Volume 15 Number 20
View from the Field
We have reached the end of our 15th season of the NYS IPM Weekly Field Crops Pest Report. We would like to thank all the extension educators and field and crop consultants for providing us with in-field observations each week for the report. Your data is critical to us providing information statewide each week on the status of pests in the field. We will be emailing an end of the season survey to determine what impact the report has had statewide. This survey helps us fine tune the report each year. Please make any suggestions on how we might be able to improve the report.
Again thank you for all your help and observations.
Weather Outlook – September 22, 2016
NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University
Last week temperatures ranged from 6-8 degrees above normal. Precipitation ranged from a ¼ inch to 3 inches. Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 50 to 130.
Another day of summer weather before a cold front brings light rain and cooler temperatures…
Today will start foggy then turn sunny with above-normal temperatures in the mid 70’s to mid 80’s. Overnight lows will be in the mid 50’s to mid 60’s. A weak cold front will bring scattered showers overnight, most likely in northern areas.
Friday isolated, scattered showers and thunderstorms will move through with the front. Highs will range from the mid 60’s to upper 70’s. Lows will be in the mid 40’s to mid 50’s.
Saturday temperatures will be noticeably cooler behind the front, in the 50’s and 60’s. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 30’s to 40’s with frost possible.
Sunday highs will be in the mid 50’s to 60’s. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 30’s to low 40’s with frost possible.
Monday highs will be in the mid 50’s and 60’s. Lows will be in the 40’s and low 50’s with rain possible.
Tuesday temperatures will be in the upper 50’s to around 70 with a chance of rain. Lows will be in the 40’s and low 50’s.
Wednesday temperatures will be in the 60’s to around 70. Lows will be in the 40’s and low 50’s.
The five-day precipitation amounts will range from a trace to 1 ½” , with the highest amounts in northern NY.
The 8-14 day outlook (September 29 – October 5) shows increased chances for above-normal temperatures and below-normal precipitation.
The Drought Monitor: Rainfall associated with frontal passages prompted a 1-category improvement across southern Cattaraugus County in southwestern New York state, which shows up on the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction System (AHPS) 7-day observed precipitation map as southwest to northeast-oriented swaths of heavier rain. In the Lower Hudson Valley of southeastern New York, which missed out on recent rainfall, moderate drought (D1) was expanded across Dutchess and Putnam Counties.
Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:
National Weather Service watch/warnings map:
US Drought Monitor:
CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface):
Alfalfa: Fall Decisions
Ken Wise, NYS IPM
Sometimes we forget that there are IPM practices for the fall in alfalfa. Conducting stand counts is one of these activities. Fall stand counts are an indication of the health of your alfalfa crop. There are a number of pests and crop management issues that can reduce a stand count in alfalfa. The following are guidelines for stand counts in NYS:
|Crowns per square foot|
|Harvest Year||Optimum Stand||Adequate Stand|
|New Spring Seeding||25-40||12-20|
|1st hay year||12-20||6-10|
|2nd hay year||8-12||4-6|
|3rd and older||4-8||2-5|
Note: Number of crowns not stems
The following are photos of alfalfa stand counts from the Cornell Research Farm in Valatie, NY
4 year old field-7 crowns/25 stems per square feet
4 plus years in production-5 crowns/15 stems per square feet
4 year old field-15 crowns/45 stems per square feet
New alfalfa seeding- 20 crowns/70 stems per square feet
Note that you may have the recommended crowns per square foot but they may not actually be healthy. Make sure to dig a few plants up to check the roots for signs of disease. You may also want to look at the number of stems per square foot. Here is a guideline for an adequate stand of alfalfa using stem counts.
Predicted Yield Potential
(assuming on winterkill)
|>55||Stem density not limiting yield||Same as current year|
|40 to 54||Some yield reduction expected||If in good health same as current year. If not could be significantly less.|
|<39||Consider replacing stand||If in good health same as current year. If not could be significantly less.|
Source: University of Wisconsin: http://learningstore.uwex.edu/assets/pdfs/a3620.pdf
Fall scouting before the first hard frost can also reveal pest problems. Finding yellow to brown plants may be an indication of a disease problem such as: verticillum wilt, leaf spots, fusarium wilt, anthracnose and more. An inspection of the root system can also help diagnose disease problems. Yellow, reddish-brown to black discolored or damaged roots may indicate disease problems such as phytopthora root rot or verticillium wilt. In northern NY counties where alfalfa snout beetles (ASB) have been a problem, premature senescence, stunted or yellow alfalfa fields may indicate an ASB infestation. Fields should be evaluated for presence of the root feeding larval stage.
Keith Waldron, NYS IPM
*Walk fields to check general field condition, weed, vertebrate and other issues
*Watch for crop maturity, stand assessments, weed escapes, nutrient deficiencies, lodging issues
*Update crop records and field history
*Monitor potato leafhopper, foliar, systemic and crown rot diseases, signs of alfalfa snout beetle (in counties where ASB has been confirmed).
*Monitor new seedings for potato leafhopper, pythium blight, phytopthora root rot.
*Evaluate established legume stands for health, productivity and potential rotation. Days until harvest
*Plant winter small grains after the Hessian Fly Free Date.
*Monitor small grain seedings for stand counts, establishment issues
*Monitor late-season corn pests including European corn borer, corn rootworm, western bean cutworm, slugs, foliar diseases such as northern corn leaf blight and gray leaf spot, ear molds, stalk strength/lodging potential, weed issues, nutrient deficiencies, vertebrate damage.
*Monitor for growth stage, soybean aphid, defoliators, foliar diseases, white mold, weed issues, vertebrate damage
*Record diseases present, location and types of weed escapes
*Check water sources, mend fences as needed.
*Check crop growth, clip pastures between grazing as needed
*Monitor for invasive species, plants harmful to livestock
*Check stored grain bins for temperature, moisture and signs of mold and insects. Aerate, core, transfer grain or treat as necessary
*Clean and disinfect empty storage bins in preparation for grain harvest
*Mow around storage bins and facility to minimize pest hiding places
Dairy Cattle Barn Fly Management:
*Expect an increase in fly numbers in barns as flies seek warmer habitats to escape cooler outside temperatures.
*Monitor animals and barn area for house fly, stable fly and other pest management needs including presence of rodents and birds.
*Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,
*Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation – clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
* Continue fly monitoring: install “3X5″ index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn
*Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards
Dairy Cattle on Pasture:
*Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy per animal side, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal (all four legs)
*Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter – spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal exercise yard.
*Check pasture for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
*Check pasture for vegetation poisonous to livestock
*Consider use of pasture fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly populations
*Plan to remove insecticide ear tags in fall to reduce risk of developing insecticide resistance