IARD 6020 (spring 2018)

Agriculture in the Developing Nations II

RI: 17th Jan. 2018- Wheat Research Station, Self Help Women Groups, Gramodhyog and APMC market.

17th of Jan. 2018, was experienced as a RI team member as described below.

The day’s activities started with the visit to Wheat Research Institute, UAS Dharwad. The centre was working as a part of All India Co ordinated Wheat Improvement Project under Directorate of Wheat and Barley Research. The role of the centre was breeding for disease resistance and quality improvement in wheat, be it early maturity or processing and table qualities. They are working on different varieties of all the three species of wheat viz.  Triticum aestivum, T. dicoccum and T. durum. For all the information regarding the performance of the wheat varieties under study, database is collected at national level and it is made available at ICAR website. Similar wheat variety improvement project is going on in 33 different countries globally to combat the present and upcoming biotic and abiotic stresses.

‌Next we visited AICRP on Home Science which is working on four components, viz. Child development, clothing and textile, Family Resource Management and Home Science extension. The Child development component focuses on overall physical and nutritional development of children. To meet the goals they educate pre-school teachers and also address maternity issues to reduce mortality rates. On the other hand, the Clothing and textile component is producing eco-friendly fibres and going for natural dyeing. They also train women SHGs members in various activities like cutting, stitching, bag making activities, garment designing, screen printing, etc. Currently, the SHG members are supplying the “Seed Project” of UAS Dharwad with cloth bag for seed distribution.
‌Objective of the FRM is to popularize women friendly technologies in farm and household. Finally, the Home Science extension reaches the rural poor and disseminate the technologies.
‌An interaction session was held with some of the SHG members, trained under the wing of AICRP on Home Science. The women shared their life changing experiences at individual level, in the family and at community level, after taking up cutting, stitching, designing and other activities as their means of livelihood.

‌Our third visit was to the National award winning Institute in the field of Khadi and village industries, Gramodhyog at Bengeri. This centre was established back in the year 1957 and the only centre involved in manufacturing of The Indian National Flag under BIS certification in the entire nation. All the works, starting from spinning, yarning, dyeing and weaving are done by local employees, majority of which are women.

We also witnessed the printing of the “Ashok Chakra” – the 24 spoked wheel in the middle of the tricolor, which symbolizes ‘movement’.

Our last visit was to APMC market, Belgum, Karnataka. It is the first e market in the country which separates farmers produce for online marketing.

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RI January 16th – KCRS 90.4 FM, ATIC & Farmer Helpline, Veterinary Care, Cattle Market, & Navalur Seed Village

If you cannot tell from the title of this post, it was an absolutely jam-packed day for the Rural Infrastructure team. Bright and early we visited UASD’s most comprehensive pet project, the Krishi Community Radi0 station. Over ten years ago the university started a pilot agricultural radio station to revitalize information dissemination with a new focus on programming made by communities and farmers over agronomists and extension agents. For eight hours every day, the station broadcasts an eclectic mix of local music, indigenous knowledge, and cutting-edge research made by and for residents in a 35km radius around UASD.

The impressive 75% penetration of the program can interestingly be attributed to the radio service being broadcasted to local schools where children have taken a liking to the medium and have asked their parents to invest money in a radio and time in the station. This has allowed the Agricultural Technology Information Center (ATIC) and its farmer helpline to raise awareness for university resources on preventing farmer suicide and increase ease of use for extension type activities. While we visited the center we listened in on two phone calls of a farmer trying to troubleshoot leaf rust on Bengal gram, otherwise known as chickpea.

Right outside of the Information Center is the University’s veterinary care center. Men stood around as they awaited treatment for their goats, cows, and farm dogs. As unnerving as the sights and sounds of distressed animals were, the care center is an invaluable resource for farmers who are not able to pay vet prices that could be hundreds to thousands of dollars. Farm animals are taken care of for free, while domestic animals are assessed and treated for 30 rupees, the price of registration. To round off our experience with animals, we then traveled back to the center of town to visit Dharwad’s open-air cattle market. Unlike our system of animal auctions, the rural Indian system favors an exchange among buyers who pick and choose at their leisure. Middlemen shake hands and pass around about $1500 equivalent in a ceremonious yet highly informal ritual whereby the price is haggled somewhat. Our guide remarked that in the thirty-five years he has worked at the exchange, the only things that have changed have been the prices. To connect the market back to veterinary health, it is unfortunate that there are no monitoring and biological controls to limit transmission of zoonoses, and the only time animals are verified is after the purchase of dairy cattle.

Our last visit of the very long day was to the Navalur Seed Village where farmers grow and test university seed before it can be sold to the market. They receive their inputs at free or subsidized rates and are given a premium when they sell the seed back for processing. Government subsidies are ubiquitous in all aspects of Indian agriculture, and the amounts practically given to these farmers could only bring the word ‘unsustainable’ to mind. Although the side-by-side comparison of Bengal gram rust resistance was stunning to say the least.


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Visit to Badami Caves

On 15th of January the whole IARD had the pleasure of visiting the famous Badami caves located in Badami, a small town in Bagalkota District of Karnataka. After a journey of about 4 hours,we reached the badami caves. We hired a guide for the tour and he gave us detailed note on the history and sculptures of the caves. This caves represents Badami Chalukya Architecture dated during the 6th century. There are a total of 4 caves, of which cave 1 has various sculptures of Hindu divinities along with a prominent carving of Shiva as Nataraj (Tandava dance) to the right of the entrance. Shiva has his son Ganesha, the bull Nandi by his side.
Cave 2 is dedicated to Vishnu. Scluptures depict the legend Vishnu in his Trivakara form, taking one of the three steps.
Among all the caves the largest was Cave 3 which featured Vishnu related mythology(Hindu God). Its primary theme is Vaishnavite, though it also shows Harihara (half Vishnu half Shiva) on southern wall.
Cave 4 is dedicated to Tirthankaras, the revered figures of Jainism. Inside the cave the major carvings of Bahubali, Parshvanatha and Mahavira with symbolic display of other Tirthankaras are seen.
All these caves are carved on soft Sandstone on a hill cliff. The cave temples are linked by a stepped path with intermediate terraces overlooking the town and lake. As stated by our guide ,the architecture includes structures built in the Nagara and Dravidian styles which was the first and most persistent architectural idiom to be adopted by the early Chalukyas.

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Rural Infrastructure- Recap

The whole IARD 6020 team has returned to their respective homes and we are already preparing for and engaged in our lives outside of the IARD experience.  Over the course of the last three weeks, we’ve all undergone a panoply of experiences that in the coming days and weeks we will continue to contextualize both academically and personally.  To each individual participating in the trip, each lesson and event will be perceived differently.  I cannot speak for everyone when I say it, but I can say that for me, this trip has been an extremely positive experience.

I won’t rehash the day-to-day activities over the course of the trip, but I will state what, for me, were two of the key takeaways.  First, India is in a rapid state of transformation.  This is far from an original or controversial thought, but my first-hand experiences in the country have made it resonate in a way that I can almost taste in my mouth.  The non-stop horn honking, abundant halfway-built concrete structures, and the menu of various smells in the air engendered in everyone on the trip a greater appreciation for the massive undertaking that we call “Development in India.”  Our experiences have written our abstractions into memories.  In years to come, when we are all ensconced in the daily grind of policy making, plant breeding, research, or in whatever occupation we work, we can leverage these memories to inform how our work will affect change at the ground floor.

The second takeaway for me is about the people.  This trite realization has been so commonly realized because of its utility and truth.  The people we’ve met and with whom we’ve formed relationships, notably the relationships built between students from India and the US, have allowed for the transfer of a deeper ilk of knowledge that was not available from a mere two-hour visit.  I feel I have gained substantial information about development in India from our visits, and we have all deposited this data into our notes and memories.  But what I understand about the development of India has come from my relationships with those I’ve spent my time with.  And to them, and all involved in the many complex logistics setting up this trip, I am grateful.  Thank you.

Chris Harris

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FSAD Final Day

Hello from Ithaca! It’s Jess Wojnicki here with a recap of FSAD’s last day in India. 

After a lovely breakfast with plenty of coffee, we boarded the bus and headed to our first stop: fabricspa. 

Fabricspa is both a domesticand commercial laundry company. Fabricspa is owned by the parent company Jyothy Laboratories Limited, which was established in 1983. Since this time, they have grown and acquired many companies and are currently operating in both India and abroad. Fabrciaspa was created on the basis of a social change. With families moving from one person working to two, there has been a growing disposable income and a desire to use time for other activities and not household chores. They have great ambitions to grow within the next 3 years. Within this next year, they are planning to open a new facility in Hyderabad. We were also shown some great marketing campaigns they did that revolve around different cultural events. For example, they did one campaign around the Dasara and another around Christmas to promote their brand, as seen in the picture with Santa. 

Additionally, they are extremely environmentally conscious. To fuel their factory, they use brickets. Brickets are composed of natural waste materials, such as tamarind or peanut peels. They are then compressed and dried. Once dried, they are used in the factories instead of wood or oil. 

Fabricspa was really interesting because it was very different from the other factories we saw during our trip. Instead of looking at the process to make the clothes, we saw the process of keeping the clothes in their best form. Their goal is to make the fabrics “as good as new.” Their laundry experts treat each garment as a unique case, picking out which treatment is best for the garment. 

Our second visit was to Master Rao’s Temple of Hope, Opportunity, and Happiness (MRT). MRT is actually a cut and sew facility run by our sponsor, UDG. This facility produces garments for brands such as Justice, Lane Bryant, and Katherine’s. We were welcomed with roses and hairnets, as modeled by Jackie. 

During this visit we saw fabric that we had previously seen at SSM printing facility. The viscose/rayon crepe was being used for Justice clothing.

The main garment in production was a dress for Justice. Be on the lookout for this denim top and pink, sparkly skirt! We saw this garment through each stage of the process; beginning at fabric check, moving to the cutting process, and finally seeing the garment on the line being completed. We also saw a thread catcher, which removes all excess threads in the garment through the use of air. This was a new machine we hadn’t seen at previous facilities. 

Our third and final visit was Amtek. This is an embroidery and trim facility. The fabrics made here are 100% exported, mainly to African countries such as Nigeria. The fabrics can be sold in either a two piece set or a single set and are tailored for the woman once she receives the fabric. We were also able to see sequins being made for the first time during this trip. The sequins begin as a film and are punched into their shape as they travel through the machine, resulting in a string of sequins. These are then used to do some of the embroidery work on the fabrics. 

Once the fabric is embroidered, it I sent up to be checked, mended, and cut to size. The picture below shows the fabrics being processed by the facility after the embroidery is finished. 

We also were able to meet the designers and see them work. Their office has a very cool view as it overlooks the embroidery factory floor. They create the designs based on consumer demands. The designs are approved first by the consumer to ensure that the fabric will be used. We were informed that this is their smaller factory, with only 33 machines in use. Their other, larger factory has 87 machines in use. 

As we were leaving Amtek, we were greeted by an exceptionally adorable puppy. A picture of him posing for me in the middle of the street can be seen below. It was a great way to be sent off from our final visit! 

We returned to MRT one last time to repack or bags and get situated for our flight. We received some garments that had been sent to the tailor while in Bangalore, such as the beautiful Ikat shirt Dexter is modeling. 

Right before we left, we planted a jack fruit tree in the garden behind the factory. 

After this, we began our trip to the airport and headed through security. Many of us grabbed last minute gifts in the shops throughout the terminal right before we boarded. 

As we finish up the trip, I want to thank both Sathguru and UDG for welcoming us into their wonderful country. Specifically, Prathyusha and Mr. Deepak for showing us around and being with us every step of the way. We are truly lucky to have had this experience and your support. 

And finally, I would like to thank our truly incredible professors, Professor Green and Professor Kozen and Dexter. I could not imagine this trip without your constant positivity and words of wisdom. Words cannot explain how grateful we are for you. 

Thank you for all you have done for us to make this trip possible and enjoyable for all the students. 

Although I will miss India, I am excited to be home and share my experience with my family and friends. 













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FSAD 01.19.18

Happy Birthday, Rachel Getman!  The FSAD team woke up to a gorgeous morning way up in the mountains, with an altitude of about 4470 ft.  We enjoyed a relaxing, outdoor group breakfast, and were on our way by 8:45 am.  We made a quick stop to the top of the mountain, where we got the opportunity to step into a temple that was built inside a cave.  In the process, we had also made some cow friends!  The full views from the top were incredible – you could see the curvature of the horizon line in the distance.  With an approximate speed of 18.8 mph, we then headed back down the winding roads of the mountain to start our day.  Through the smog, you could see the outlines of the city below, and monkeys lined the sides of the road all the way down.

Our first visit of the day was Sri Murugan Exports, which is a yarn-dyed fabric facility where we saw the process of turning yarn into a finished fabric.  Here, all of the fabrics are woven.  When the yarn first arrives, they wind it and bleach it.  The sample colors are then tested, and once these colors get approved by the consumers, the process is continued by creating a dye bath for the yarns.  We saw their testing lab for developing recipes for dyes, and learned that the yarn is wound onto a plastic cone with holes so that the dyes can get through the yarns and the color is equally distributed.  The dyeing process is done at 80 degrees Celsius, and total process takes around 12 hours: 3 hours to bleach, 6 hours in the dye baths, and 3 hours for post-washing the yarns.  Darker colors, such as black, navy, and red, take a longer time to dye.  The company uses all fiber reactive dyes because they are working with cellulose fibers.  We learned that their sampling unit minimum is 3 kg, and their maximum is 10 kg.  After both the bleaching and dyeing processes, the yarns spend 30 minutes in a hydraulic centrifuge to remove excess water, and then the yarn is set to dry for about 12 hours.  The automatic dryer we saw runs on electricity and only takes an hour.  This, however, is more expensive to operate, and therefore it is more effective for the company to alternate using machines.

After dyeing is completed, the company delivers the dyed yarns to their waving center not too far down the road.  In the weaving center, we saw employees placing the dyed yarns through the needles that would then be put into the machines to create the woven fabrics.  Some of the workers were wearing bandanas/masks to cover their nose and mouth, but the noise was extremely loud, and must have a toll on their ears.  We even saw one worker using the selvage edge of the fabric as “ear plugs.”  The last part of the process that we saw was that of fabric checking.  It is here where workers are searching for slubs, floats, holes, stains, and variations in yarn dye within the finished fabrics.  Mistakes within the fabrics will either be flagged so that factories can work around them, or the workers will mend the imperfections themselves. In 100 meters of finished fabric, the maximum number of defects allowed is 40.

After some traveling and eating lunch, we headed for Krishnagiri, to see the village where many United Dry Goods (UDG) employees work.  As our hosts, UDG has done an exceptional job planning out an exciting and educational trip for the FSAD team.  Their property upon arrival was packed with fields growing mangos, bananas, chilies, tamarind and more!  When we walked in, we were greeted with decorations and a celebration of wonderful dances performed by younger students.  We were given coconuts to drink out of, and they even surprised us with a cake for Rachel’s birthday!  To continue the festivities, we headed to the on-site Saibaba temple.  The deity within this temple was “like a teacher,” so we look to him to give us guidance and success.  On the way, we saw the apparel training center for garment production, and another facility in the process of being built.  In addition, we saw where they harvest rain water to produce fish.

An important takeaway from our experience at UDG is that this village was all about place.  Even the buildings are made from materials from this area.  They use this village to unite and uplift workers through this safe, comfortable environment.  After we parted, the FSAD team hit the road again for our journey back to Bangalore for our final night in India.

Erica Resnick


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FSAD 1/18/18 – Our Day in Tirapur

Today we checked out of our hotel in Erode and drove down to Tirapur for our first stop of the day: Jeyavishnu Tex Processors Private Ltd. This textile processing facility prides itself on its low environmental impact and compliance with environmental law and regulations. Jeyavishnu is capable of producing GOT certified fabric, as they hold separate facilities within their plant that exclusively uses certified organic dyes and finishes. They can also produce fabric that is OEKO-TEX certified, which signifies that the fabric’s processing does not result in any residual toxic chemicals. Unlike our previous factory visits, Jetavishnu only produces circular knit fabrics. The facility operates 24 hours a day and only closes 4 days a year for the Pongal holiday. 500 employees work here – about 150 workers per 8 hour shift – and of that 500, 400 workers live on-site and 100 live off-site in the neighboring towns.


We weren’t allowed to take pictures inside the facility, but here are the certifications displayed outside the building.

To begin our tour of the facility, we first visited the Dyeing Department. Here is where batching takes place, which involves stitching each individual roll of fabric to one another before it is fed into the machine. A “batch card” is created for each fabric, which delineates the fabric’s dyes and other processing needs so that it is properly taken through the remainder of the production process.

Next we went into the Color Lab. Here, dye recipes are created and inputed into the electronic color data system. Once a company requests a certain color for a fabric, workers go to the Color Matching System Lab where they match the desired color to their corresponding recipe on file. A Datacolor Spectrometer is used to help locate the recipe and measure any color discrepancy. Identified recipes are mixed very carefully and placed in glass jars onto the robotic lab dispenser, where they are taken to lab dyeing machines. This facility uses automatic mixers to produce the recipes in order to minimize error and ensure that all proportions of ingredients are exact.

Since slight variations between batches of dye recipes are inevitable, the facility dyes a number of fabric swatches to send to the buyer, who then selects his/her preferred option. Only 10 grams of fabric are developed before approval by the buyer, but as soon as a fabric is approved it goes into full production.

Next we were led into the main production area, where we came across the Airflow Dyeing Machines. The operation of these machines requires substantially less water than that of typical dyeing machines, making them a more sustainable option. This facility contains two Airflow Dyeing Machines, as well as some Soft Flow Dyeing Machines. The airflow machines are made up of six chambers, which can each hold a very large capacity of 50 kilograms. Washing, bleaching, and dyeing of the fabric can all be done in these machines.

Next we saw the finishing machines. This facility contains two types of finishing machines: a Tubular Padding Machine and a Split Opener. The Tubular Padding Machine finishes knits in the tubular form. This machine pads the fabric and then stretches it to extrude any residual dye and get it back into shape in case shrinkage occurred when dyeing. The Split Opener, used to finish split fabrics, places a needle on one line of the knit fabric as it moves through the machine so that it stays in place and remains a consistent width.

The fabrics are then dried; there are separate machines for both tubular and split open fabrics. After drying, the fabrics are stretched and tentered to ensure consistent width, and then compacted.

The total amount of time it takes to dye a fabric varies depending on its color: reds and dark colors, such as black and navy, take about 10 hours, whites take about 4 hours, and all other colors take 6 to 8 hours.

Next we went on to view the Printing Department. First we had the chance to view textile printing, which is done using large rotary printers. While we saw a colorful fabric being produced with 6 colors, these rotary printers are able to print designs with up to 12 colors. Unlike the automated mixing of dyes that occurs at this facility, printing pigments are all mixed manually. After fabrics are printed on the rotary printers, they are cured to fix the prints into the fabrics and then placed into a cold wash to complete the finishing process. We were shown both an unfinished fabric and a finished fabric to compare hand feel, and there was a very apparent difference between the two; the finishing process imparts much better drape and a smoother hand. Lastly, the workers cut a fabric sample from the full yardage to be weighed. Fabric weighing is an important final step in this process, as it checks that the fabric meets the client’s standards.

Next we went to the garment printing section, which contains large automated silk screen printers that each holds 20 separate silk screens. Garment pieces that are cut out but not yet stitched together are placed into these silk screens for printing (the process goes that Jeyavishnu dyes the fabric and sends it to the client, the client then cuts out the garment panels and sends the fabric back to Jeyavishnu for screen printing, and then the printed fabric gets sent back to the client for stitching). Garments can be printed with designs of up to 14 colors. After printing, the fabrics are heat cured to set the color in place. Before mass production, Jeyavishnu will first manually expose a few screen prints so they can send samples, called strike-offs, to the client to check for light variation and choose their preferred option. At Jeyavishnu, 50% of prints are done with pigments, 30% are done with discharge prints, and 20% are made using reactive prints.

Then we stepped outside and came across a Lord Ganeisha Temple that is made available for employees to use during their workdays. Our guide explained to us that, in addition to this temple, Jeyavishnu also provides a prayer room, meditation room, yoga instructor, and hospital on-site for employees. Another interesting aspect of this facility is that a Hindu mantra called “God’s Prayer” plays 24 hours throughout the factory, which we heard as we went throughout our tour.

Finally, we were taken to the Effluent Water Treatment Plant, which allows all the waste water from production to be re-used. Once waste water is funneled into the plant, it goes into a tank where it’s spun and the sediments are separated from the water. Next, the water undergoes three treatments, followed by another five-stage treatment. After that, the solids are completely removed from the water, and 98% of this water is recycled back into the production system. The other 2% of the liquid is salt, which is also re-used in production for other purposes. It was exciting to see how this facility fully re-uses all of its production waste and puts a lot of focus on maintaining good environmental practices.

After our tour, our host at Jeyavishnu Tex Processors took us to an authentic Indian restaurant for lunch. A baby shower was being held at the restaurant, and some of us caught a glimpse of the festivities. It seemed like quite a special and exciting celebration with an abundance of food and colorful decorations (see photo below).

After lunch, we went shopping at a market in downtown Tirapur. Known as the “knit city” of India, Tirapur contains many shops selling grey goods, seconds, and surplus garments left over from production that are then sold at a great discount. It was fun to sort through the racks of knit garments to find hidden treasures and try to pinpoint which fabrics had defects.

Some of us also ventured into the local bakeries to try traditional Indian treats and grab some snacks to bring home for family and friends.

Then we embarked on our 4-hour-long journey to Yercaud. Yercaud is situated at the top of a mountain, so the atmosphere in this area is quite different than in the other regions we’ve traveled; the cooler, crisp air was a nice change of pace from the dusty, hot air and smog that we’d been experiencing the past couple of weeks. Once we reached our hotel in Yercaud, we were greeted with a very warm welcome by the employees, who set up a full dinner buffet and bonfire outside waiting for us (along with a personal DJ). We spent time by the bonfire chatting, reflecting on all we’d seen today and how truly eye-opening this whole trip has been the past 13 days. This was the perfect way to cap off yet another busy day, decompress, and get ready for our last full day in India!

Very best,

Jackie DeVito & the FSAD team

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VA: I. Tirumala Dairy, Hydrabad.

Tirumala Milk Products Private Limited is a leading dairy company in South India established in the year 1996. Tirumala produces dairy products across nine states of southern India. In 2014, Tirumala owned by French company- Lactalis. It has seven processing plants. All plants have ISO 22000:2005 certification, ISO 9001:2000 certification, Halal certification and export certification to ensure food safety. Tirumala dairy receives the milk from cooperative sectors. They process the milk by two methods, first one is by pasteurization- heating of milk at 72°C for 15 sec and packing in LDPE pouches and second method is by UHT (Ultra High Temperature) which involves sterilization of milk at 137°C for 4 sec and packaging is done with 6 layered tetra pack . Tirumala dairy also engaged in the manufacturing of wide range of dairy products such as milk powder, milk sweets, flavoured milk, curd, butter, ghee, cheese, lassi, paneer etc. Plant is well maintained and well equipped. They do protein, fat, acidity, SNF, adulteration and microbial quality tests by advanced methods.

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VA: National Research Institute of Meat (NRCM), Hydrabad.

National Research Institute of Meat was established in 1999 with a vision to develop the Indian meat sector through efficient and organized activities. Centre gives the modern technological and hygiene practices for production and processing of meat and also value added meat products. It conducts the training programmes on healthy meat production, processing and consumption. It also does an adulteration tests by DNA and proteomic methods. Presently they are doing research on super cooling of meat at -1 or -2 °C under vacuum packing condition which will reduce the thawing time and also to extend the shelf life of meat.

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Norman Borlaug, Garag village, and organic market

Today, all groups in Dharwad traveled together. We began with a short visit to the university to view the statue of Norman Borlaug, which was just unveiled the other week. Then, we had a question and answer session with the vice chancellor of the agricultural university. He spoke to Borlaug’s last wish of seeing agricultural development occurring in Africa, and the similarities between development that occurs in India, and is applicable in Africa. Due to the similar climate, soils, and cropping systems, much of the development activity that we have witnessed over the past week or so is directly transferable to development work being done in African countries. In fact, Sathguru is currently doing work in Malawi, developing a certified seed production project that is based off the project we have seen at Dharwad.

We also visited a village producing a variety of baked goods made from smart foods previously learned about, being millets and sorghums. We were able to sample a variety of their sweets, and the group purchased many snacks. We were very impressed with the quality of their products, and the creative uses of orphan crops.
At this complex, we were able to enter the home of a farmer’s family. The entire family unit was composed of at least four or five brothers, and their entire families. 40 people lived in the house. We were able to ask about their religion (Jainism), occupations, family economics, and gender roles within the household. It was nice to be welcomed so fully into one’s home, as we were offered refreshments and all of our questions were answered openly and willingly.

Lastly, we visited an organic market, where we were able to interact with some of the local organic farmers. These farmers create groups of 30. Together, they receive certification, which they have to pay 45,000 rupees to maintain each year. They utilize cow dung and urine as natural pesticides and fertilizers.
While we were there, one man won $20,000 as a reward for his efforts in conserving biodiversity on his farm. His award was titled the Plant Genome Savior Community Award.

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