http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/predictions/814day/index.php

National Weather Service watch/warnings map:
http://www.weather.gov/erh/

US Drought Monitor
http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/Home.aspx

CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface):
http://climodtest.nrcc.cornell.edu

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May 23, 2018
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Save the Date! New York Soil Health Summit

Save the Date! New York Soil Health Summit

Date: Wednesday, July 18, 2018
Time: TBD
Location: Empire State Plaza, Downtown Albany, NY

Save the date for the first New York Soil Health Summit. This event, organized by the New York Soil Health project, is for farmers, researchers, agriculture service providers, government agencies, non-profits and policy-makers interested in advancing soil health efforts across the state.

Topics include:

  • Local experts/grower panel
  • Research and policies relevant to soil health
  • Soil Health Roadmap breakout sessions

Don’t miss this opportunity to connect with colleagues and contribute critical feedback to the NY Soil Health Roadmap.

Registration, summit agenda, and other details will be coming soon.

For more information at this time, contact David Wolfe (dww5@cornell.edu) or Aaron Ristow (ajr229@cornell.edu).

More information about the project: newyorksoilhealth.org

Summit details will be updated here: summit.newyorksoilhealth.org

New York Soil Health is funded through New York State Department of Agriculture & Markets.

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May 23, 2018
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Fusarium head blight commentary on winter barley and wheat

Fusarium head blight commentary on winter barley and wheat

Gary Bergstrom, Extension Plant Pathologist, Cornell University
This is a critical week for management of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in winter malting barley.  Some winter barley fields in New York are fully headed now and many more will head out this later week.  Even though we have had frequent rains, the Fusarium Risk Assessment Map (http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/riskTool.html) shows mostly low risk of Fusarium infection in New York because temperatures have been considered too low for spore production in many areas. A moderate to high risk of FHB is indicated for areas of the Southern Tier, southern Hudson Valley, and Long Island.  Maximal suppression of FHB and grain contamination by deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin results when fully emerged heads of winter malting barley are sprayed with full label rates of Caramba or Prosaro fungicides. A heads emerged spray with these triazole fungicides also helps protect upper leaves against fungal leaf blotches, powdery mildew, and rust.  Foliar sprays of Caramba or Prosaro up to seven days after head emergence may still result in significant FHB and DON suppression.   Fungicide products containing strobilurins should not be applied to headed wheat or barley as they may result in increased levels of DON in grain.
Winter wheat is generally a week or more behind in development from winter barley planted on the same fall date.  Winter wheat in New York varies from stem elongation to flag leaf visible stages.  We should reach the critical fungicide application window for winter wheat over the next two weeks.  The triazole products Caramba and Prosaro are the most effective fungicides for suppression of FHB and DON contamination when applied at flowering (emergence of anthers on heads).  A flowering application of triazole fungicide should be based on Fusarium head blight (FHB) risk as well as the risks of powdery mildew, rusts, and fungal leaf blotches in the upper canopy based on scouting of individual fields.  There is an application window of approximately 7 days from the beginning of flowering in which reasonable FHB suppression can be expected.   Check the Fusarium Risk Assessment Tool (http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/) and your local weather forecast frequently as your winter wheat crop approaches heading and flowering.
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May 17, 2018
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Weather Outlook – May 17, 2018

Weather Outlook – May 17, 2018

NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

Last week temperatures ranged from near-normal to 4 degrees above normal. Precipitation has ranged from a trace to over two inches. Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 20-80.

Dry on Thursday, showers and thunderstorms Friday evening into the weekend with heavy rain possible on Saturday.

Today temperatures will be in the upper 60’s to 70’s with clearing skies and dry conditions thanks to high pressure. Overnight lows will be in the low 40’s to low 50’s.

Friday temperatures will be in the 60’s with scattered showers beginning in the eventing. Overnight temperatures will be in the 40’s to low 50’s with showers continuing to move into the state.

Saturday will be rainy with thunderstorms possible (marginal risk for severe in western southern tier) and temperatures in the mid 50’s to 60’s; locally heavy rainfall is possible. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50’s with scattered showers continuing.

Sunday will have highs in the 70’s with occasional light showers but a mostly dry day. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50’s.

Monday a few showers are possible with highs in the upper 60’s to to mid 70’s. Lows will be in the mid 40’s to mid 50’s.

Tuesday will have highs in the upper 60’s to mid 70’s with scattered showers and thunderstorms.  Lows will be in the upper 40’s to low 50’s.

Wednesday, temperatures will be in the 70’s.  Lows will be in the upper 40’s to low 50’s.

The seven-day precipitation amounts will range from ¾ inch to 2 inches.

The 8-14 day outlook (May 24-30) favors above-normal temperatures and below-normal precipitation for the state.

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:
http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/predictions/814day/index.php

National Weather Service watch/warnings map:
http://www.weather.gov/erh/

US Drought Monitor
http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/Home.aspx

CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface):
http://climodtest.nrcc.cornell.edu

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May 10, 2018
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Weather Outlook – May 10, 2018 (the first weather outlook of the season!)

Weather Outlook – May 10, 2018 (the first weather outlook of the season!)

from NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

Last week temperatures ranged from 4 to 10 degrees above normal. Precipitation has ranged from a trace to near two inches. Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 10-110.

Temperatures will warm to above-normal today before a cold front passes bringing showers and cooler temperatures.

Today temperatures will be in the low to mid 70’s with showers likely and thunderstorms possible as a cold front passes. Overnight lows will be in the 40’s.

Friday temperatures will be much cooler behind the cold front, ranging from the 50’s to low 60’s for most areas, reaching mid- to upper 60’s in southeast NY. Conditions will by sunny and dry before scattered showers return in the evening into Saturday. Overnight temperatures will be in the 40’s, dipping into the 30’s in northern areas.

Saturday temperatures will range from the upper 50’s in northern areas to mid 70’s in central NY. Conditions will be cloudy with light rain possible. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 40’s to mid 50’s.

Sunday will have highs in the mid 60’s to low 70’s. Light rain is possible early, with drying conditions throughout the day. Overnight temperatures will be in th 40’s.

Monday will be sunny with highs in the low to mid 70’s. Lows will be in the 40’s.

Tuesday will be sunny with highs in the 70’s.  Lows will be in the upper 40’s to  low 50’s.

Wednesday, temperatures will be in the 70’s with showers possible.  Lows will be in the 50’s.

The seven-day precipitation amounts will range from half an inch to near two inches.

The 8-14 day outlook (May 17-23) favors above-normal temperatures for the state. The precipitation outlook slightly favors above-normal precipitation for a majority of the state.

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:
http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/predictions/814day/index.php

National Weather Service watch/warnings map:
http://www.weather.gov/erh/

US Drought Monitor
http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/Home.aspx

CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface):
http://climodtest.nrcc.cornell.edu

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May 7, 2018
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Research Shows How to Boost Spring Hay Harvest in Northern NY

Research Shows How to Boost Spring Hay Harvest in Northern NY

Opportunities to boost spring hay crop silage yield and quality were evaluated in research funded by the farmer-driven Northern New York Agricultural Development Program. The results of regional on-farm trials with winter rye and triticale in 2016 and 2017 by the W.H. Miner Agricultural Research Institute in Chazy, NY, are now posted at www.nnyagdev.org.

Winter forage crops contribute to soil conservation and can improve soil quality when following a corn silage crop.

“Our evaluation showed that winter rye and triticale can be established as winter forage crops planted in a field after corn silage harvest in Northern New York with economical yields and high quality for harvest as hay crop silage, and these winter forages can be successfully double cropped with corn silage, giving farmers another crop production risk management strategy,” said project leader and Miner Institute Research Agronomist Eric Young.

Triticale was successfully established using no-till methods after termination of an alfalfa-grass field. Future research will help determine the best methods for winter forage crop establishment across varying soil conditions.

Growing winter forage crops for spring harvest as hay for dairy cows and livestock is becoming increasingly popular, but weather can challenge yield and successful retention of crop nutrients.

A complete report, including evaluation of the winter forage crops for dry matter yield, crude protein, water soluble carbohydrates, fiber digestibility, and phosphorus, potassium and lignin content, is posted on the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program at www.nnyagdev.org.

Funding for the farmer-driven Northern New York Agricultural Development Program is supported by the New York State Senate and administered by the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets.

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May 2, 2018
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Are you prepared to change your routine this spring?

Are you prepared to change your routine this spring?

By: Joe Lawrence, Cornell CALS PRO-DAIRY and Ron Kuck, Cornell Cooperative Extension North Country Regional Ag Team

While spring tasks vary by farm, there are many “rites of spring,” and they are often completed in a fairly rigid sequence. Depending on the farm, these often include fixing fence, spreading manure, planting new seedings, planting corn and harvesting first cutting, and are often performed in this order.

We are optimistic that the upcoming turn in weather will allow these tasks to be accomplished in a timely manner, but at this point it is time to ask yourself: Are you willing to change your spring routine?

In addition to adverse weather it is no secret that everyone is facing extremely tight economic times, and dealing with forage inventories of poor digestibility forages from 2017. This combination of factors makes it more critical than ever to be ready to tackle the task that will have the most impact on your business at the proper time.

Recent reference articles on dealing with tough times:

First Cutting
The number one focus should be on timely harvest of first cutting.

Corn Planting
The window for planting for silage is generally wider than for grain, which is why first cutting can and should take priority over corn planting. However, in the event of extreme delays in planting corn, performance will diminish with late plantings. If corn planting progresses into late May or early June, begin to consider alternative options for those acres. Previous research from Cornell and Penn State suggest a 0.5 to 1 ton/acre per week decline in silage yield for planting after mid to late May.

Multi-Tasking
First and foremost during a time of year that can be very busy and stressful, taking every precaution to keep your team safe is critical.

The idea of fitting all of this work into a condensed time period, and still getting key tasks completed before critical deadlines can seem impossible, but year after year many find unique ways to get it all done. Consider working with neighbors, custom operators or renting equipment to accomplish these key tasks on time.

If you currently utilize custom operators, now is a good time to set up a time to meet with them and make sure you are on the same page to get tasks accomplished in the time-frame needed. Make sure that your expectations and goals are clearly defined. They will also be under stress to fit their work into a condensed period and meet their customers’ expectations, so defining expectations and pre-planning how to most efficiently get the work accomplished when the custom operator arrives can go a long way to increase the chances for success.

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April 10, 2018
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on New Weed Control Options in Winter Wheat and Barley for NYS

New Weed Control Options in Winter Wheat and Barley for NYS

By Mike Stanyard, NWNY Dairy, Livestock & Field Crops Team – Field Crops Specialist and Team Leader

It has always been encouraged to spray the earliest planted fields for winter annual weeds (purple deadnettle, chickweed, chamomile) in late fall. However, there are so many other things going on in the fall and your windows of opportunity for spraying can be slim to none. You never know what the weather will be like in the spring and timely weed control can be tricky. Here is an update on broadleaf and grass control products for this spring with two new products just registered in 2018.

Broadleaf Weeds. Harmony Extra and Harmony SC are still the backbone of many spray programs. Harmony Extra (Harmony + Express), controls a wider range of broadleaves and it is favored over other products because of its control of corn chamomile, wild garlic and chickweed. A recent point of concern has been the number of marestail/horseweed plants that are making it through until harvest. This may be an indication that you have an ALS resistant marestail population. Both of these products can be applied up until the flag leaf is visible (before Feeke’s stage 8).

Growth regulator products like Clarity, Banvel, MCPA and 2,4,-D are effective against many broadleaves and should take care of ALS resistant marestail. They are usually tankmixed with Harmony products for extra control of winter annuals and perennials. Application past Feek’s stage 6 (jointing) is not advised as it could lead to plant injury and yield reductions. Unfortunately, I have seen annual marestail emerge after this stage.

Huskie (Bayer Crop Science) just received a 24(c) Special Local Needs label for New York on March 2nd. It is a combination of pyrasulfotole (an active not labeled in NY yet) and two formulations of bromoxynil (ie Buctril). The SLN labeling is for marestail/horseweed control in wheat, barley, rye and triticale. Huskie can be used for control of marestail in winter malt barley as well. Talking with Dwight Lingenfelter, Penn State weed scientist, Huskie would be best tank-mixed with Harmony Extra for complete broadleaf control. In fallow ground trials over the past two seasons, Penn State has been seeing (90-95%) control of 8 inch marestail with Huskie at the highest rate. Huskie can be applied up until flag leaf emergence.

Grasses. NYS has a 24(c) Special Local Needs label for Osprey for control of roughstalk bluegrass and cheat in winter wheat. It expires at the end of 2018. Osprey can be applied in the fall and spring but must be applied early in the spring, prior to the jointing stage in winter wheat.

Prowl H2O can be applied to wheat and triticale in the fall and the spring but must be applied before weed seeds germinate. It is very effective on our annual grass spectrum and some of our annual broadleaves but must be applied early in the spring prior to weed emergence.

Axial XL (Syngenta) was just registered on January 12 in NYS and is labeled for the control of grasses in wheat and barley. The active ingredient is pinoxaden which is in Group 1 (ACCase mode of action). Axial can be applied to wheat and barley from the 2-leaf stage to pre-boot stage. It is labeled for Foxtail (giant, green and yellow), volunteer and wild oats, annual ryegrass, barnyardgrass and canarygrass. Axial XL can be used for annual grass control (foxtails most importantly) in spring malt barley. For optimal control, it is recommended to apply when grasses have between 1 and 5 leaves on the main stem or prior to emergence of the 3rd tiller. THIS PRODUCT IS NOT LABELED FOR OATS!!!

We are still advising growers not to mix your herbicide and nitrogen applications and spray separately. The leaf burning can cost us up to 10 bushels and could get worse as temperature and humidity increase.

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March 26, 2018
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Snow Mold/Brown Root Rot Focus of Farmer-Driven NNYADP Research

Snow Mold/Brown Root Rot Focus of Farmer-Driven NNYADP Research

This photo shows the third production year plot-to-plot differences (front to back) in alfalfa plots planted for the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program-funded brown root rot research trials conducted by Cornell University. Photo: Julie L. Hansen, Cornell

Late winter and early spring are the primary times when brown root rot, also known as snow mold, may be damaging Northern New York alfalfa, a highly valued forage crop for dairy cows and other livestock. With funding from the farmer-driven Northern New York Agricultural Development Program, Cornell University researchers are evaluating opportunities to develop alfalfa that is both adapted to the colder Northern New York climate and able to resist brown root rot.

The Northern New York Agricultural Development Program has recently posted the results of a three-year study by Cornell University researchers developing alfalfa populations after exposure to the brown root rot fungus and ice sheeting at www.nnyagdev.org.

The parasitic fungal plant pathogen Phoma sclerotioides is the causal agent of brown root rot that damages the roots and crowns of alfalfa plants, other perennial legumes, and overwintering grasses.

“The plants that survive the winter of 2017-18 in a field with high brown root rot pressure in Northern New York will be excellent candidates for new cultivar development through successive plant breeding,” said project leader Julie L. Hansen, a plant breeding and genetics specialist at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

Northern New York field trials funded by the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program have shown that brown root rot-resistant alfalfa varieties grown in Saskatchewan and Wyoming perform poorly under the Northern New York climate and growing conditions.

Brown root rot was first detected on alfalfa in the eastern United States in 2003 in Northern New York in Clinton County. It has also been found in Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine, Pennsylvania, and Ontario, Canada, with reports of alfalfa yield loss, winterkill, slow spring emergence from dormancy, and stand decline over time.

The work to identify cultivars that have the best opportunity to grow under Northern New York regional conditions has new funding from the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program for research in 2018.

Funding for the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program is supported by the New York State Senate and administered by the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets. Project results are posted online at www.nnyagdev.org.

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March 14, 2018
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Use NNY Corn Evaluation to Select Seed, Feed Cows, Sell to Ethanol Producers

Use NNY Corn Evaluation to Select Seed, Feed Cows, Sell to Ethanol Producers

The evaluation of 103 commercial corn hybrids in trials funded by the farmer-driven Northern New York Agricultural Development Program is now posted at www.nnyagdev.org. The trials under localized growing conditions help farmers select the corn hybrids best suited to their soils, agronomic practices, and needs, including use of the corn in a dairy cow diet and for production for sale to ethanol producers.

“Over the past 20 years, corn acres harvested as grain in the six-county Northern New York region have doubled, reflecting availability of hybrids with good yield and adaptation in this shorter-season area. Highly productive grain hybrids that perform in Northern New York allow farmers there to take advantage of corn grain and ethanol markets,” said project leader Dr. Margaret E. Smith, a plant breeding and genetics professor at Cornell University Smith.

Project collaborator Joe Lawrence, a dairy forage specialist with the Cornell University PRO-DAIRY program, “A focus by the seed industry on silage-specific corns has increased the need for independent evaluation of the corns’ traits, particularly to determine their merit in a dairy feeding program.”

Cornell PRO-DAIRY Director Thomas Overton notes, “We use the data from the Northern New York corn hybrid trials, and those conducted elsewhere in New York State, to evaluate how those hybrids will interact in a lactating cow feed ration and how that ration may influence expected cow performance and milk production.”

The 2017 hybrid evaluation trials, planted at the Cornell Willsboro Research Farm in Essex County, W. H. Miner Agricultural Research Institute in Clinton County, and Greenwood Farm in St. Lawrence County, evaluated 103 hybrids ranging from 80-day to 110-day maturity corns.

The Northern New York Agricultural Development Program project report notes that data on yield-to-moisture ratio comprises one of the best guides for selecting hybrids with excellent grain yield and appropriate maturity for Northern New York growing conditions. Grain yield is an important contributor to silage yield and quality and a consideration for farmers interested in selling their corn grain for feed or ethanol production

For silage, collaboration by hybrid evaluation projects across the Northeast, including the trials in Northern New York, continue to focus on key quality parameters’ related to fiber and starch digestibility.

Smith cautions that farmers should select hybrids based on multi-year and multi-location data whenever possible.

“Any hybrid can have a banner year or banner environment, but not necessarily hold up over different locations and growing seasons. Selections are best judged with several years of data under the regionalized growing conditions and the knowledge of one’s own soils, climate, and farm environment,” says Smith.

Multi-year corn hybrid evaluation data are available in the Cornell Guide for Integrated Field Crop Management. For assistance, contact Cornell Cooperative Extension NNY Field Crops Specialists Mike Hunter, 315-788-8602, or Kitty O’Neil, 315-854-1218.

Farmers in Northern New York have harvested an average of 145,000 acres of corn annually for grain and silage over the past four years.

Funding for the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program is supported by the New York State Senate and administered by the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets. Learn more at www.nnyagdev.org.

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