July 29, 2013

NYS IPM Weekly Field Crops Pest Report, July 29, 2013



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In this issue:

  1. View from the Field
  2. Weather Outlook
  3. Stable flies affecting animals on pasture
  4. Japanese Beetles in Soybeans
  5. Western Bean Cutworm Update
  6. Growing Degree Days
  7. Clipboard Checklist

 

IMPORTANT NOTICE

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View from the Field

There are reports of potato leafhopper in alfalfa over threshold this week. In some cases producers have sprayed new seedings of alfalfa for potato leafhopper. At the Cornell Research Farm in Valatie there was an average of 400 leafhoppers per 10 swings of the net (1 sample).

Potato leafhopper damage to alfalfa at the Cornell Research Farm in Valatie

Grey leaf spot was found in corn in several areas of the state this week. The level of infection range from very low to 25% of the corn plants in a field infected. Cercospora zeae-maydis is the fungus that causes the disease. Early symptoms are yellow to tan lesions with a faint watery halo. As the lesion progresses it turns brown and rectangular in shape that exist between the distances of the veins. When fully developed the lesion can be 3 to 4 inches long and a 1/6 to 1/8 inch wide. The fungus can overwinter on corn debris left on the soil surface. Spores develop when it starts getting warm and the humidity started to rise in late spring. The spores can be transmitted by both wind and rain. In some cases gray leaf spot can limit yield up to 5 to 40 bushels of corn per acre.

Management of Gray Leaf Spot

  1. Select corn hybrid with at least moderated resistance to gray leaf spot.
  2. Crop ration and tillage is an effective method to control the fungus.
  3. If you maintain no tillage or reduced tillage rotation away from corn 2 years can help control the fungus.
  4. If the corn has gray leaf spot use of a fungicide is available to the fungus.

Soybean aphids are being reported in most soybeans fields in NY. There has been a few fields over threshold this week that have been sprayed. This last week I was in a field that had been sprayed with fungicide, herbicide and insecticide all in one application without disease or soybean aphid pressure.  Please note that if you are not at threshold DO NOT place an insecticide for soybean aphids in the tank with an herbicide. The extra cost is not needed and is a misuse of a pesticide. This is not an IPM approach to managing soybean aphids. Plus, if you use a pyrethroid you could have a flair up of spider mites. The second thing is that the IPM program did a study several years ago that showed there was no benefit of spraying a fungicide on soybeans without regard to disease pressure. Meaning there is NO benefit to using a fungicide if there is no disease. IPM Requires scouting and determining economic thresholds and levels of disease infections to make educated decisions on control measures.

Justin O’Dea (CCE Ulster County) reports finding downy mildew in soybeans near Kerhonkson, NY. It was a fair amount of downy mildew infection for this time of the year.Mike Hunter reports red headed flea beetle damage in soybeans in Jefferson County this week. Keith Waldron reports that stable fly populations on dairy and beef operations have increased this week. Kitty O’Neal (Regional Field Crops and Soils Specialist-Northern NY) Reports very high populations of true armyworm in hay fields in St. Lawrence. Alex Wright (agronomist, CCA) reports finding true armyworm in field corn near Salem, NY.

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Weather Outlook

July 25, 2013
Andrew Montreuil, NOAA Northeast Climate Center, Cornell University

Last week, temperatures were much above normal across the state, with eastern New York as much as 9º warmer. Precipitation was heaviest in Otsego and Delaware counties, where 2-4″ fell. Other areas from Tompkins to Green county also got over 2″ of rain. In contrast, the areas east of Lake Ontario and into the St. Lawrence River Valley saw less than half-an-inch. Base 50 Growing Degree Days were between 150 and 200 for most of the state, with the highest amounts in the Lake Ontario plain and northern Finger Lakes as well as the Hudson Valley.

Today will generally be a pleasant day with gradually warming temperatures. Sun and a few clouds should be expected for most of the state, but southeast New York will see more clouds than sun and maybe a few rain showers. High temperatures will be in the upper 60s and low 70s. Overnight lows will be mostly in the 50s, with some upper 40s in the Southern Tier.

Friday, most areas will return to the upper 70s with a few areas reaching 80º. No rain is expected on Friday. Overnight lows will be mostly in the mid to upper 50s. A storm system will approach the state Saturday afternoon. Scattered showers and thunderstorms will be possible, but widespread heavy rain looks unlikely. High temperatures will be near 80 with overnight lows mostly in the low 60s. On Sunday, some showers will again be possible as the system slowly moves east. High temperatures will be in the 70s to near 80 for much of the state. Low temperatures will drop into the 50s, with a few locations in the upper 40s. Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday will all be somewhat cloudy and unsettled. Much of the area will stay dry on Monday and Tuesday, with a better chance for a shower or thunderstorm on Wednesday. High temperatures will be in the upper 70s to low 80s on all three days. Overnight lows should generally be in the 50s.

The 7 day precipitation totals will generally be between 0.5″ and 1.5″. Flooding rains seem unlikely at this time. The 8-14 Day outlook calls for near normal temperatures with and near normal precipitation.

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks

National Weather Service watch/warning map

NRCC Drought Page which features the US Drought Monitor map

(updated every Thursday)

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Stable flies affecting animals on pasture

Keith Waldron, NYS IPM

Are your livestock animals stomping their legs to dislodge flies on their lower legs or belly? Are you getting bit around your ankles by an aggressive fly, about the size of a house fly? These biting flies are probably stable flies. The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, is about the size of a house fly but is dark gray. Its abdomen has seven rounded dark spots on the upper surface. Similar in appearance to the common house fly, stable flies have a very prominent “spear-like” biting mouth part that extends forward from under the head. Both male and female stable flies feed on blood several times each day, taking one or two drops at each meal. Stomping of feet is a good indication that stable flies are present, since they normally attack legs and bellies. Production performance declines in infested herds because of the flies’ painful biting activity and animal fatigue from trying to dislodge flies. For more information see Integrated Management of Flies in and around Dairy and Livestock Barns.

Stable fly populations have been on the increase in many areas across the state. Considered a key fly pest of animals in confinement areas, these flies are becoming more of a pest for animals on pasture as well. Stable flies can breed locally in moist organic material such as spilled animal feed, the moist soil with round bale interface, spilled feed around feed bunks, poorly managed compost areas and water weeds washed to lake shorelines. Stable flies can also be transported long distances on weather fronts.

Stable flies are monitored by counting flies on all four legs of about 15 animals in the herd. Treatment is warranted when counts reach an average of 10 flies per animal.

Management requires removal of local conditions that favor fly breeding – i.e. reduce situations that favor accumulation of undisturbed moist organic matter. This option is, of course, not always doable or practical. Efforts are underway to evaluate various fly catching traps to help manage this pest by knocking down populations of locally breeding flies. One trap that has shown to have promise is constructed of clear alsynite (a fiberglass-like material) cylinder. Alsynite is attractive to these biting flies. When outfitted with a clear sticky surface, alsynite traps have been quite effective at capturing stable flies. At least two stable fly traps are available commercially. Two possible sources among others are Olson Products Biting Fly Trap (alsynite) and Farnam’s Equine Products (non-alsynite but attracts via another method).

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Japanese Beetles in Soybeans

Ken Wise, NYS IPM

I am starting to see Japanese beetles in soybeans. This is a large adult metallic green beetle with red or brownish wing covers. It is robust at 1/3 to ½ inch. They feed on the leaflets of the soybeans.

The adults start to lay eggs in the soil in lawns and places with grasses in mid to late June. Each adult can lay between 40 to 60 eggs over the course of their life span. An adult can live 30 to 60 days. There is only one generation per year. Eggs will hatch in 10 to 14 days. This larval stage of this insect is called the “white grub”. It feeds on the roots of grasses like lawns, corn, wheat and pastures.  The larvae will over winter in the soil. They will go deep into the soil where it does not freeze. In the spring the come close to the surface as soil temperatures rise. They will pupate and emerge as an adult in early to mid-June.  Adult beetles feed on the foliage of 300 different host plants in North America. Adult beetles start feeding on soybeans as soon as they are an adult.

They generally feed through June and July. The adult beetle can damage soybeans by feeding on leaflets. The leaflets look skeletonized and turn the leaf brown.

The damage can look really bad … but rarely causes yield loss. Soybeans can take a good deal of defoliation before loss occurs.

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 Western Bean Cutworm Update (7.14-7.20.13)

Western Bean Cutworm moth collections have been on the increase.  WBC catches for the week 7.14-7.20.13 ranged from 0 to 55 with an average of 7.68 WBC moths per trap caught in the 44 traps reporting this week.

Based on trap collections since 2010 we anticipate peak WBC moth collection to occur the week of 7.28 or 8.4. 13.

Pre-tassel corn is the preferred site for WBC egg laying. Midwestern US entomologists recommend monitoring fields for presence of egg masses when trap collections reach an accumulation of 100 moths per trap. WBC egg masses are easy to scout for in corn.

Monitoring for WBC In Corn: Examine the upper surfaces of plant leaves for egg masses and/or small larvae. Egg masses may contain 20 to 200 eggs (averaging ~ 50) per mass. The eggs have been described as looking like tiny cantaloupes (see photo).  In addition to checking for egg masses, examine tassels for larvae before pollen shed. Check 10 consecutive plants in at least 5 random locations in the field. The threshold guideline for treating corn for WBC’s is when 5% of plants are infested with WBC egg masses. WBC eggs are white when first laid and gradually turn purplish just before hatching. WBC prefer pre-tassel corn for egg laying. Sample corn of different planting dates or sample hybrids with different maturities within a field separately. Several ear infesting larvae may occur during this time of year including corn ear worm, European corn borer, corn ear worm and western bean cutworm. Larvae of the first three species are cannibalistic and do not take kindly to competition in the same ear… By contrast, WBC larvae will accept another WBC larvae or two feeding in the same ear. Multiple larvae feeding per ear is a diagnostic for this species. An average of 1 WBC larva per ear has been associated with as much as a 3.7 bu/acre yield loss. Extensive damage to kernels leaves ears vulnerable to attack by ear molds including those that may produce mycotoxins.

Monitoring for WBC In Dry Beans: WBC monitoring in dry beans is much more difficult, IN contrast to WBC feeding in corn where larvae may be found during the daytime, WBC larvae feed on beans at night and retreat to the soil during the daytime. For this reason it is suggested that dry bean fields be monitored for signs of pod damage when nearby WBC trap catches approach 100 WBC’s per trap or local corn fields reach threshold.

Western Bean Cutworm Catch – Average per trap week thru 7.14 – 7. 20.13

County City 6/16 6/23 6/30 7/7 7/14

Total

Allegany Belmont

0

0

0

1

21

22

Allegany Fillmore

0

0

0

0

41

41

Cattaraugus Randolph

7

7

Cayuga Auburn

0

0

0

0

Cayuga Aurora

0

0

0

1

2

3

Clinton Chazy

0

0

0

0

0

0

Columbia Valatie

0

0

0

1

0

1

Delaware Walton

0

0

0

1

1

Delaware West Davenport

0

2

4

6

Dutchess Millbrook

0

0

0

0

1

1

Essex Willsboro

0

0

1

0

3

4

Franklin Malone

0

0

28

28

Franklin Malone

0

1

1

Franklin Malone

0

0

1

1

Genesee Alexander

0

0

1

1

Genesee Stafford

0

1

4

10

15

Jefferson Calcium

29

29

Jefferson Ellisburg

31

31

Jefferson Hounsfield

10

10

Jefferson Plessis

4

4

Jefferson Sacketts Harbor

55

55

Lewis Martinsburg

0

0

0

1

3

4

Livingston Groveland

0

0

0

1

1

Livingston S Caledonia

0

0

1

2

3

Livingston SW Caledonia

0

0

2

1

3

Monroe Spencerport

0

0

6

17

23

Montgomery Palatine Bridge

1

4

5

Oneida Clinton

0

0

0

0

0

Onondaga Tully

0

0

0

0

1

1

Ontario Atwater

3

6

9

Ontario Geneva

0

0

0

0

1

1

Orleans Millville

0

1

1

Rensselaer Brunswick

0

0

0

0

0

0

Schuyler Valois

0

0

0

0

4

4

Seneca Waterloo

0

2

2

St.Lawrence Madrid

5

4

Steuben Wayland

0

0

1

3

4

Steuben

2

1

5

Suffolk Riverhead

0

0

0

0

0

Tompkins Varna

0

0

3

?

8

11

Ulster Accord

0

0

0

Ulster New Paltz

2

2

Washington Hudson Falls

0

0

0

0

1

1

Wayne Macedon

0

0

0

Wayne Penfield

0

0

0

0

0

Wyoming Attica

0

0

3

9

12

Wyoming Wyoming

0

0

6

17

23

Yates Benton

0

1

1

2

Week

6/16/13

6/23/13

6/30/13

7/7/13

7/14/13

Traps Reporting

16

26

37

37

44

WBC/Trap Reporting

0.00

0.00

0.16

1.03

7.68

Accumulated Total

0

0

6

37

338

382

WBC Egg Mass on pre-tassel sweet corn. (Photo K. Waldron)

WBC Egg Mass (Photo J. Gardner)

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Growing Degree Days Models

Ken Wise, NYS IPM

Table 1: Current Growing Degree Days in NYS

March 1 –  July 21, 2013

                        Base 50 F   

Chazy              1327

Geneva            1417

Highland         1655

Ithaca              1441

Versailles        1440

Watertown      1288

NEWA Growing Degree Days

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Clipboard Checklist

Keith Waldron, NYS IPM

General

*Walk fields to check general field condition, weed issues, areas of soil erosion, ponding

Alfalfa:
*Evaluate established legume stands for approximate days till harvest
*Monitor alfalfa regrowth for potato leafhopper (PLH)
*Monitor new seedings for PLH, Pythium blight and Phytopthora Rot.
*Note any areas of continued ponding

Small Grains:
*Monitor winter grain fields for growth stage, disease issues, time until harvest

Corn:
*
Conduct mid season corn pests including European corn borer, armyworm, slugs, foliar diseases such as northern corn leaf blight, gray leaf spot, eyespot, weed issues, vertebrate damage
*Note any areas of continued ponding

Soybeans:
*
Conduct mid-season soybean pests such as soybean aphid, slugs, diseases, weed issues, vertebrate damage
*Note any areas of continued ponding

Pastures:
*
Check and mend fences as needed.
*Check crop growth
*Monitor for invasive species, plants harmful to livestock
*Review/Plan rotation system

Equipment:
*Remove / clean soil and crop debris from equipment
*
Arrange for custom weed control or check your own application or cultivator equipment for repairs.
*Carry appropriate / necessary NYS DEC and EPA required documents: (pesticide applicators license, pesticide labels, MSDS sheets, etc.) with application equipment
*Calibrate: planting equipment – maintain records on planting rate per field

  • manure spreaders – maintain records on amount spread per field
  • pesticide application equipment – Check nozzles, pumps, etc., recalibrate pesticide application equipment before use. Maintain pesticide use records

Storage:
* Check stored grain bins for temperature, moisture and signs of mold and insects. Aerate, core, transfer grain or treat as necessary
*
Check forage allocation and anticipate feed program adjustments as forages from previous year are used up
*Plan where forages should be stored for optimum allocation next feeding season
*Mow around storage bins and facility to minimize harborage and pest hiding places

Dairy Cattle Barn Fly Management:
*Monitor animals and barn area for house fly, stable fly and other pest management needs including presence of rodents and birds.
*Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,
*Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation – clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
* Continue fly monitoring: install “3X5″ index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn
*Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards
*Consider purchase and release of Muscidifurax raptor and/or M. raptorellus, natural enemies of house and stable fly pupae.

Dairy Cattle on Pasture:
*Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy per animal side, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal (all four legs)
*Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter – spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal exercise yard.
*Check pasture for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
*Check pasture for vegetation poisonous to livestock
*Consider use of pasture fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly

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