Within Cornell University’s Department of Natural Resources, SPEAR4  is Keith Tidball‘s lab, and serves as a platform for conducting integrated research, extension, and outreach activities in the area of ecological dimensions of human security.  SPEAR4 is focused on natural resources management questions at the leading edge – “at the tip of the spear” – in places and time periods characterized by violence, conflict, disaster or war.  This work includes vulnerability assessment, resilience analysis, risk management and adaptation strategies within social-ecological systems, as well as cultural  systems analysis within these contexts, to include veterans and military families.  Extension and outreach around these and related topics is a priority for SPEAR4.

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Greening in the Red Zone is an initiative that asserts that creation and access to green spaces confers resilience and recovery in systems disrupted by violent conflict or disaster. Multiple publications provide evidence for this assertion through cases and examples.










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The Woods & Water Prescription is an initiative that encompasses a suite of related programs, all dealing with the therapeutic attributes of time spent outdoors, especially for those who have experienced trauma such as combat-wounded veterans.


The All-Hazards Preparedness & Response Program is a Cornell Cooperative Extension Program housing disaster related initiatives and resources such as NY EDEN, AG Sentinel, and the CCE DART (Disaster All-hazards Response Team).















Pools of Persistence is a multidisciplinary project in collaboration with Trout Power and Great Camp Sagamore to explore and document the power of citizen science to not only reinforce the resilience of adirondack brook trout, but to reify the human experience as a part of, not separate from or in conflict with, the rest of Nature.


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