On Wednesday, May 13, 2020, Jim O'Connell, Ulster County CCE, will be hosting a webinar on that new spotted invasive, spotted lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula). This insect threatens vineyards, woodlands and orchards...and backyards! It has caused significant damage to wine grapes in Pennsylvania, where it was first introduced from Asia.
Fascinating insects, Fulgorids. Yet, none existed in North America...until now! Learn more about these up-and-coming pests, how to identify them and how to report any sightings of them. Help us keep the populations of spotted lanternfly (SLF) under control and, preferably, out of New York State. (I used to love polka dots, now I'm not so sure.)
Attend the Online Spotted Lanternfly Workshop on Wednesday, May 13, 2020, from 9:30 AM - 12:00 PM.
After registering, you will receive a confirmation email with information about joining the meeting.
This SLF meeting will update farmers and the general public about this new invasive species that has the potential to cause severe economic injury to many important crops in Ulster County and New York State.
Spotted lanternfly (SLF) is originally from China and parts of Southeast Asia. It was first detected in Pennsylvania in September of 2014 and a state quarantine of 13 counties was enacted. Since then, it has spread to adjacent counties, as well as parts of New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, and West Virginia.
At this workshop, learn about:
the biology of SLF,
it’s preferred hosts,
economic injury sustained in Pennsylvania,
how to report sightings,
and regulatory restrictions in place to limit the spread of SLF.
These insects are over an inch long!
There is no cost to attend this meeting, however, pre-registration is required.
Register here and receive your confirmation email with the link to join the workshop.
2.25 NY DEC Pesticide Credits have been approved for this meeting in categories 1A, 2, 3A, 9, 10, 22, 25. Those seeking credits must attend all sessions and actively participate. Learn more about SLF, attend the Online Spotted Lanternfly Workshop! May 13, 9:30 - noon.
Content for this post was contributed by James O’Connell, Senior Ag. Resource Educator, Cornell Cooperative Extension, Ulster County, email@example.com.
Are they in New York State? Yes! Where are they? We're going to find out! A statewide weed herbicide resistance screening project will start this year. Dr. Lynn Sosnoskie, specialty crop weed science, Dr. Bryan Brown, IPM weed management specialist, and Dr. Toni DiTommaso, soil and crop sciences, will find out. Help them to help you!
Weeds compete with crops for light, water, and nutrients, which can result in yield reductions. Weeds can also interfere with crop production by serving as alternate hosts for pests and pathogens, providing habitat for rodents, and impeding harvest operations. Consequently, growers employ a variety of control strategies, including the application of herbicides, to manage unwanted vegetation. Although herbicides can be extremely effective at controlling undesirable plants, failures can and do occur. Weeds may escape chemical treatments for many reasons including the evolution of herbicide resistance.
Worldwide, there are 512 confirmed cases (species x site of action) of herbicide resistance. With respect to the United States, 165 unique instances of resistance have been documented.
In New York, only four herbicide resistance occurrences have been formally reported:
common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album)
smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus)
common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)
common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris)
All described as insensitive to photosystem II inhibitors (e.g. atrazine and simazine).
This, however, does not reflect the current on-the-ground situation in the state. Work done by Drs. Julie Kikkert (CCE) and Robin Bellinder (Cornell) indicates resistance to linuron in some populations of Powell amaranth (Amaranthus powelli). Recent studies by Drs. Bryan Brown (NYS IPM) and Antonio DiTommaso (Cornell) suggest that horseweed (Conyza canadensis) and waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) populations may be resistant to one or more herbicide active ingredients.
Pennsylvania has nine reported cases of herbicide resistance including glyphosate resistance in Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), which was recently identified here in NY. While it is tempting to believe that herbicide resistance is a hallmark of agronomic cropping systems, herbicide resistance can and has developed in orchards, vineyards, vegetable crops, pastures, and along roadsides.
Beginning in 2020, we will undertake a screening effort to describe the distribution of herbicide resistance in the state.
You can be a part of this important work. This coming summer and fall, growers, crop consultants and allied industry personnel who suspect they have herbicide resistance are encouraged to contact Dr. Lynn Sosnoskie (firstname.lastname@example.org, 315-787-2231) to arrange for weed seed collection.
Indicators of suspect herbicide resistance:
Dead weeds intermixed with live plants of the same species.
A weed patch that occurs in the same place and continues to expand, yearly.
A field where many weed species are controlled but a previously susceptible species is not.
Reduced weed control that cannot be explained by skips, nozzle clogs, weather events, herbicide rate or adjuvant selection, and calibration or application issues.
Growers can take several actions to stop the spread of herbicide resistant weeds and to prevent the development of new ones.
First and foremost is scouting fields following herbicide applications and keeping careful records of herbicide performance to quickly identify weed control failure.
Pesticide applicators should ensure that their equipment is properly calibrated and that they are applying effective herbicides at appropriate rates to manage the target species.
Whenever possible, diversify herbicides to reduce chemical selection pressures that result from the repeated use of a single herbicide or site of action.
If possible, incorporate physical and cultural weed control practices into a vegetation management plan.
Be sure to control unwanted plants when they are small and never allow escapes to set seed.
Clean equipment to prevent seeds of herbicide-resistant weed species from moving between infested and non-infested sites and harvest areas with suspected resistant populations last.
Juliet Carroll, your friendly SWD blogger, says, "It's that time of year, you've put on your pre-emergent and post-emergent herbicides in the rows or between the rows, and you're keeping an eye on things to make sure those weeds are dying or not emerging. Continue your vigilance, flag suspects, and contact the "Super Weed Team" to collect suspect seeds to help them help you fight herbicide resistance."
This article was contributed by Lynn Sosnoskie, email@example.com, Horticulture, Cornell AgriTech.
Esther Kibbe, Western NY Berry Specialist, has started a newsletter on the Cornell Fruit Resources Berry Blog, blogs.cornell.edu/berries/berry-blog/. You can easily subscribe to this blog and get updates on field observations from Western NY. Or contact Esther via email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Esther will be visiting fields and sharing her findings with you. She'll also be in touch with Cornell Cooperative Extension educators who work in berries and berry growers. This way, even in these uncertain times, she can share everyone's findings via this blog.
Laura McDermott, Eastern NY Commercial Horticulture Program, is thrilled to see the evolution of statewide coverage of berry field reports during this difficult time when we are facing a limited ability of Cornell Cooperative Extension staff to conduct farm visits in response to grower's needs.
So, subscribe to the Berry Blog today!
And don't worry. I'll still be posting SWD updates and other cool stuff, as usual, here on the SWD blog! Have a fantastic growing season.
As in "exclusion netting"...? Here are answers to growers' most frequently asked questions.
In organic and low spray vegetable production, insect exclusion netting, for many years, has successfully reduced or eliminated insect pest damage. The arrival of spotted wing drosophila (SWD) and the devastation it caused prompted immediate field research on this barrier method for berry crops. Since 2013, NY farmers, Cornell University and Cornell Cooperative Extension, have gathered field data on the effect of netting on SWD populations and the crop itself. You can read two Fruit Quarterly articles about this work:
Growers should keep in mind that no outcome in farming – from pest control tactics to markets – is guaranteed. Below we give straightforward answers, gleaned from seven years of experimenting with SWD exclusion netting, to your frequently asked questions.
What is exclusion netting?
Insect exclusion netting is woven from polyethylene yarn in a variety of weaves. Looser weaves are lighter and allow more air through, but the space between fibers allow smaller insects to pass through. In field trials 60 gram netting (mesh size 1.95 x 0.95 mm) did not exclude SWD. 80 gram netting (mesh size 1.0 x 0.6 mm) has repeatedly excluded SWD over several production seasons. There is an 85 gram netting available for situations that require additional durability – that weave will exclude SWD as well. Some manufacturers are selling 70 gram netting for SWD exclusion, however, none of the Cornell studies tested 70 gram netting in the field. The nets come in different widths and lengths depending on the manufacturer. Some manufacturers will sew panels together, some offer zippered panels etc.
Does it work?
The simple answer is YES! 100% exclusion of SWD can be achieved IF:
nets are put up early, before SWD appears
nets have no holes or gaps
nets are managed and maintained effectively throughout the season
and a well-designed entry way is used.
There is always a chance that SWD will get inside and it can be a problem requiring some sort of treatment. But, overall, our experience suggests this is uncommon when growers are diligent with their installation of exclusion netting. This means that pesticide sprays to control SWD and keep fruit clean will be dramatically reduced, and very possibly eliminated, by diligent use of exclusion netting.
Effectively managed exclusion netting will also provide 100% control of bird predation. Growers using the netting have also observed protection from hail, heavy rain and damaging winds. It cannot be overemphasized that, the management of the netting is important to achieving excellent crop protection results.
Is exclusion netting difficult to manage?
Difficult to answer. Depends on the individual farmer. Crop exclusion falls under the general category of protected culture – that is using physical structures and plastic or nets to protect crops from pests and weather instead of complete reliance on pesticides. There is no question that growing crops in any protected culture system from high and low tunnels to exclusion netting requires more attention to detail, a willingness to try something completely different, and commitment to successful adoption.
Netting is quite easy to put in place once the initial system has been designed. There are several ways to winterize the material. Remove it after fruiting to increase its longevity by protecting it from UV degradation.
For perennial crops, few “ready to use kits” exist, because the concept is so new – although that’s changing quickly! Cornell and the University of Vermont have created plans for exclusion net support systems and have spearheaded efforts to include exclusion netting systems in cost-share plan policies, similar to those for high tunnels.
Growers must consider their unique production requirements. You-pick farms need to consider customer access in and out of the exclusion netted field. Farmers may want to leave enough space to get mowers and other larger equipment under the net. If the farm is located in a very windy area support systems should reflect that reality.
How much does the exclusion system cost?
The netting support system will vary from one farm to the next until manufactured kits or standardized plans are created. The current estimate for purchasing netting and the support system, with labor for construction included, would be approximately $10,000 per acre. Given that netting will provide bird control, and the estimate for bird related loss is almost 1/3 of the crop, exclusion netting could be a great investment. The netting itself will last 7-10 years; the support system probably much longer.
Will exclusion netting impact my crop in unexpected ways?
The short answer – no, not that we can determine. After six seasons of netting a commercial blueberry planting in eastern NY, no negative impacts on the plants or the crop have been found associated with the netting. Indeed, anecdotally, netting may enhance blueberry productivity, although more research is needed. Results with raspberries in a high tunnel with netting applied to the tunnel sides and ends show promise – with the caveat for growers to increase the height of sidewalls, use fans and possibly shade cloth to prevent excess heat.
Is netting only useful for small acreages?
No. Exclusion netting can be used on all scales of plantings. The requirement being a commitment to using this technology combined with a market that will recoup the investment. Across the globe, protected systems like this are being used for very large acreages. Given the sizable investment for a large scale air-assisted sprayer, if exclusion netting allows a farmer to not have to make that investment – it might even be a savings.
Where can I get exclusion netting? Berry Protection Solutions is the U.S. distributor for the product that Cornell has worked with. There are other products available from other farm supply distributors. More information on protected culture with links to suppliers, research papers and extension support can be found at the Tunnelberrieswebsite.
1 McDermott, L., L. Nickerson, New York Fruit Quarterly, Vol 22, Number 1. Spring 2014.
2 Riggs, D., G. Loeb, S. Hesler, L. McDermott, New York Fruit Quarterly, Vol 24, Number 2. Summer 2016.
This post was contributed by Laura McDermott, ENYCHP CCE, Greg Loeb, Entomology Cornell AgriTech, and Juliet Carroll, NYSIPM CCE.
I trust everyone is staying healthy, washing their hands and meeting mainly online, rather than in person. Regardless, our fruit crops will grow and require care and protection from insects, mites, plant diseases, wildlife, and weeds! I will continue to provide SWD information via this blog. Current plans are to run the SWD monitoring network this year. Keep in mind its been a mild winter and SWD may arrive early again...or earlier, but we'll be prepared.
Cornell Cooperative Extension (CCE) and Cornell's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (CALS) are here to help you deal with the threat of Coronavirus, COVID-19. Below are resource pages that are being updated routinely:
COVID-19 response: Need information? View the following Cornell CALS and CCE Resource Pages Updated Regularly
In addition, COVID-19 has impacted in-person pesticide applicator recertification classes. Check out the online recertification course offerings from Cornell's Pesticide Management Education Program (PMEP).
The PMEP Distance Learning Center (pmepcourses.cce.cornell.edu) offers 37 fee-based Core and category courses applicable to many applicator certification categories. All are approved for recertification credits in New York State. Most are also approved in New England, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West Virginia.
Wishing you all the very best 2020 growing season!
In the past eight years, we’ve progressed in our ability to manage spotted wing drosophila (SWD), but it remains a serious economic problem for fruit growers in NY and across the US. Do you think that statement is correct? If yes, we could use your help in telling the USDA just that—that SWD remains a serious threat to your crops and your bottom line—in our grant application. Help us by filling out our survey at the link below. And read more about our project.
Researchers who study SWD and its management are in the process of developing a multistate grant application to the USDA…and New York State is on board!This grant will support research and extension efforts on sustainable management practices against SWD. Sustainable means environmentally safe and economically viable.
This grant will bring needed funding to NY for our efforts to increase grower awareness and adoption of novel approaches to sustainable SWD management. We will improve the business management resources created specifically to account for the impact of SWD on farms and educate growers on using our Excel-based economic decision-making software. We will release biological control agents—parasitoids of SWD—from their native lands and assess survival and effectiveness as an alternate management tactic. We will manipulate the behavior of SWD with field attractants and repellents and measure how these materials may inhibit fruit infestation.
In NY, Cornell University scientists Dr. Miguel Gomez, agricultural economist, and Dr. Greg Loeb, entomologist, will lead the project and work closely with Cornell Cooperative Extension educators and the NYS Berry Growers Association. We need input from berry growers like you.
Please help us in demonstrating to USDA that SWD remains a serious problem by completing our brief, anonymous online survey on how SWD is affecting your business. We need your answers by February 29.
An in-depth strawberry substrate workshop will be held February 11–13, 2020 at the Moakley House, Ithaca, NY
Growing strawberries in substrate (soil-less media) can help prevent soil-borne diseases. It can also increase yields, improve quality, and reduce the costs associated with pesticides, fertilizer, and water. In this 3-day workshop, led by Dennis Wilson of Delphy, a worldwide leader in food and flower production based in the Netherlands, we’ll combine classroom and hands-on sessions in Cornell’s greenhouses to learn about the most effective methods for strawberry substrate production.
Breakfast, lunch, and printed handouts included.
The workshop is limited to 35 participants, all of whom will walk away with the skills and knowledge they need to grow strawberries on substrate.
The Sustainable SWD Management Project'sNovember 5 webinar covered the seasonal biology and movement of SWD, "SWD in Space and Time: What do we know about the seasonal biology and movement of SWD?" The recording from the webinar is now available on the project's website. Access the recording here:
Spotted Lanternfly — On the Doorstep Or Already In Our Fields? Learn more at the 2019 IPM Conference hosted by the New York State Integrated Pest Management Program on August 15, 2019 at the Broome County CCE Farmers Market, 840 Upper Front St., Binghamton, NY. Yes! That's this Thursday, 8:30 to 4:30. Lunch provided. Earn recertification credits.
It’s not if but when and where this invasive pest will show up in New York State (NYS). Be on the front line of stopping the invasion!
Learn where to look for it; how to correctly identify it; how to best report sightings of it.
Spotted Lanternfly is a concern to: Growers; Foresters; Nursery, Greenhouse and Christmas Tree Operations; Landscapers; Master Gardeners — all NYS residents. In fact, anyone whose business or travel takes them through quarantine zones should understand New York State’s regulations.
Experts from across PA and NY will provide updates on what is being done to prevent Spotted Lanternfly's (SLF’s) establishment in New York. Learn about the tools available to combat this threat to our fields, forests, and homes. Here's a sampling of what you'll hear about:
News from the Front Line. Current research on SLF biology, movement and management. Keynote Speaker – Julie Urban, Penn State University
The NYS External Quarantine and You. Who needs to comply and how does it work? - Thomas Allgaier, NYS Dept of Agriculture & Markets
I Can’t Go Outside!Impact of SLF on green industry and residential areas. -Emelie Swackhamer, Penn State Extension
Working with Your Local PRISM to Prevent the SLF Invasion. - Patty Wakefield Brown, Finger Lakes Partnership for Regional Invasive Species Management (PRISM)
The Million Dollar Impact: Management strategies for the grape industry and other perennial fruit crops. - Tim Weigle, NYS IPM Program
Lunch is included with your registration. Pick up materials, cards, brochures, fact sheets — on SLF and more — during breaks. Visit with professionals working on the frontline, ask questions, get answers. Register at: lergp.cce.cornell.edu/event.php?id=416
Recertification credits. The Spotted Lanternfly IPM Conference has been approved for 7.5 Certified Nursery Landscape Professional credits, and 6 NYS Pesticide Recertification credits in the categories of 1a, 2, 3a, 6a, 9, 10, 22 and 25.
This Statewide Public Conference is sponsored by The NYS Dept of Agriculture and Markets, NYS Dept of Environmental Conservation, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, the Finger Lakes Institute, the Finger Lakes PRISM, Cornell University and the NYS IPM Program.
WHAT: IPM Conference, Spotted Lanternfly — On the Doorstep Or Already In Our Fields?
WHEN: Thursday, August 15, 2019 from 8:30 AM to 4:30 PM
WHERE: Broome County CCE Farmers Market, 840 Upper Front St., Binghamton, NY
If you thought SWD was bad... This invasive is even worse! Feeding en mass, SLF suck the very life juices from plants and shower everything below with their excreted honeydew, favoring a lawn of sooty molds. Ugh. September is the month for dispersing adults — let's get ready!
The ability for the SWD population to explode as summer rolls on was demonstrated last week in several counties where I have research projects. Per trap, 5 to 125 SWD were caught in raspberry, blueberry, and tart cherry in mid-July. The totals for the two to four traps set in the orchards and fields were 14 to 250.
Use this summary as a wake up call! For the weeks ending on the date given:
7/11/2019, Schuyler County, blueberry, 4 traps, 22 SWD (11 males and 11 females)
7/11/2019, Schuyler County, raspberry, 4 traps, 108 SWD (64 males and 44 females)
7/22/2019, Herkimer County, blueberry, 4 traps, 30 SWD (12 males and 18 females)
7/22/2019, Wayne County, tart cherry, 2 traps, 14 SWD (1 male and 13 females)
7/22/2019, Wayne County, tart cherry, 2 traps, 24 SWD (4 males and 20 females)
7/22/2019, Wayne County, tart cherry, 2 traps, 57 SWD (9 males and 48 females)
7/22/2019, Wayne County, tart cherry, 2 traps, 85 SWD (19 males and 66 females)
7/22/2019, Wayne County, tart cherry, 2 traps, 250 SWD (60 males and 190 females)
7/23/2019, Wayne County, blueberry, 2 traps, 131 SWD (53 male and 78 females)
7/23/2019, Wayne County, blueberry, 4 traps, 29 SWD (14 male and 15 females)
In eight of the nine sites a spray program was in place to protect fruit. Fruit is ripe and being harvested – and it’s delicious! Fruit isn’t showing signs of infestation, which means insecticide programs can protect fruit from oviposition, even when SWD numbers are high. Download the Quick Reference Guide to SWD Insecticides at
Salt flotation – What these numbers also demonstrate is that trap catch numbers aren’t necessarily an indication of whether or not an insecticide program is working. A better indication is to sample fruit and run a salt flotation test. Two berry growers described their success last year using salt flotation to monitor infestations in blueberries, detailed on the blog, Use salt flotation to check for SWD. A simple method is described in Guidelines for Checking Fruit for SWD Larvae in the Field by Laura McDermott, which can be downloaded from Cornell Fruit Resources SWD Monitoring pages, fruit.cornell.edu/spottedwing/monitoring/. Large scale berry growers will routinely run salt flotation at each harvest, because blueberries, raspberries, and blackberries ripen and are harvested over several weeks. For crops that are harvested all at once, like tart cherry, salt flotation may not be as useful.
Refrigeration – The high populations of SWD, coupled with later ripening of many crops this year, make it even more important to immediately cool fruit after harvest. Cold storage temperatures close to 32°F can greatly inhibit and even kill SWD in fruit. Raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, and tart cherries will all tolerate cold storage temperatures between 32°F to 34°F.
Diversified fruit farms – Protect your crops from SWD, if you’re growing susceptible fruit – June strawberries, day-neutral strawberries, sweet cherries, tart cherries, raspberries, blackberries, elderberries, blueberries, peaches, nectarines, plums, prunes, and thin-skinned grapes. If you have a diversified fruit farm, SWD can spill over from one crop to the next as they are harvested and especially when cull fruit remains in the field. Renovate strawberry fields promptly.
Fruit becomes susceptible to SWD oviposition when it is ripening and is highly susceptible when it is ripe – raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, sweet cherry, tart cherry, elderberry. Fruit that is less susceptible will be attacked when it is at peak ripeness – peach, nectarine, plum, prune, strawberry, grapes. All fruit can serve as a resource for feeding and breeding when it is left for cull in the field. The good news is that, in degraded fruit, SWD doesn't compete all that well with other Drosophilas, like Drosophila melanogaster, our common vinegar fly, which often shows up in our kitchens in late summer or in the winery during press. SWD prefers nice ripe fruit — like we do!