Volume 13 Number 8
View from the Field
There have been reports of foliar diseases on small grains. We have seen a lot of Stagonospora nodorum blotch and glume blotch in winter wheat and heritage small grains in the Hudson Valley. There have been reports of spring malting barley fields with a lot of powdery mildew and some scald. Many suggest that fusarium head blight can be found on several small grains in NYS.
Ken Wise (NYS IPM) reports finding soybean aphids near Marble Town, NY. There were not very many but it is pretty early to find them in soybeans. How will you know when soybean aphids are present in soybeans? Look carefully at the undersides of newly emerged soybean leaves. The aphids are usually seen in small clusters near the leaf veins. They are tiny, 1/16” long at their largest, with distinctive black cornicles (tail pipes). Soybean aphids are the only aphids to successfully colonize soybean plants.
Keith Waldron (NYS IPM) warns that potato leafhopper (PLH) in alfalfa and has been reported statewide at low levels. With the coming of warm weather the population of PLH can increase quickly. Keith indicates that there are reports that PLH have been over threshold in alfalfa in Pennsylvania. He also suggests that clean harvest of whole alfalfa fields is optimal to control PLH. Partially harvested fields can set the stage for future PLH problems. In situations where portions of alfalfa fields have been harvested but other areas of the field are left intact watch closely for PLH moving from taller alfalfa to the more vulnerable regrowth. The shorter alfalfa has a lower threshold for PLH than taller alfalfa so is at much higher risk for injury. Harvesting remaining portions of the field as soon as is practical is recommended to minimize PLH population buildup and their easy movement to adjacent portions of the field.
Weather Outlook – June 19, 2014
NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University
Jessica Spaccio (Rennells)
Last week temperatures ranged from 0 to 2 degrees below normal for most of the state. Precipitation amounts ranged from less than a quarter inch to over an inch (not including Wednesday’s heavy rain). Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 60 to 140. Cloudy day today as the rain moves out and leaves us with a nice and sunny weekend. Warm and humid weather with scattered showers and thunderstorms into the work week. Today the rain will slowly move east and out of the state but skies will remain mostly cloudy. Highs will be in the mid 70’s to low 80’s. Overnight temperatures will range from mid 50’s to low 60’s. Friday will clear up with mostly sunny skies and temperatures in the low to mid 80’s. A few scattered showers can’t be ruled out, but any that do occur will be very light. Overnight temperatures will range from mid 50’s to low 60’s. Saturday will be sunny with highs in the low to mid 80’s. Overnight lows will be in the 60’s. Sunday will be partly sunny with highs throughout the 80’s and slight chances for showers and thunderstorms, more likely in western NY. Lows will be in the mid to upper 60’s. Monday will be partly cloudy with a chance of scattered showers and thunderstorms and highs throughout the 80’s. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 60’s to low 70’s. Tuesday will be partly cloudy with a chance of scattered showers and thunderstorms and highs throughout the 80’s. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 60’s to low 70’s. Wednesday’s highs will be in the low to mid 80’s, again with scattered showers and thunderstorms possible. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 60’s to low 70’s. The five-day precipitation amounts will range from 1/10” to ½” ; 7-day amounts will range from ½” to 1 ½”. The 8-14 day outlook (July 3 – 9) is showing above normal temperatures and above normal precipitation.
Western Bean Cutworm Monitoring Begins
Keith Waldron, Cornell University, NYS IPM
The 2014 Western Bean Cutworm Monitoring program has begun. Western Bean Cutworm (WBC) is an emerging pest in NY with the potential to cause substantial damage to corn, Zea mays and beans, Phaseolus vulgaris. WBC is native to North America and has historically been a pest of corn and dry beans in the high plains region of the western US. WBC larvae feed on developing corn kernels, bean pods and seeds. Larval feeding damage causes direct yield losses and can increase subsequent risk of ear mold issues including infection by mycotoxin producing fungi.
WBC moths were first confirmed in Pennsylvania and western New York in 2009, one year after they had been detected in Ontario, Canada. Extensive monitoring during 2010 – 2013 has determined that WBC moths are well distributed across these areas and have expanded their range into Quebec and parts of Vermont. WBC pheromone trap catches increased last summer across many areas of NY, particularly in some western and northern counties.
While there were some WBC “hotspot” locations observed among the 90 New York locations monitored in 2013, eight sites did not catch any WBC moths, 50% of traps caught less than 25 moths, and only 18% of traps caught more than 100 moths per trap. The highest WBC trap catch in NY in 2013 occurred in Sacketts Harbor (Jefferson County) with a total accumulation of 853 moths collected. Midwestern research suggests close inspection of susceptible crops as WBC trap catches reach an accumulation of ~100 per trap and beyond. WBC larval infested corn ears were found in Jefferson, Lewis, St. Lawrence, and Franklin counties. Fortunately, economic damage has not been reported to date by NY field corn, sweet corn or dry bean producers.
To keep watch on WBC populations and help determine this season’s risk of potential impact WBC pheromone traps are again being monitored across the state by a dedicated network of cooperative extension, agricultural consultant and producer volunteers. WBC trap deployment began last week with additional sites coming “on-line” soon. No WBC moths were captured from locations reporting this week.
Western bean cutworm updates will be available at this blog throughout the season and the NYS IPM Sweet Corn Pheromone Trap Network Report as well.
Stay tuned for more information.
Fusarium head blight commentary, June 26, 2014
Dr. Gary Bergstrom, Extension Plant Pathologist, Cornell University
Most, but not all, spring barley and wheat fields in New York State are now past the flowering and early post-flowering stages. This week remains critical for farmers making fungicide spray decisions for suppression of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and protection of flag leaves from foliar diseases in late flowering spring cereals. The triazole products Caramba and Prosaro are the most effective fungicides for suppression of FHB and deoxynivalenol (DON) toxin contamination when applied at wheat flowering (emergence of anthers on heads) or at full head emergence in barley (anthers begin to appear on barley before heads emerge from the boot). A flowering application of triazole fungicide should be based on Fusarium head blight
(FHB) risk as well as the risks of powdery mildew, rust, and fungal leaf blotches in the upper canopy based on scouting of individual fields. There is an application window of approximately 5-6 days from the beginning of flowering in which reasonable FHB suppression can be expected. Fungicide products containing strobilurins should not be applied to headed wheat or barley as they may result in increased levels of DON in grain. The current risk of FHB epidemics is low to moderate for spring wheat and barley over much of the state but precipitation patterns have been highly variable across the state. Check the Fusarium Risk Assessment Tool
(http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/) and your local weather forecast frequently as your crop approaches flowering. This is an excellent time to scout your winter cereal fields to assess FHB incidence and to identify fields that may be at higher risk for DON toxin contamination.
Growing Degree Day Accumulations: Alfalfa Weevil and Black Cutworm Prediction Models
Ken Wise, NYS IPM
Calculating alfalfa weevil activity.
Growing degree Days for peak (50%) Occurrence of Alfalfa Weevil growth stage:
|Stage||Degree Days(Base 48 F)|
(Note: for alfalfa weevil predictions use Base Temp of 48F)
Black Cutworm Degree Days
|Degree days||Stage||Feeding Activity|
|0||Moth Capture||Egg Laying|
|91-311||1st to 3rd instar||Leaf Feeding|
|312-364||4th instar||Cutting begins|
|465-430||5th instar||Cutting begins|
|431-640||6th instar||Cutting slows|
(Note: for black cutworm predictions use Base Temp of 50F from April 12 on)
2014 Degree Day Models for Field Crops across New York
(Base 48) March 1
GDDs (Base 50 F)
Black Cutworm April 12
Source: NEWA Growing Degree Days
Keith Waldron, NYS IPM
*Walk fields to check general field condition, weed issues
*Watch for crop maturity, stand assessments, weed escapes, lodging issues
*Evaluate established legume stands for approximate days until harvest
*Monitor potato leafhopper
*Monitor new seedings for potato leafhopper, pythium blight, phytopthora root rot.
*Monitor winter grain fields for growth stage, disease issues, cereal leaf beetle
*Check stands for diseases, cereal leaf beetle, weed escapes
*Monitor winter wheat for signs of Fusarium Head Blight
*Monitor spring grains for potential risk of fungal diseases – consult Fusarium Head Blight prediction model
*Conduct plant population assessments, early season corn pests including seed corn maggot, white grub, wireworm, black cutworm, armyworm, slugs, diseases, weed issues, vertebrate damage
*Post emergence weed evaluation, timely cultivation and/or weed management
*Conduct plant population assessments, early season corn pests including seed corn maggot, slugs, soybean aphid, diseases, weed issues, vertebrate damage
*Check and mend fences as needed.
*Check crop growth
*Invasive species, plants harmful to livestock
*Review/Plan rotation system
*Remove / clean soil and crop debris from equipment
*Arrange for custom weed control or check your own application or cultivator equipment for repairs.
*Carry appropriate / necessary NYS DEC and EPA required documents: (pesticide applicators license, pesticide labels, MSDS sheets, etc.) with application equipment
- planting equipment – maintain records on planting rate per field
- manure spreaders – maintain records on amount spread per field
- pesticide application equipment – Check nozzles, pumps, etc., recalibrate pesticide application equipment before use. Maintain pesticide use records
* Check stored grain bins for temperature, moisture and signs of mold and insects. Aerate, core, transfer grain or treat as necessary
*Check forage allocation and anticipate feed program adjustments as forages from previous year are used up
*Plan where forages should be stored for optimum allocation next feeding season
*Mow around storage bins and facility to minimize pest hiding places
Dairy Cattle Barn Fly Management:
*Monitor animals and barn area for house fly, stable fly and other pest management needs including presence of rodents and birds.
*Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,
*Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation – clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
* Continue fly monitoring: install “3X5″ index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn
*Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards
*Consider purchase and release of Muscidifurax raptor and/or M. raptorellus natural enemies of house and stable fly pupae.
Dairy Cattle on Pasture:
*Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy per animal side, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal (all four legs)
*Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter – spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal exercise yard.
*Check pasture for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
*Check pasture for vegetation poisonous to livestock
*Consider use of pasture fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly populations