Cornell Field Crops News

Timely Field Crops information for the New York Agricultural Community

September 20, 2018
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Anthracnose Top Dieback Prevalent Across NY, September 2018

Anthracnose Top Dieback Prevalent Across NY, September 2018

Jaime Cummings, NYS IPM Program

Figure 1. Anthracnose top dieback symptoms. Photo: Agrigold.

Many of us are familiar with Anthracnose leaf blight and Anthracnose stalk rot, but many of us were caught off guard this year by another form of disease, Anthracnose top dieback, caused by the same fungal pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola.  Reports of this disease have been received from all parts of the state in the past week.  It affects silage and grain hybrids and is readily identified by its typical symptoms of death of leaves and stalks in the upper 1/3 of the canopy (Fig. 1).  It’s important to note that top leaves my die from a number of factors, including corn borer, drought and other environmental stresses.  Therefore, accurate diagnosis is important when suspecting this disease.  Symptoms initially involve purpling or yellowing of flag leaves, and is often more randomly distributed in a field than top dieback caused by abiotic stresses.  Anthracnose top dieback is the result of the fungal stalk rot occurring on upper internodes, which restricts upward movement of water and nutrients, thus resulting in necrosis of leaves, tassels and stalks above the point of infection.  The easiest way to identify Anthracnose stalk rot and top dieback is to look for signs of the fungal pathogen.  Examine stalks for the typical black anthracnose lesions on the stalks, and peel back the leaf sheath to look for the black fungal fruiting bodies, called acervuli (Fig. 2).  A hand lens is helpful in identifying these spiny fruiting bodies, which may be full of pinkish, wet spore masses under moist conditions (Fig. 3).  Split stalks will reveal rotten or disintegrated pith tissue at the point of infection (Fig. 4).

Figure 2. Anthracnose stalk rot lesions on stalks. Photo: Ohio State University.

Figure 3. Colletotrichum fungal fruiting bodies called acervuli. Photo: Cornell University, Nelson lab.

Figure 4. Anthracnose stalk rot internal stalk symptoms. Photo: APS Press.

This pathogen overwinters in corn residues and spores are transmitted via wind and rain and can infect corn plant roots or stalks.  Insect feeding damage may enhance infection by this pathogen.  Since this pathogen is more prevalent in fields with high corn residues, crop rotations can significantly reduce this disease.  Hybrid resistance is available for anthracnose stalk rot, and hybrids with good foliar disease resistance often reduce stress overall, resulting in less susceptibility to stalk rots in general.  The IPM approach to managing anthracnose top dieback in your fields would involve crop rotations, planting resistant hybrids, and cultural practices to ensure minimal plant stress (balanced fertilization, adequate plant populations, and proper drainage).

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September 20, 2018
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Weather Outlook –September 20, 2018

Weather Outlook –September 20, 2018

NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

Last week temperatures were 8-12 degrees above-normal. Precipitation has ranged from less than ¼“ to over 4”. Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 110-170.

A strong cold front will move through Friday into Friday evening, with cooler temperatures to follow.

Today temperatures will in the upper 60s and 70s with partly sunny skies. Overnight lows will be in the mid 50s to low 60s with a few light showers possible.

Friday will be in the upper 70s to 80s with showers and thunderstorms possible Friday into Friday night with a frontal passage; some storms could be severe and there is a chance for flash flooding and gusty winds. Overnight temperatures will be in the upper 40s to low 60s.

Saturday a few morning showers are possible, then a mostly dry day with temperatures in the upper 50s to near 70s. Overnight temperatures will be in the upper 40s.

Sunday highs will be in the 60s to mid 70s. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 40s to low 50s.

Monday temperatures will be in the 60s to mid 70s with a chance of afternoon showers. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s.

Tuesday highs will be in the 70s. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s with overnight showers possible.

Wednesday highs will be in the 70s with showers possible. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s.

The seven-day precipitation amounts will range from an inch to near 3 inches.

The 8-14 day outlook (Sept 26-Oct 2) slightly favors below-normal temperatures for western and northern areas and slightly favors above-normal precipitation for western, central, and northern to eastern NY.

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:
http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/predictions/814day/index.php

National Weather Service watch/warnings map:
http://www.weather.gov/erh/

US Drought Monitor
http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/Home.aspx

Drought Impact Reporter:
http://droughtreporter.unl.edu/map

CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface):
http://climodtest.nrcc.cornell.edu

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September 17, 2018
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Reduced Tillage Handbook Now Available Free

Reduced Tillage Handbook Now Available Free

A handbook for improving soil health in both organic and conventional vegetable, row crop, and small grain systems is now available at no charge from Cornell Cooperative Extension and partners that made possible a popular field day event that served as the basis for the handbook.

The Reduced Tillage Field Day Handbook is available free in the Horticulture: Vegetables section of the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program website at www.nnyagdev.org.

“The field day was such a hit with the 70 people who attended and received the handbook that we are making the information available on a broader basis to encourage interest in soil health practices that reduce tillage intensity and mechanical soil disturbance. Over time, this helps maintain or increase crop yields, while reducing production costs due to reduced labor, equipment wear, and fuel use,” said field day organizer Amy Ivy, a vegetable specialist with the CCE Eastern NY Commercial Horticulture Program.

Highlights and excerpts from the 107-page handbook include:

  • 2018-2019 New York Soil Health Priorities and Plans
  • More than 60 percent of farmers who used reduced tillage or cover crops and responded to a New York Soil Health survey reported that flooding prevention, drought resilience and less erosion resulted from those practices.
  • Stacking tillage tools can save time for field preparation and reduce labor and fuel needs.
  • Cultivation is typically most effective for improving weed management with small weeds in dry, loose soil.
  • A project in Virginia is evaluating the potential for farmers to increase their use of cover crop rolling, which has been used successfully by individual farmers from Alabama to Pennsylvania but has yet to see widespread use in the U.S.
  • High-residue conservation tillage systems involve using large amounts of cover crop residue to suppress weeds, reduce soil erosion, and conserve soil moisture.

Although the event, held at the Willsboro Research Farm in Willsboro, N.Y., was targeted to meet organic grower expressed interest, the practices discussed in the handbook will also benefit conventional growers.

Materials are included from the field day presenters, including Bryan Brown of the New York State Integrated Pest Management program on managing weeds in small-seeded crops; Ryan Maher of the Cornell Small Farms Program on zone tillage systems; and John Wallace, Cornell University Specialty Crops Systems, on weed seedbank management.

The resource materials in the handbook consider crimpers, rollers, the biology of soil compaction, understanding microbes and nutrient recycling, caring for soil as a living system, and the use of reduced tillage and cover crops for organic and conventional vegetable production. Other sections look at how to avoid roller crimper problems, winter-hardy cover cropping, using cover crops to convert to no-till and no-till management for organic systems.

The handbook includes information from a variety of sources including Iowa State University, the Natural Resources Conservation Service, Ohio State University, Penn State Extension, the Rodale Institute, Rutgers University, the Sustainable Agriculture Research Education Program, and the Virginia Association for Biological Farming.

The farmer-driven Northern New York Agricultural Development Program, New York Soil Health, and Lake Champlain Basin Program sponsored the Reduced Tillage summer field day event. The Cornell Cooperative Extension Eastern NY Commercial Horticulture Program, CCE Essex County, and the Cornell University Willsboro Research Farm coordinated the field day programming.

Funding for the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program is supported by the New York State Senate and administered by the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets. Learn more at www.nnyagdev.org.

 

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September 13, 2018
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Weather Outlook –September 13, 2018

Weather Outlook –September 13, 2018

NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

Last week temperatures were within 2 degrees of normal. Precipitation has ranged from ¼ “ to over 3”. Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 40-120.

Scattered showers Thursday into Friday, dry for the weekend. Moisture from Hurricane Florence to reach NY next week??

Today temperatures will in the 70s to low 80s, with scattered showers and isolated thunderstorms. Localized heavy downpours are possible. Overnight lows will be in the low to mid 60s.

Friday will be in the 70s to mid 80 with scattered afternoon showers and thunderstorms. Overnight temperatures will be in the low to mid 60s.

Saturday will be dry with temperatures in the mid 70s to mid 80s. Just a slight chance of afternoon showers. Overnight temperatures will be in the upper 50s to mid 60s.

Sunday highs will be in the mid 70s to mid 80s with continued dry conditions. Overnight temperatures will be in the upper 50s to mid 60s.

Monday temperatures will be in the 70s. Precipitation is questionable due to Hurricane Florence. Overnight temperatures will be in the 60s.

Tuesday highs will be in the 70s. Precipitation is questionable due to Hurricane Florence. Overnight temperatures will be in the 60s.

Wednesday highs will be in the 60s to low 70s. Precipitation is questionable due to Hurricane Florence. Overnight temperatures will be in the 60s.

The seven-day precipitation amounts will range from an inch to over three inches. Highly dependent on track of moisture from Hurricane Florence.

The 8-14 day outlook (Sept 20-26) slightly favors below-normal temperatures for part of the state and slightly favors above-normal precipitation for western to central NY.

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:
http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/predictions/814day/index.php

National Weather Service watch/warnings map:
http://www.weather.gov/erh/

US Drought Monitor
http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/Home.aspx

Drought Impact Reporter:
http://droughtreporter.unl.edu/map

CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface):
http://climodtest.nrcc.cornell.edu

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September 4, 2018
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Sudden Death Syndrome and Soybean Cyst Nematode in Soybeans

Sudden Death Syndrome and Soybean Cyst Nematode in Soybeans

By Jaime Cummings – NYS Integrated Pest Management Program

Sudden Death Syndrome (photo by Jaime Cummings)

It has been an optimal year for sudden death syndrome (SDS) in some parts of New York State.  Reports and diagnoses have been received in western and northern NY fields.  This disease is favored by cool, wet spring conditions, followed by hot and dry weather.  The infection occurs very early, at germination and emergence, but symptoms rarely appear before reproductive stages and pod filling.  Symptoms are most obvious as interveinal chlorosis on the leaves, and can be confused with other diseases that have similar foliar symptoms, including brown stem rot and northern stem canker.  Splitting the stems of an SDS infected plant will reveal a white pith with discoloration of the vascular tissue of lower stems (see photo).

Few varieties adapted to our region are available with moderate resistance to this disease, and rotation is not very effective since the pathogen can survive for many years in the soil and on other crop debris.  The ILeVO seed treatment has shown good results in trials from other states, and may be your best bet for managing SDS in fields with a history of the disease.  Improving drainage and compaction and delaying planting until soils have warmed up, in addition to planting moderately resistant varieties (where available) with seed treatments, are good IPM practices for fields affected by this disease.

It’s also important to note that there is a synergistic effect of SDS and the soybean cyst nematode (SCN).  If you have a field with a history of SDS and lower yields, this would be a good candidate for SCN testing.  We are approaching the optimal time to take soil samples for SCN testing.  There are many public and private labs available for SCN testing.  The Cornell plant diagnostic clinic offers this service, and there are a number of labs and clinics that specialize in this service and accept out of state samples.  The most highly recommended testing facilities include the University of Missouri SCN Diagnostics lab, the University of Illinois Plant Clinic, and Midwest Laboratories.  Please see a complete list of testing labs and other information on SCN provided by the SCN Coalition:

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September 4, 2018
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on NYS IPM Weekly Field Crops Pest Report: August 31, 2018

August 30, 2018
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Weather Outlook – August 30, 2018

Weather Outlook – August 30, 2018

NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

Last week temperatures were 2 to 6+ degrees above-normal. Precipitation has ranged from a trace to over 1”. Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 80-160.

Cooler temperatures to finish the week! Scattered showers possible over the holiday weekend with hot and humid temperatures returning next week.

Today temperatures will be much cooler for most areas, in the upper 60s to lower 80s with lower humidity. Eastern NY will still be warm and humid for part of the day until the cold front exits. Some showers and thunderstorms, associated with the front, will be possible. Overnight lows will be in the 50s to near 60, some upper 40s.

Friday will be in the 70s with scattered afternoon showers and thunderstorms. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s to 60s.

Saturday temperatures will be in the mid 60s to low 80s, with a chance for afternoon/evening showers and thunderstorms. Overnight temperatures will be in the upper 50s to 60s.

Sunday highs will be in the mid 70s to mid 80s with a chance for afternoon/evening showers and thunderstorms. Overnight temperatures will be in the upper 50s and 60s.

Monday temperatures will be in the 80s with a chance for afternoon/evening showers and thunderstorms. Overnight temperatures will be in the 60s.

Tuesday highs will be in the 80s to low 90s with a chance for afternoon/evening showers and thunderstorms. Overnight temperatures will be in the 60s.

Wednesday highs will be in the 80s to low 90s with continued muggy conditions and a chance of showers. Overnight temperatures will be in the 60s.

The seven-day precipitation amounts will range from a quarter inch to one and a half inches.

The 8-14 day outlook (Sept 5 – 11) favors above-normal temperatures and above-normal precipitation for the the state.

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:
http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/predictions/814day/index.php

National Weather Service watch/warnings map:
http://www.weather.gov/erh/

US Drought Monitor
http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/Home.aspx

Drought Impact Reporter:
http://droughtreporter.unl.edu/map

CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface):
http://climodtest.nrcc.cornell.edu

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August 27, 2018
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on NYS IPM Weekly Field Crops Pest Report – August 24, 2018

August 23, 2018
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Corn Silage Harvest Quickly Approaching

Corn Silage Harvest Quickly Approaching

by Joe Lawrence – PRO-DAIRY

As always this crop season has brought unique opportunities and challenges for corn silage.  It may be helpful to compare and contrast 2018 with the last two years as we look at the potential timing of this year’s harvest.

For much of the state, 2016 was excessively dry to drought conditions through mid-August. However, where the crop survived to see the rains in late August it bounced back a bit, though some yield was already lost. Late summer saw some more normal rain events and a continuation of above average growing degree day (GDD) accumulation. Typically, we would expect the heat to lead to earlier maturity of the corn crop. However, with each shot of rain, the stressed crop seemed to re-hydrate as it attempted to finish ear development, which resulted in an extended dry down period and later than expected harvest.

We don’t need a reminder that the 2017 season was wet and cool from beginning to end. Late planting and below average GDD accumulation delayed harvest well into the fall and some of the crop received a killing frost prior to maturity. Also of note is that GDD accumulation slows down considerably in mid-September, so as the crop neared maturity last year it did so at a much slower pace than it is likely to this year, when it will be at this stage in mid-August to early September.

This season brought excessively dry and drought conditions for much of the state. However, relief from the drought came three to four weeks earlier than it did in 2016, aiding in pollination and more normal late season development of the crop.  Therefore, we should not expect the extended dry down period that was observed in many areas in 2016.

In terms of GDD accumulation, 2018 was above average in May, below average in June and above average in July and August (to date). While the slight deficit in June may have led to a slower start for corn planted in late May, that deficit was erased by the end of July as we continue to accumulate above average heat units.

GDD accumulation for corn planted in early May is even further above average and current forecasts suggest that most areas of the state will end August with GDD accumulation (since May 1) between 125 and 150 GDD’s above average. To translate that into calendar days, based on average GDD accumulation in late August and early September, this puts use seven to 10 calendars ahead of average since May 1.

Past research by Bill Cox at the Cornell Aurora Research Farm provides approximate GDD accumulation needed from silking to the crop reaching 32 percent dry matter (DM) for 96 to 115 day relative maturity (RM) corn (Table 1).  Based on this we would expect that corn below 96 day RM will take 750 GDD or slightly less.

Currently 32 percent DM is considered on the low end of desired harvest DM, target DM ranges are found in Table 2. Therefore, the accumulation of 750 GDD’s after silking represents a good time to start measuring whole plant dry matters.

Using our Corn Silage Hybrid Evaluation program projected crop progress is shown in Table 3a and 3b.

The dry down rate of corn in the field as it nears silage harvest is largely dependent on the weather and health of the crop. A general range is 0.4 to 0.7 percentage points per day.  Using 35 percent DM as a target for harvest, you could expect the crop to reach this four to seven days after it reaches 32 percent DM.

Also, consider that while the crop looks like it will finish fairly strong and produce a good ear, it is not likely to recover the lost yield from early season stressors. This combined with depressed hay crop yields in many areas should be taken into consideration when projecting forage needs for the coming year.

References
Cox, William. 2008. Timing Corn Silage Harvest. Cornell University What’s Cropping Up? Newsletter. Vol. 18, No. 4.

For More Information

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August 23, 2018
by Cornell Field Crops
Comments Off on Weather Outlook – August 23, 2018

Weather Outlook – August 23, 2018

NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

Last week temperatures were near normal to 4 degrees above-normal. Precipitation has ranged from less than ½ “ to over 3”. Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 100-180. There were improvements in drought conditions in western NY and northern NY.

Dry weather into the weekend, increasing temperatures and humidity through next week.

Today temperatures will be in the upper 60s and 70s with lower humidity. It will be a mostly dry day with a few isolated showers. Overnight lows will be in the 50s to near 60, some 40s are possible.

Friday will be in the 70s and low 80s, pleasant and dry. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s to near 60.

Saturday temperatures will be in the upper 60s to lower 80s, with a chance for evening shower and thunderstorms. Overnight temperatures will be in the upper 50s to mid 60s.

Sunday highs will be in the mid 70s to mid 80s with scattered afternoon thunderstorms possible. Overnight temperatures will be in the upper 50s to mid 60s.

Monday temperatures will be in the mid 70s to low 90s with increasing humidity and a chance of showers. Overnight temperatures will be in the upper 50s to near 70.

Tuesday highs will be in the upper 70s to low 90s with continued muggy conditions and a chance of showers. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 60s to low 70s.

Wednesday highs will be in the upper 70s to low 90s with continued muggy conditions and a chance of showers. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 60s to near 70.

The seven-day precipitation amounts will range from a trace to three quarters of an inch.

The 8-14 day outlook (Aug 30 – Sept 5) favors above-normal temperatures for all of the state and slightly favors above-normal precipitation for the western half of the state.

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:
http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/predictions/814day/index.php

National Weather Service watch/warnings map:
http://www.weather.gov/erh/

US Drought Monitor
|http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/Home.aspx

Drought Impact Reporter:
http://droughtreporter.unl.edu/map

CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface):
http://climodtest.nrcc.cornell.edu

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