September 25, 2015: Volume 14 Number 21
View from the Field
There are many reports of Northern Corn Leaf Blight on corn throughout the New York. In some cases the level of infection has been high. Gray leaf spot is being found throughout the Hudson Valley on corn. It is generally not at very high levels.
At the Cornell Farm in Valatie a disease called “Kernel Red Streak” was discovered on ears of corn in some test plots. This disease is triggered by wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella. This mite also vectors wheat streak mosaic virus in wheat. The mite is blown to fields on wind from local wheat fields. The symptoms are bright red streaks on each kernel. The condition does not affect yield or quality although the red pigment may change the color of some end use products. Elevators may discount the price some for this reason.
Weather Outlook – September 24, 2015
NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University
Last week recap:
Last week, statewide temperatures ranged from the lower-30s to upper-90s. These recordings ranged from near normal to 8 degrees above normal. There was no precipitation over southeastern NY, while parts of western NY saw just under an inch of rain. Base 50 growing degree days ranged from less than 60 in higher elevations of the state to more than 130 in the southeastern corner of the state.
***We’re looking at a dry start to autumn.***
High pressure will dominate the region over the coming week. This will keep our weather dry and mainly clear. The minor exception will be Sunday into Monday as a storm system scrapes southeastern New York bringing a slight risk for rain showers. Mid-week a cold front could also bring some showers, with high pressure building back in late next week.Today & tomorrow. Partly Cloudy. Highs in the upper 60s to mid 70s, overnight lows generally in the 50s with the higher terrain of the Southern Tier, Catskills and Adirondacks falling into the 40s. Saturday. Partly Cloudy with temperatures reaching the mid 60s to mid 70s. Temperatures again falling into the mid 40s to mid 50s. Sunday. Increasing clouds over southern New York with a slight chance of rain showers from the Catskills south and east. Any precipitation should be under ¼ inch. The rest of the state should see partly cloudy skies. Temperatures ranging from to the upper 40s for lows to the mid 70s for highs. Monday and Tuesday. Stray showers for southeastern New York on Monday, otherwise partly cloudy skies for the state both days. Highs in the lower to mid 70s. Lows generally in the 50s. Wednesday. Statewide rain showers possible. Highs ranging from the lower 60s to mid 70s. Lows in the upper 40s to low 60s.
The five-day precipitation amount through Tuesday morning should remain under 1/4th inch state-wide.
The 8-14 day outlook (Sept 24th -30th) features a likely probability (50 to 60%) of above normal temperatures across New York. There is a modest probability (30 to 40%) of below normal precipitation.
The Drought Monitor remains similar to last week with abnormal dryness across much of NY. Moderate drought conditions continue across Long Island.
Resistant Varieties – “built in” insurance benefits
Keith Waldron, NYS IPM
As the growing season draws to a close, why not update and review crop records and field histories to document issues of concern? What insects, diseases, weeds or vertebrate pests gave us problems this past year? For many pests, a mix of management options are available to reduce, or in some cases totally avoid, their impacts. Experience and knowledge gained this season will be helpful when determining steps to take to improve next years crop management plans. Correct pest identification is a cornerstone of IPM and serves as key component for management decisions such as choosing pest resistant varieties, crop rotation or other action.
Lately a number of crop diseases are showing up – not all serious but certainly notable. Gary Bergstrom and Jaimie Cummings, Cornell’s field crop plant pathologists, have been working with Extension educators and others across the state to diagnose a number of soybean and corn disease samples that has come in the last several weeks. The most common diseases of corn this season include northern corn leaf blight and gray leaf spot. Less common have been northern corn leaf spot, eyespot, anthracnose leaf blight, ear rots and gibberella stalk rot. For soybeans: downy mildew, Septoria leaf blight, brown spot, Cercospora leaf blight, bacterial blight and white mold. Descriptions of the common diseases have been the subject of several articles in recent Weekly Pest Report issues. Some of these same diseases could affect crops on your farm.
Soybeans have had a surge of late season soybean aphid populations across the state. Although there has also been an associated increase of natural enemies, such as lady bugs, in many of these areas. Many aphids are expected to escape predation to overwinter in neighboring buckthorn posing a potential risk to next year’s early planted soybeans.
If your farm has had a history of these diseases and crop pests be sure to check seed catalogs to see if pest-resistant or pest-tolerant varieties are available. If so, it makes “$ense” to have this important pest management benefit already built in to the seed you purchase. While checking out the seed labels for disease resistance, also consider varieties resistant to other pests such as potato leafhopper resistant alfalfa, soybean aphid resistant soybeans, insect-resistant corn varieties, and other pests. An ounce of prevention will pay future dividends…
Keith Waldron, NYS IPM
*Walk fields to check general field condition, weed, vertebrate and other issues
*Watch for crop maturity, stand assessments, weed escapes, nutrient deficiencies, lodging issues
*Update crop records and field history
*Monitor potato leafhopper, foliar, systemic and crown rot diseases, signs of alfalfa snout beetle (in counties where ASB has been confirmed).
*Monitor new seedings for potato leafhopper, pythium blight, phytopthora root rot.
*Evaluate established legume stands for health, productivity and potential rotation. Days until harvest
*Plant winter small grains after the Hessian Fly Free Date.
*Monitor small grain seedings for stand counts, establishment issues
*Monitor late-season corn pests including European corn borer, corn rootworm, western bean cutworm, slugs, foliar diseases such as northern corn leaf blight and gray leaf spot, ear molds, stalk strength/lodging potential, weed issues, nutrient deficiencies, vertebrate damage.
*Monitor for growth stage, soybean aphid, defoliators, foliar diseases, white mold, weed issues, vertebrate damage
*Record diseases present, location and types of weed escapes
*Check water sources, mend fences as needed.
*Check crop growth, clip pastures between grazing as needed
*Monitor for invasive species, plants harmful to livestock
*Check stored grain bins for temperature, moisture and signs of mold and insects. Aerate, core, transfer grain or treat as necessary
*Clean and disinfect empty storage bins in preparation for grain harvest
*Mow around storage bins and facility to minimize pest hiding places
Dairy Cattle Barn Fly Management:
*Expect an increase in fly numbers in barns as flies seek warmer habitats to escape cooler outside temperatures.
*Monitor animals and barn area for house fly, stable fly and other pest management needs including presence of rodents and birds.
*Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,
*Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation – clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
* Continue fly monitoring: install “3X5″ index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn
*Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards
Dairy Cattle on Pasture:
*Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy per animal side, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal (all four legs)
*Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter – spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal exercise yard.
*Check pasture for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
*Check pasture for vegetation poisonous to livestock
*Consider use of pasture fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly populations
*Plan to remove insecticide ear tags in fall to reduce risk of developing insecticide resistance