New York State IPM Program

August 12, 2015
by Joellen Lampman
Comments Off on The German Cockroach: America’s #1 Cockroach Pest

The German Cockroach: America’s #1 Cockroach Pest

German cockroaches are one of the most common insect pests found in urban areas throughout the world, and are the number one cockroach pest species worldwide. They are well-adapted to human environments, even enjoying similar humidity and temperature levels as we do. IPM can be used to exclude and eliminate this pest from our homes, schools, restaurants, ships, and greenhouses.

German cockroach Photo: Gary Alpert
German cockroach Photo: Gary Alpert

Did you know…?

  • By the Numbers: Roughly 3,500 species of cockroach are identified worldwide, with 70 of those species reported from the United States.
  • What’s in a Name? Despite its name, the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, probably originated in Africa. In the 375 years since its original description as a species, it has had 23 different scientific names.
  • Codependents: German cockroaches depend on humans for their survival. There are no known populations of this species that exist in the wild!
  • Ancient Animals: Scientists have found cockroach fossils that date as far back as 300 million years, making cockroaches about 300 times older than humans. The largest fossil, from Ohio, measures nearly 3.5 inches long!
    Sticky traps can help you identify both what species of cockroach you have and where their populations are highest.
    Sticky traps can help you identify both what species of cockroach you have and where their populations are highest.

Integrated pest management of cockroaches not only relies on the proper identification of German cockroaches, but also identifying their hiding areas, which tend to be in areas with high moisture and easy access to food (think: under the kitchen sink or refrigerator). Baiting and trapping can then be used most efficiently. And, as usual, good housekeeping and sanitation will go a long way to reduce both food and areas where cockroaches hide. For more information, see The German Cockroach: America’s #1 Cockroach Pest. For information on other species of cockroaches, click here.

July 10, 2015
by Joellen Lampman
Comments Off on Paper Wasps: Friend or Foe?

Paper Wasps: Friend or Foe?

Paper wasps are social, stinging insects that build open-comb nests. These nests are often found on the protected undersides of natural or man-made overhangs. Soft-bodied insects, nectar, and honeydew are important food sources for paper wasps. These insects can be a public health concern when they nest near human activity because of their potent sting.

Wood scraped off this split rail fence will be mixed with saliva and used as nest building material.

Did You Know…?

  • By the numbers: There are 22 species of paper wasps in North America. The two most common paper wasp species in the Northeast are the native northern paper wasp and the invasive European paper wasp.
  • Watching it’s figure: Paper wasps can be distinguished from other wasps and yellowjackets by its very thin “waist”.
  • What’s in a Name?: Paper wasps use their mandibles (jaws) to scrape wood from plants, decks, or siding and combine it with saliva to make a papery nest.
  • Danger!: Paper wasps have unbarbed stingers, so they can deliver multiple stings. European paper wasps in particular are very aggressive when protecting their nest.
  • Look-alikes: European paper wasps are often confused with yellowjackets due to their similar black and yellow color. This species can be distinguished by its dainty waist and the position of its legs when it flies, which dangle below its body. (Yellow jacket legs are much shorter and held tight against the body.)
  • Beneficial Predator: Paper wasps feed their larvae caterpillars which can be garden pests.

    Paper wasps can build their umbrella comb nests under any protected ledge or overhang. Although they are beneficial predators, paper wasps can deliver a painful sting.

    Paper wasps can build their umbrella comb nests under any protected ledge or overhang.

Integrated pest management can help to determine if a paper wasp nest is a danger and what to do if it should be removed. For more information visit:

For more information from the New York State IPM Program on other stinging insects, click here.

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