Natural enemies of pests are going to help you out with pest control, so when you are applying pesticides, it’s in your best interest to choose products that will have the least impact on them. Two quick points before we get into details for where to find this information:
- Remember that the information in this post is not a substitute for a pesticide label. The label is the law, and you must read and follow the label of any pesticide you are using. Laws and labels change. It is your responsibility to use pesticides legally. Trade names used here are for convenience only; no endorsement of products is intended, nor is criticism of unnamed products implied. For questions about pesticide use, regulations, and safety, contact the Cornell Pesticide Management Education Program: firstname.lastname@example.org.
- A great way to protect natural enemies is by following the steps for IPM. Preventing pests (e.g., through cultural strategies and exclusion), scouting to detect pests early when populations are low, and proper identification of pests will help you reduce your need to use pesticides and can save you money. Win win!
Ok, let’s assume you’re doing good IPM and you’ve gotten to the point where you need to choose a pesticide. How do you make the best choice for protecting natural enemies? Here are a few options. (Note that I did post about this about 2 years ago. I’ve learned more, so I thought an update would be in order.)
Read the label
This should go without saying. You should be doing this anyway when you are considering using a pesticide. The label may contain information about the compatibility of a pesticide with either natural enemies or pollinators. And of course it will contain important information about how to minimize risks to yourself and the environment when you use it.
EIQ stands for Environmental Impact Quotient. You can read more details on the NYSIPM website, but in a nutshell the EIQ puts a number on the risks of pesticides at the rates they are applied in the field. You can use the EIQ calculator on our website to compare these numbers for different pesticides. The higher the number, the higher the risk. There are different components to the EIQ; risks to consumers, workers, and the environment (ecological). The ecological risk will include risks to natural enemies (as well as fish, birds, and bees).
Pocket IPM Greenhouse Scout App
Especially if you are growing in a greenhouse and releasing a lot of natural enemies, you may find this app helpful. In addition to providing information about compatibility of pesticides with arthropod natural enemies you may be releasing, you can also use it to help you keep records of scouting and product applications.
If you are a commercial producer, hopefully you are already utilizing the Cornell Guidelines, as they are a wealth of information on many subjects. At least some of them also include information on the toxicity of different pesticides to natural enemies. For example, if you have the grape guidelines, check out Table 4.2.2 for insecticide toxicity to natural enemies.
Websites and apps from companies that produce natural enemies
Companies that sell natural enemies (especially predatory and parasitoid arthropods for greenhouse pest control) have an interest in making sure that customers don’t inadvertently kill the natural enemies they buy with pesticides they are applying. I am aware of searchable databases or charts describing pesticide compatibility from four companies that sell (mostly) arthropod and nematode natural enemies: Agrobio, Biobest, BioWorks, and Koppert. If you know of some I’ve missed, please let me know! There are of course other companies that supply natural enemies. Here I’m focusing on resources that help you choose pesticides to conserve natural enemies.
This website is also available as an app for Android (but not Apple) devices. To use it, start by clicking Organisms selection and choose the natural enemies you want to conserve. Then, click Ingredients selection and choose the pesticides you are thinking about applying. You can only search active ingredients, not product names. Finally, click Query. Use the legend to help you interpret the table that’s produced.
This website is also available as an app for Android and Apple devices. Use either the Active ingredient or the Commercial product tab to select pesticides by active ingredient or trade name. Then, search for the name of the Beneficial organism you want to conserve. Note that there are a lot of pesticide/natural enemy combinations for which toxicity data just aren’t available. If you select a pesticide, then natural enemies for which no data are available will be grayed out in the Beneficial organism list. As you check boxes next to pesticides and natural enemies, a chart is automatically generated. The legend includes keys for information on toxicity (to natural enemies and bumble bees), application methods, and persistence of the product. You can generate a pdf of your results, but it won’t include the legends.
Check out this resource that summarizes the compatibility of BioWorks biopesticides with arthropod and nematode natural enemies.
This website is also available as an app for Android and Apple devices. Start by entering the name of the Beneficial organism you want to conserve. You can search by either the Koppert product name, or the Latin (scientific) name, but you can’t select from a drop-down menu. Just start typing. Then, choose the Agent (pesticide you are considering applying), by either trade name or active ingredient. Again, you need to know the name; you can’t select from a drop-down list. Start typing, and then check the box next to the product you are interested in. Click Results and be sure to click on ‘Legend’ at the bottom to help you interpret the table. There is also a more complete explanation of information in the legend under Info.
Some caveats about these websites
Admittedly, finding information about conserving natural enemies that are not commercially available for release (e.g., in greenhouses) has some challenges. These websites tend to focus on what you can buy and release, rather than on what may be naturally occurring in a field. Although sometimes there is some overlap. These apps/websites don’t include all natural enemies, and data aren’t available for all natural enemy/pesticide combinations. Also, these websites/apps usually list natural enemies by scientific names. Do you know what the scientific name of a lacewing is? I didn’t before I started this job!
To help with this last barrier, I created a chart (also below) to help you figure out what scientific names you should look for on these websites/apps if you want to conserve a particular natural enemy. It also includes information about which pests the natural enemies target, whether they are commercially available, and whether they are naturally occurring (not necessarily native) in NY.
Arthropod and nematode natural enemies
|Can I buy them?||Found in NY?||If I want to conserve this beneficial arthropod…||(whose scientific name is…)||that helps me control…||I should look for these names on the compatibility apps:|
|yes||yes||aphid midges||Aphidoletes aphidimyza||aphids||Aphidoletes aphidimyza|
|some||yes||beetles that are predators (for example, rove beetles, ground beetles, and others)||Coleoptera is the scientific name of the insect group that includes all beetles. The following families are generally predatory: Coccinellidae (lady beetles), Carabidae (ground beetles), Staphylinidae (rove beetles), Cantharidae (soldier beetles), Melyridae (flower beetles)||many insect pests||Coleoptera is a beneficial insect listed on at least one compatibility app. However, some coleoptera are pests. And, since this is such a broad group, the compatibility information provided may not be correct for all beneficial beetle species.|
|yes||hover flies, syrphid flies||Syrphus spp, and many, many others||aphids||Syrphus spp.; Syrphus corollae; Episyrphus balteatus|
|some||yes||lacewings||Chrysoperla spp. and some others||aphids, insect eggs, small larvae||Chrysopa carnea = Chrysoperla carnea; Chrysoperla spp.|
|some||yes||lady beetles||Coccinellidae||aphids, mites, small insects, insect eggs||Coccinelidae, Coccinella 7-punctata, Hippodamia convergens|
|some||yes||minute pirate bug||Orius insidiosus||insect eggs, small caterpillars, thrips, mites, aphids||Orius laevigatus may be a reasonable proxy; Orius spp.; Orius insidiosus|
|yes||yes||nematodes||Steinernema spp., Heterorhabditis spp.||thrips, fungus gnats, shore flies, some grubs||Nematodes (note that this is a very broad category and it’s possible there are differences among species), Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema, Steinernema feltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae|
|some||yes||parasitoid wasp||Aphidius spp.||aphids||Aphidius spp., Aphidius colemani, Aphidius matricariae, Aphidius ervi|
|some||yes||parasitoid wasp||Eulophidae, Diglyphus spp.||leafminer larvae||Diglyphus isaea|
|yes||yes||parasitoid wasp||Braconids, Dacnusa sibirica||leafminers||Dacnusa sibirica|
|yes||parasitoid wasp||Aphelinidae, Aphelinus semiflavus||aphids on potatoes||Aphelinus abdominalis or Aphelinus mali may be reasonable proxies|
|yes||yes||predatory gall midge||Feltiella acarisuga||spider mites||Feltiella acarisuga|
|some||yes||predatory mites||Amblyseius (= Neoseiulus) fallacis, Typhlodromus spp., and probably others||thrips, whitefly, pest mites; may vary among natural enemy species||Amblyseius californicus, Amblyseius cucumeris, Amblyseius swirskii, Phytoseiulus persimilis are sold commercially and may be good proxies for the pesticide compatibility of naturally-occurring predatory mites|
|yes||yes||spined soldier bug||Podisus maculiventris||many immature insects, including many species of caterpillars||Podisus maculiventris|
|some||trichogramma wasps||Trichogramma spp.||moth eggs||Trichogramma spp., Trichogramma brassicae, Trichogramma cacoeciae, Trichogramma evanescens, Trichogramma pretiosum|
Other species of interest…
|Can I buy them?||Found in NY?||If I want to conserve this beneficial insect…||(whose scientific name is…)||that helps me control…||I should look for these names on the compatibility apps:|
|yes||yes||bumble bee||Bombus spp.||NA – pollinator||Bombus spp., Bombus terrestris|
|yes||yes||European honey bee||Apis mellifera||NA – pollinator||Apis, Apis mellifera|
Different strains or populations of these natural enemies are sold by different companies and each population may differ from natural populations. Each company is most likely to report compatibility data that applies to their population. It’s not perfect, but it’s a start.
When the first word in the scientific name of an insect (e.g. Trichogramma) is followed by the designation ‘spp.’, it means multiple species that all belong to the same genus. Some compatibility information is given for only the larger group (e.g., Aphidius spp. or Syrphus spp.).
Natural enemies that are pesticides (active ingredients are microorganisms, i.e., fungi, bacteria, viruses)
|If I want to conserve this microbial natural enemy…||(whose scientific name is…)||that helps me control…||I should look for these names on the compatibility apps:|
|Bt||Bacillus thuringiensis (various strains are available, and they control different pests)||many caterpillars and some immature beetle and fly pests (target pest varies by strain)||Bacillus thuringiensis|
|entomopathogenic fungus||Paecilomyces fumosoroseus = Isaria fumosorosea, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae (= M. brunneum) (various strains)||many insects (target pest depends on fungal species and strain)||Paecilomyces (=Isaria) fumosoroseus, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae (= M. brunneum)|
|fungi that attack plant diseases||there are multiple species, including Trichoderma harzianum (several strains)||Plant pathogens (the target pathogen depends on the fungal strain)||Trichoderma harzianum T-22 is the only fungal natural enemy I found on these apps, so far. It is unlikely that its compatibility is representative of other fungi that are natural enemies.|
Different strains or populations of these microorganisms are sold by different companies and each of these populations may differ from natural populations. Each company is most likely to report compatibility data that applies to their population. It’s not perfect, but it’s a start.
In these apps/websites, microbial active ingredient may be listed as the natural enemy (e.g., Paecilomyces fumosoroseus on Biobest website), but sometimes it’s only listed as a pesticide active ingredient. For compatibility of biopesticides with chemical pesticides, you should start by reading the label, then seek information provided by the manufacturer.
All tables were assembled by Amara Dunn, NYSIPM using information from Natural Enemies of Vegetable Insect Pests (Hoffman & Frodsham) and were last updated January 2020.
Give it a try!
Imagine you were considering using one of the following active ingredients:
…to control spider mites. (Of course, before you did this, you’d read the labels and be sure that the use you were considering was legal!) If you were concerned about hurting parasitoids that help with aphid control (for example, the species Aphidius colemani and Aphidius ervi) which of these active ingredients would be the best choice (from a compatibility standpoint)?
Look it up!
A note about microorganisms as natural enemies
There are a few “natural enemies” on this chart that are actually biopesticides, and I have listed them separately. Remember that microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, viruses) that are natural enemies of pests are biopesticides. A few of them can be found in the websites/apps summarized above. There are two compatibility questions when it comes to using biopesticides with living microorganisms as active ingredients: (1) Will this biopesticide harm other natural enemies (e.g., predators and parasitoids)? and (2) Will the living microbe in this biopesticide be killed by other pesticides I might use? The websites/apps have some information about the compatibility of biopesticides with arthropod natural enemies. If you’re wondering about the compatibility of biopesticides with other pesticides, that may be a topic for another post (so many posts to write, so little time!). I’ll just offer two quick pieces of advice here:
- Read the label of the biopesticide. If it doesn’t contain compatibility information (for use with other pesticides) or doesn’t answer your questions about compatibility with other natural enemies, contact the manufacturer to get your questions answered.
- If you happen to be using one of their products, BioWorks describes the compatibility of their products with other pesticides, and this information is linked to individual product pages.
And what about the bees?
Take a look at the resources created by the Pollinator Network @ Cornell. They have prepared decision-making guides for several crops already, with more to come.