Volume 16 -Number 9
View from the Field
Potato Leafhopper Explosion in Alfalfa!!! CHECK YOUR FIELDS!!!
Across the state there are many reports of potato leafhopper (PLH) being over threshold in alfalfa. The nymphs are starting to appear and will cause a lot of damage to alfalfa unless you get out and check your fields. Some alfalfa fields are 3 times over the economic threshold for PLH for alfalfa. Once you see the v-shaped yellowing in the field it is too late. The quality and yield diminish. You lose 5% protein and a least ½ ton per acre of alfalfa.
Potato leafhopper adult
Potato leafhopper nymph (photo expanded)
Potato Leafhopper nymph (photo not expanded) The lime green insects.
Potato leafhopper damage
Here is the link to a video on how to scout for PLH: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8BIZYTq7Zec&t=1s
Here is an article short article on how to scout for PLH in alfalfa: Time to Scout for Potato Leafhopper in Alfalfa
Here is a Cornell factsheet on PLH management in alfalfa: https://ecommons.cornell.edu/bitstream/handle/1813/42384/plh_shields_1990.pdf?sequence=1
Fusarium Head Blight on Winter Small Grains
Dr. Gary Bergstrom (Cornell University Extension Field Crops Plant Pathologist) is encouraging winter grains producers to assess Fusarium head blight (FHB) now to aid in harvest and post-harvest decision-making. Unfortunately there is a lot of FHB showing up in winter small grains. Some may want to do some pre harvest DON testing. This is a good year for timely harvest, setting combine fans up to discard shriveled kernels, and perhaps additional cleaning.
Here is an article on how to identify Fusarium Head Blight: http://blogs.cornell.edu/ipmwpr/2017/06/09/nys-ipm-weekly-field-crops-pest-report-june-08-2017/#How_to_Identify_Fusarium_head_blight_in_Wheat
Weather Outlook – June 29, 2017
NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University
Last week temperatures ranged from near-normal to 4 degrees below normal. Precipitation ranged from a quarter inch to over 4 inches (in Jefferson County). Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 50 to 160.
Showers and thunderstorms possible through Saturday, with humid conditions, but turning dry and seasonable Sunday and into the week…
Today temperatures be in the upper 70’s to mid 80’s. Scattered showers and thunderstorms are possible, especially in northern areas. Some storms could be severe with the threat of heavy rain, damaging winds and hail. Overnight lows will be in the 60’s.
Friday will be humid with a chance of showers and thunderstorms. Temperatures will be in the 80’s. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 60’s to low 70’s.
Saturday’s highs will be in the 80’s, again with humid conditions and showers and thunderstorms likely. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid to upper 60’s.
Sunday, highs will be in the upper 70’s to low 80’s with a slight chance of showers and thunderstorms. Overnight temperatures will be in the upper 50’s to mid 60’s.
Monday’s highs will be in the upper 70’s to mid 80’s. Lows will be in the upper 50’s to mid 60’s.
Tuesday will have temperatures in the mid 70’s to low 80’s. Lows will be in the upper 50’s to low 60’s.
Wednesday, temperatures will be in the upper 70’s to low 80’s with scattered showers and thunderstorms possible. Lows will be in the low to mid 60’s.
The seven-day precipitation amounts will range from ½” to near 3” .
The 8-14 day outlook (July 6-12) favors above-normal temperatures and above-normal precipitation.
Storing grain? Not too early to think about protection from post-harvest insect pests
Keith Waldron, NYS IPM
Planning to store wheat on the farm? Are your grain bins ready? Wheat harvest is still a while off but it is not too early to begin thinking about gearing up for the big event. To maintain the profits a good yield can bring, make and follow a plan to protect your grain while it is in storage. Remember: Grain storage will not improve grain quality. However, proper management of grain during storage will protect the quality present at harvest.
The IPM approach for stored grain protection includes a combination of sanitation, well-sealed bins, frequent monitoring for temperature and insect populations, aeration to cool grain in the fall, and pest management treatments as needed. Stored grain management begins with “an ounce of prevention”. This article will highlight some steps one can take now to protect stored grain before it is harvested. The following pre-harvest information was “gleaned” whole or in part from Stored Grain IPM information from Oklahoma State University Stored Products Research & Education Center and Purdue University. Website source URL’s are provided at end of this article.
Insect infestations are the more common stored grain pest issues one might encounter. Insect infested grain can be docked at time of sale. Most common grain bin insect problems can be traced back to infestations in previously stored material, cracked grain and grain fines and trash. Don’t add new grain into storage bins that have not been cleaned and may harbor a collection of stored grain pests. The key to prevention is SANITATION – clean out the bin every time it is emptied. How clean? If you can tell what was stored in the bin the last time it was used, it needs more cleaning. In addition to insects, birds and rodents are also attracted to left over and spilled grain. Lights mounted on or in close proximity to grain bins may attract unwanted stored grain insects.
Who might the likely insect pests be? A variety of beetles, weevils and moths are common to stored grain infestations. Saw-toothed grain beetles, flat grain beetle, red flour beetles, granary weevils, Indian meal moths and Angoumois grain moths to name a few. A picture is worth a thousand words and the following extension factsheets provide information to help identify the insects you may find as you clean out your storage bins: Principal Stored Grain Insect Pests of Indiana, Stored Wheat Insects identification key (http://bru.gmprc.ksu.edu/proj/sga/key.asp) and Stored grain pests identification (http://storedgrain.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Stored-grain-pests_NorthSouthWest_Pocketguide.pdf).
To prepare for grain harvest and storage the following sanitation practices are recommended.
* Clean harvest and transportation machines before harvest.
* Repair all grain handling equipment before harvest and keep it in good condition.
* Seal unloading auger, auger tube opening, and side door openings before harvest
* Empty storage structures of old grain. The new crop should never be stored on top of old grain.
* Remove and destroy any grain from beneath, around or near the bin area. Sweep and vacuum the floors, false floors, and walls inside empty bins to remove old grain and debris. This debris usually contains insect eggs, larvae, pupae, and/or adults, all ready to infest the new grain. A shop vacuum, broom and scoop are very useful in a cleanup job, and all collected material should be discarded properly.
* Check fan boxes for possible grain pests.
* Remove any spilled grain outside the storage structure.
* Mow / remove weeds at least 10 feet around the bins.
* Check and clean or replace rodent traps / bait stations. Be sure to follow all label directions.
* Check the integrity of screens and porcupine wires to limit bird entry and roosting.
* Insecticides? For additional protection against infestation, the inside and outside surfaces, foundations and floor of a storage facility can be sprayed with residual insecticide, four to six weeks prior to harvest, to kill any insects that were not removed during cleaning and those that migrate into the bin. Use appropriately registered insecticides. Be sure to follow all label directions. Rotate choice of insecticide chemical families to minimize risk of developing insecticide resistance.
* Establish a written sanitation schedule. Keep appropriate records.
Roof leaks commonly lead to columns of spoiled grain. Check for these leaks by looking for light coming into the bin. Moisture coming into the bin through the seal between the bin and concrete will cause spoilage around the perimeter of the bin at the base. Check the seal since sealants do deteriorate. Water will run away from the seal at the base of the bin wall if the concrete is sloped away from the bin. Also check the seals around the doors and hatches.
Besides keeping grain dry, grain storages should be well sealed for two other basic reasons: (1) to minimize grain insect entry problems into base and sidewall grain, and
(2) to minimize leakage should fumigants be used.
In addition, improved insect kill (efficacy), tighter sealed structures require lower dosage rates, which reduce the cost of future fumigations and cover the cost for the sealing materials and labor. When clean grain is transferred into a clean, sanitized structure with base and sidewalls well sealed, the main insect infestation and population growth should be on the grain surface in the structure headspace. Permanently sealing all non-functional base, sidewall and roof openings is the first priority of sealing storages. The second sealing priority is to seal functional openings at all times during the year when the component is not being used.
Source of the above stored grain pest management information:
Purdue’s Stored Product Pest factsheets:
Two excellent Stored Grain IPM resources:
“Stored Product Protection” – Practical guide to protecting grains and other raw commodities, food processing facilities, finished food, and durable plant and animal products from insects, molds, and vertebrate pests. Illustrated, 350 p. (http://www.ksre.ksu.edu/bookstore/pubs/S156.pdf)
“Maintaining Quality in On-Farm Stored Grain” https://utextension.tennessee.edu/publications/documents/PB1724.pdf
Degree Day Models for Field Crops across New York
Ken Wise, NYS IPM
Growing Degree Days Models
Growing degree Days for peak (50%) Occurrence of Alfalfa Weevil growth stage:
(Note: for alfalfa weevil predictions use Base Temp of 48F)
Seed Corn Maggot Peak Flight and Fly Maggot Free Degree Days
|Base Temp = 390 F||Peak 1st Generation||Seed Corn Maggot Fly Free degree days||Peak 2nd Generation||Seed Corn Maggot fly Free degree days||Peak 3rd Generation||Seed Corn Maggot fly Free degree days|
Source: Insect IPM for Organic Field Crops: Seed Corn Maggot by Katelin Holm and Eileen Cullen
Black Cutworm Degree Day Model
Degree Days Stage Feeding Activity
0 Moth Capture Egg Laying
90 Eggs Hatch
91-311 1st to 3rd Instar Leaf Feeding
312-364 4th Instar Cutting Begins
365-430 5th Instar Cutting Begins
431-640 6th Instar Cutting Slows
641-989 Pupa No feeding
2017 New York Field Crop Pest Degree Day Accumulations for selected locations up to June 27, 2017
|JUNE 27 2017|
(Base 50 F)
(Base 48 F)
(Base 50 F)
(Base 50 F)
Seed corn maggot
(Base 39 F)
|Location||(from 3/1/17)||(from 3/1/17)||(from 4/17/17)||(from 4/24/17)||(from 1/1/17)|
|Ithaca (CU Orchard)||802||947||725||712||1821|
Keith Waldron, NYS IPM
*Walk fields to check general field condition, weed issues
*Watch for crop maturity, stand assessments, weed escapes, nutrient deficiencies, lodging issues
*Evaluate established legume stands for approximate days until harvest
*Monitor potato leafhopper, foliar, systemic and crown rot diseases.
*Monitor new seedings for potato leafhopper, pythium blight, phytopthora root rot.
*Monitor small grains for signs of Fusarium Head Blight, foliar diseases
*Monitor grain fields for growth stage, disease issues, grain maturity, harvest timing
*Record diseases present, location and types of weed escapes
*Monitor for mid-season corn pests including European corn borer, corn rootworm, western bean cutworm, slugs, foliar diseases such as northern corn leaf blight and gray leaf spot, weed issues, nutrient deficiencies, vertebrate damage.
*Monitor for crop growth stage, soybean aphid, defoliators, foliar diseases, white mold, weed issues, vertebrate damage
*Check water sources, mend fences as needed.
*Check crop growth, clip pastures between grazing as needed
*Monitor for invasive species, plants harmful to livestock
*Carry appropriate / necessary NYS DEC and EPA documents as needed: (pesticide applicators license, pesticide labels, MSDS sheets, etc.)
* Check stored grain bins for temperature, moisture and signs of mold and insects. Aerate, core, transfer grain or treat as necessary
* Clean and disinfect empty storage bins in preparation for grain harvest
*Check forage allocation and anticipate feed program adjustments as forages from previous year are used up
*Mow around storage bins and facility to minimize pest hiding places
Dairy Cattle Barn Fly Management:
*Monitor animals and barn area for house fly, stable fly and other pest management needs including presence of rodents and birds.
*Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,
*Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation – clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
* Continue fly monitoring: install “3X5″ index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn
*Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards
*Consider purchase and release of Muscidifurax raptor and/or M. raptorellus natural enemies of house and stable fly pupae.
Dairy Cattle on Pasture:
*Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy per animal side, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal (all four legs)
*Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter – spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal exercise yard.
*Check pasture for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
*Check pasture for vegetation poisonous to livestock
*Consider use of pasture fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly populations
Seed Growers Field Day
Thursday, July 6, 2017 at 9:00am to 12:00pm
NYSIP Foundation Seed Barn 42.449520,-76.451311
For seed growers, seed treatment applicators, and other seed professionals
8:30-9:00 Registration, coffee, & networking
9:00-9:05 Introduction Margaret Smith
Board wagons, begin tour
9:05-10:05 Small Grains: Breeding for Quality and Pest Resistance Mark Sorrells
• White and red winter wheat varieties and their disease resistance
• Spring oat and spring barley varieties and their disease resistance
• Born, bred, and brewed in NY: malting barley for our state
→ Spring vs. winter types
→ Issues with producing malt quality grain
• Winter hybrid ryes from Germany
10:05-10:20 Small Grain Disease Management Update Gary Bergstrom
10:20-10:35 Certified and Foundation Seed and Seed Treatment Update Phil Atkins
10:35-12:00 Forage Varieties, Pest Management, and Breeding Don Viands
• New yield data in perennial forages
-Update on resistance to potato leafhopper on alfalfa
-Breeding alfalfa for resistance to alfalfa snout beetle
-Breeding alfalfa for resistance to clover root curculio
-Update on breeding for resistance to disease on switchgrass caused by
-New research on industrial hemp varieties
DEC and CCA continuing education credits requested.
Aurora Farm Field Day
Thursday, July 13, 2017 at 9:45am to 3:00pm
Musgrave Research Farm (CUAES) 1256 Poplar Ridge Road Aurora, NY
Annual Field Day held at the Musgrave Research Farm in Aurora, NY.
Registration and refreshments will begin at 9 am. (Skip the registration line by pre-registering @ https://fieldcrops.cals.cornell.edu/content/field-day-registration.)The program will begin at 9:45 am with a welcome and introductions.
Comparison of the corn-soybean-wheat/red clover rotation under conventional and organic management – Bill Cox
Decision Agriculture: Managing Nitrogen and Yield in Corn and Forage Sorghum Utilizing Drone NDVI Imaging – Quirine Ketterings and Karl Czymmek
Updates for Soil Health Assessment and Adapt-N nitrogen management tools – Bob Schindelbeck
A Roadmap for True Integrated Weed Management in the Age of Digital Agriculture – Steve Young
Corn Breeding & Disease Resistance – Margaret Smith and Judy Kolkman
Biological control of corn rootworm larvae with entomopathogenic nematodes – Elson Shields
Double Crop Rotations with Winter Cereals and Corn Silage or Forage Sorghum – Quirine Ketterings and Sarah Lyons
Integrated management of diseases and mycotoxins in malting barley – Gary Bergstrom and Jaime Cummings
DEC and CCA credits offered.