Goodbye… until 200!

The Address is back in its climate-controlled vault, the exhibition will soon be dismantled, and our our Gettysburg events are over — but we’d like to thank you for being a part of Cornell’s commemoration.

2,720 (!!) people saw our original Address. We’ve had 15,398 unique visitors to our Gettysburg web pages (and the online exhibition will stay up indefinitely). Thousands more saw the facsimile and the rest of the exhibition, came to our events, and read news reports about the Bancroft copy, our preservation process, and our participation in the Google Cultural Institute.

BernhardtWallGettysburgSpeech

Bernhardt Wall. The Gettysburg Speech. New York, 1924.
The book was etched, printed, and bound by the artist, who published 100 copies of this work.

We’re so glad you joined us on this journey, and we’ll leave you with President Lincoln’s immortal words:

Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived, and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives, that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate—we can not consecrate—we can not hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

Lincoln’s Ink: Preserving Cornell’s Gettysburg Address (part 5)

The author of this post, Michele Hamill, is a conservation expert for Cornell University Library. She and her department have helped preserve our copy of the Gettysburg Address, and she will be writing a series of posts for this blog, providing an insider’s view of the history and challenges related to this task.

Read Part 1Part 2Part 3, and Part 4 of her series.

Gall wasps and larva inside a gall nut.

Abraham Lincoln’s use of iron gall ink to pen Cornell’s copy of the Gettysburg Address was just as important to its preservation as the paper he chose. Iron gall ink was the predominant writing ink of the 19th century. Gall nuts were one of two essential ingredients in iron gall ink, and only insects can make them.

This gall nut shows the exit holes made by the insects.

Galls are bulbous formations created by trees as a defensive response when wasps lay their eggs in tree branches and stems. The tree produces a gall (sometimes called a gall nut) around the insect intrusion. The galls are a very rich source of tannins. Iron gall ink is created by the reaction of tannins with an iron salt (ferrous sulfate), the other main ingredient.

Iron gall ink can vary in color, starting black and becoming brown as it deteriorates. The iron gall ink of this letter, which accompanied Cornell’s Gettysburg Address, is more black in appearance than the ink on the Gettysburg Address, which is more deteriorated because greater exposure and contact with the unstable cellophane sheet.

The ingredients of iron gall ink — gall nuts as the source of tannins, iron sulfate, gum arabic to bind the ink to the paper and to control flow, and water — were inexpensive and widely available. Iron gall ink was used for centuries for both drawing (both Rembrandt and Van Gogh used it) and for writing. It was the ink President Lincoln used daily.

Records from the Department of the Treasury from Lincoln’s presidency indicate large purchases of Arnold’s Writing Fluid — an iron gall ink.

The ink was stored in a stoneware bottle which wouldn’t corrode in the presence of the iron gall ink. The ink would have been decanted from these large bottles into small ink wells. The ink wells were commonly ceramic or glass, also impermeable to the ink.

At Cornell, the insects that made the gall nuts are the least of our worries with iron gall ink. It’s notorious for extreme deterioration problems, and the presence of iron is the culprit. Iron gall ink can rust or corrode, especially with increased temperature and humidity, just as surely as iron tools left out in the rain.

And for chemistry fans , note the production of sulfuric acid during the chemical reaction to produce iron gall ink:

FeSO4 (iron sulfate) + H2Tannin (acidic tannin) → FeTannin  (ferric tannate) + H2SO4 (sulfuric acid)

Iron gall ink in certain formulations can burn through the paper, as shown in this 19th century document, causing the inked areas to become so weak and brittle they crack and fall out. Our Gettysburg Address is not exhibiting this extreme level of deterioration.

Haloing around the letters, where the corrosion from the ink spreads out into the paper, is a very common deterioration problem with iron gall ink and is shown in this area of Cornell’s Gettysburg Address.

Subtle burn-through of the ink (shown in the left of the image) to the back of the document is shown here on our Gettysburg Address.

The condition of documents with iron gall ink can be quite varied due to experimentation in the ink recipes (with additions of all sorts of ingredients to boost the color and prevent mold), and the environment in which the documents were stored. The condition of our iron gall ink is actually fairly good, likely because of a balanced formulation of the original ink and a fortunate journey over these last 150 years without prolonged exposure to poor environments.

A detail of the ink on the first page of Cornell’s Gettysburg Address shows more deterioration than the ink on the third page of the document.

This detail of the ink on the third page of the Address is in better condition than the more deteriorated first page.

Prevention is now the key to keep our iron gall ink from further deterioration. Cornell’s Gettysburg Address is kept under strict environmental control with limited exposure to light. We are exploring a novel imaging technique, called “hyperspectral imaging,” through the generous assistance of Headwall Photonics. This technique maps the deterioration of the paper and ink of the Address. Documenting condition, regular examination to note changes, and thoughtful use and storage of the Gettysburg Address will position us to give our copy the very best care. It shall long endure.

In closing, let’s take a moment to consider President Lincoln’s penmanship. With the debate swirling these days about the value of handwriting, visitors who have come to see Cornell’s Gettysburg Address frequently remark on the care with which Lincoln took to pen his eloquent words. School kids exclaim “Look! It’s in cursive!”

Today, we make copies effortlessly on a copier or scanner, and we email and text more than we write by hand. But, President Lincoln wrote out this copy himself, at a time of war and with two private secretaries at his disposal. Because of his measure of devotion to this task, we are able to appreciate a truly great American document to this day.

This print, part of Cornell University’s Rare and Manuscript Collections, shows Lincoln with his cabinet about to sign the Emancipation Proclamation. Note the deluxe quill pen in the image denoting the importance of the occasion. However, quill pens had by this time been largely been replaced with metal nib pens.

This is an actual dip pen used by President Lincoln (Courtesy of the Lincoln Papers, the Library of Congress). Note the corrosion of the metal nib—from exposure to iron gall ink and age. Fountain pens, which gave a continuous flow of ink, weren’t invented yet and so the pen had to be repeatedly dipped in ink to refill the nib reservoir.

The variation of the ink intensity from the dip pen and the nib tracks — the heavier outlines of the ink on the letters — are evident in these details of Cornell’s Gettysburg Address.

Paper Matters: Preserving Cornell’s Gettysburg Address (part 4)

The author of this post, Michele Hamill, is a conservation expert for Cornell University Library. She and her department have helped preserve our copy of the Gettysburg Address, and she will be writing a series of posts for this blog, providing an insider’s view of the history and challenges related to this task.

Read Part 1Part 2, and Part 3 of her series.

When we left off last time, we were about to describe where President Lincoln got the paper on which he wrote the Gettysburg Address.

At first, it was a bit of a mystery: Our paper is not watermarked, which can help identify a papermaker, but it is embossed in the upper corner near the start of the Address. An embossment is a stamped impression into the paper, and it has no color.

This illustration shows a hand tool used to emboss stationery. Courtesy Cathleen A. Baker.

Try as we might, we could not discern the full design of our embossment with the naked eye or magnification.President Lincoln folded Cornell’s copy of Gettysburg Address so that it would fit into an envelope, and someone in the past most likely flattened our document to reduce those fold lines. Flattening the fold lines also flattened the embossment, making it harder to identify. Rhea Garen, Cornell’s expert photographer in Digital Consulting and Production Services, recently reimaged our embossment in high resolution using special lighting techniques.

The embossment imaged with high resolution and special lighting techniques is clearer and stands in more relief.

With this new improved image of the embossment, the hunt began to identify the embossment. With a fortuitous recommendation from George Barnum, the curator at the Government Printing Office in Washington D.C., we connected with Michelle Krowl, Civil War and Reconstruction specialist in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress. Michelle conducted some extraordinary research on our behalf and found a matching embossment in their collections: Philp & Solomons, Washington, D.C.!

This image was provided by Michelle Krowl, who was using her iPhone in the stacks of the Library of Congress. Its design matches ours. (Philp & Solomon embossment, T. D. Eliot to Lincoln, 2-1-1864, Lincoln Papers, Library of Congress).

At long last, we now know that the paper for our Address was supplied by Philp & Solomons of Washington, D.C., noted book publishers and stationers. Franklin Philp (an odd spelling, but correct) and Adolphus Solomons also managed a book store and a photographic gallery. They were known to have government printing contracts. Later in his career, Adolphus Solomons co-founded the American Red Cross with Clara Barton in 1881.

Newspaper ad for Philp & Solomons in the Evening Star, Washington, D.C., June 26, 1860.

Treasury Department records show payments made to Philp & Solomons, authorized by John Nicolay, one of President Lincoln’s private secretaries. In 1861, the Executive Mansion purchased a ream of writing paper from Philp & Solomons for $3.25.

Notifications for bids for supplying the Department of the Interior, the House of Representatives, and the War Department ran frequently in newspapers of the time. Philp & Solomons, among other stationers in Washington, D.C., fulfilled these bids. (Evening Star, Washington D.C., June 14, 1860.)

Philp & Solomons’ embossment on our Address indicates that they supplied the paper, but they didn’t make the paper. We may never know the exact mill where it was made. But, with the identification of the embossment, we are one step closer to knowing all we can about Cornell Library’s Gettysburg Address.

Interestingly, the three copies made after President Lincoln delivered the Address (the Cornell copy, the copy at the White House, and the copy in Illinois) all seem to have a Philp & Solomons embossment, and we credit Philp & Solomons for supplying the Executive Mansion and President Lincoln with the right stuff.

Philp & Solomons have another important Cornell connection: They were the publishers for famed Civil War photographer Alexander Gardner. The 7 millionth volume to come to Cornell University Library, Garner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the Civil War, bears their imprint.

Facsimile images from this astounding photograph album, showing the Gettysburg battlefield, are on display now as part of the Remembering Lincoln at Gettysburg exhibit, running through Dec. 20.

Next up… what did insects have to do with Lincoln’s ink?

Now be thankful

Lincoln bust by Zenos Frudakis

Lincoln bust by Zenos Frudakis

As we have celebrated and commemorated the sesquicentennial anniversaries of the Emancipation Proclamation and the Gettysburg Address this year, let us now note and remember Abraham Lincoln’s other 1863 proclamation, his Proclamation of Thanksgiving.

While there had been earlier observances and traditions, it was Lincoln who asked the nation to set aside the fourth Thursday of November “as a day of Thanksgiving and Praise.” Unlike his earlier Emancipation Proclamation and his later Gettysburg speech, this document was not written by Lincoln, but rather by his Secretary of State William Seward. Much of the credit though belongs to Sarah Josepha Hale, who lobbied state and federal officials to create a fixed, national day of thanks.

The bust of Lincoln featured in this post is a recent gift to the Cornell University Library by Steve Leveen, Cornell 1982, Phd., and CEO and co-founder of Levenger.  I want to extend a personal thank you to Mr. Leveen.  His gift is now part of our Gettysburg Address exhibition.  This sculpture, cast in 1990 by Zenos Frudakis, depicts Lincoln as he looked in 1863.  Mr. Frudakis used the Leonard Volk life mask as a reference for his life-size bust, and his bust of Lincoln  now sits alongside Cornell’s copy of the Volk bust of Lincoln, which was a gift to Cornell by Andrew D. White.

Thank you, Mr. Leveen, and Happy Thanksgiving to all.

Frudakis and Volk busts of Lincoln

Frudakis and Volk busts of Lincoln in Kroch Library

The Right (Paper) Stuff: Preserving Cornell’s Gettysburg Address (part 3)

The author of this post, Michele Hamill, is a conservation expert for Cornell University Library. She and her department have helped preserve our copy of the Gettysburg Address, and she will be writing a series of posts for this blog, providing an insider’s view of the history and challenges related to this task.

Read Part 1 and Part 2 of her series.

“Stuff” is a technical papermaking term that describes the wet pulp of cellulose fibers used to make a sheet of paper. President Abraham Lincoln used the right stuff — in both senses of the word — when he wrote out Cornell Library’s copy of the Gettysburg Address.

Our document, now 150 years old, owes much of its longevity to the excellent quality paper that President Lincoln used. He chose a pre-folded sheet of fine, wove, machine-made, writing paper with blue-ruled lines. “Fine” is another technical term that designates the highest quality writing paper, and “wove” is a type of paper with fibers interspersed evenly across a sheet.

Our Library’s Gettysburg Address has survived these last 150 years due in part to the great paper it was written on.

The “stuff”, or refined and beaten wet cellulose pulp, used to make the paper of Cornell’s Gettysburg Address came from rags (yes, rags!). Old clothing and other textiles were used for centuries for papermaking. The rags were sorted, cleaned, macerated, and made into pulp.

These illustrations from Leslie Frank’s Illustrated Newspaper from 1866 show rags being sorted (classified as “women’s work”) and then cut and prepared using the “Devil”.

This illustration from Leslie Frank’s Illustrated Newspaper shows rags being washed and beaten to separate and disperse the long, strong fibers in water.

Millions of pounds of rags, literally tons, were needed each year to produce paper. Rags came from domestic sources and were imported from Europe and Asia. To try to fill the need, newspapers carried advertisements for rags.

An advertisement for rags from The Jeffersonian, June 22, 1854.

Not all fibers coming from rags were created equal. The finest quality paper was produced using linen rags. Fibers from linen rags were preferred for fine writing paper because they produced a superior paper, durable and strong.

To identify the exact fibers in Cornell’s Gettysburg Address, we would need to take a sample of the paper. But because Cornell’s copy doesn’t have a damaged area — such as a tear or dog-eared corner — where we could discreetly remove a sample of fibers, we conducted in-depth research into papermaking at this time and consulted paper historians instead. We then carefully examined our paper under magnification, with light coming through the paper (“transmitted light”) and light shown across the sheet at a low angle (“raking light”). These research and examination methods, coupled with how well the Address has stood the test of time, helped us conclude that Cornell Library’s copy of the Gettysburg Address is on a linen writing paper — the right stuff!

The fibers of the Gettysburg Address would be similar to these linen (or flax) fibers shown in this photomicrograph at 500x magnification. Linen is known for its strength and enduring quality. Courtesy Claire McBride.

When President Lincoln wrote out Cornell’s Gettysburg Address, writing paper was still primarily made from rags, first from linen and then from cotton sources, which yielded excellent paper. This high quality paper has helped our document make its remarkable journey over the last 150 years in such good condition.

Lucky for us, the era of “bad paper”, when people used unprocessed wood pulp fibers for papermaking, was looming on the horizon but had not begun in earnest.

Newspaper commonly shows the brittleness and yellowing resulting from unprocessed wood pulp. Courtesy of the Indiana Historical Society.

So much raw material was needed for papermaking that people eventually had to turn from rags to a more abundant source of pulp: wood fibers from trees. Unless wood pulp is processed carefully, it can contain large amounts of acid that quickly deteriorates paper. When President Lincoln wrote out Cornell’s Gettysburg Address, writing paper was still primarily made from rags, first from linen and then from cotton sources, which yielded excellent paper. This high quality paper has helped our document make its remarkable journey over the last 150 years in such good condition.

The appetite for paper at the time of the Civil War was huge. The skyrocketing publication of books, newspapers, pamphlets, and magazines — combined with the need for writing paper and wrapping paper — required vast amounts of materials. To produce these enormous quantities of paper, papermaking machines largely displaced hand-paper making.

This illustration from Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper shows a papermaking machine from 1866.

Blue ruled lines were added after the paper was made. Courtesy Cathleen A. Baker.

Because of its high demand, paper was a precious commodity for both the North and the South during the Civil War — and it was largely manufactured in the North, leaving the South desperate for it. With paper in such scarce supply, the South used blank book pages for paper and reused envelopes by turning them inside-out.

A newspaper advertisement from the Winchester Daily Bulletin (Winchester, Tenn., May 29, 1863) with a plea for rags.

Paper was such an important resource that when the Confederates burned the city of Richmond in 1865, they made sure to destroy their own paper mill.

These two images, photographic stereoviews by Alexander Gardner, show the destroyed Richmond paper mill. The rollers from the papermaking machine can be seen among the wreckage. Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

The massive water wheel of the mill withstood the destruction. Courtesy of the New York Public Library.

So, during this time of scarcity, where did President Lincoln get his paper?  We’ll tell you in our next post, coming soon.

The Professor and the President

Goldwin Smith

Goldwin Smith

In February 1865, Oxford don and future Cornell professor, Goldwin Smith, wrote an article in the British publication, Macmillan’s Magazine, that profiled  “President Lincoln.”  Smith was the rare Englishman who lauded Lincoln. This is what he wrote about the Gettysburg Address:

It has been pretended by correspondents of the English press that his [Lincoln's] speeches were made for him by reporters sent down by his party….The story is merely an instance of the determination to maintain the theory that the President of the United States is nothing but a boor.

That he is something more than a boor his address at the dedication of the cemetery at Gettysburg will in itself be sufficient to prove.  the greatest orator of the United States [Edward Everett, the main speaker at Gettysburg] pronounced on that occasion a long, elaborate, and very eloquent discourse, with all that grace of delivery by which he is distinguished.  The President, with a very ungainly manner, said these words:

“Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate — we can not consecrate — we can not hallow — this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us — that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion — that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain — that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom — and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”

There are one or two phrases here, such as “dedicated to the proposition,” which betray a hand untrained in fine writing, and are proofs that the composition is Lincoln’s own. But, looking to the substance, it may be doubted whether any king in Europe would have expressed himself more royally than the peasant’s son. And, even as to the form, we cannot help remarking that simplicity of structure and pregnancy of meaning are the true characteristics of the classical style.

Smith wrote a second article about Lincoln for Macmillan’s in June 1865 after his assassination. In his eulogy Smith ranked Lincoln along side Washington as one of the two preeminent heroes in American history.

Goldwin Smith bust in Uris Library

Bust of Goldwin Smith in Uris Library

150 years ago today (plus, a Google announcement)

November 19 is finally here! We’ll be commemorating the anniversary today with our keystone event: President Skorton reading the Address, the Glee Club performing an original composition, and a faculty panel discussing Gettysburg’s legacy. If you’re in Ithaca, join us at 5 p.m. in Milstein Hall Auditorium. But if you’re not in Ithaca, don’t despair: We’re livestreaming the whole thing, so you can join us online.

And we have more major news today: Our manuscript is now part of the Google Cultural Institute! A link is right below the search box on the Google homepage, or you can check it out on the exhibits page.

All five copies of the Address in Lincoln’s handwriting are featured as part of the Institute, which is bringing Cornell’s copy of the Address to the millions of people who visit the site every month. With more than 350 partners in 52 countries, the institute acts as a free museum available to anyone with an Internet connection.

Read our press release to learn more — and don’t forget to join us tonight, either in person or via livestream! Thanks for being a part of our Gettysburg journey.

 

Preserving history so that all can learn and experience history

Viewing the Gettysburg Address

Viewing the Gettysburg Address

The Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections in Kroch Library has a dual mission:  To collect and preserve artifacts, books and information for all generations of students, faculty, researchers and interested people, AND  to make these materials publicly available and securely accessible to all learners. Our collections are working collections that we teach with, that students learn from, and that we present to all in curated exhibitions.  It is a mission that continues in the tradition of our co-founder and first university president, Andrew Dickson White, who was an educator and a collector who believed that we learn about what happened in history by examining the primary source materials of those times.

Hundreds have visited Kroch Library in recent days to see the Cornell University Library’s manuscript of the Gettysburg Address.  It will remain on public display this coming week, from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. weekdays and also from 1:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. next Saturday.

Tuesday marks the 150th anniversary of Lincoln delivering his speech in Gettysburg.  Join us at our commemorative event in Milstein Auditorium at 5:00 p.m. and at our exhibition reception in Kroch Library immediately afterwards.

We hope to see you in the Library.  Come experience the sesquicentennial anniversary of one of the most important documents in American history.

The Gettysburg Gospel

The Gettysburg Gospel

The Gettysburg Gospel


Gabor Boritt will deliver the Cornell University Library’s biennial Gail ’56 and Stephen Rudin Lecture tonight at 5:00 p.m. in Lewis Auditorium, Goldwin Smith Hall.

Gabor S. Boritt, the Robert Fluhrer Professor Emeritus of Civil War Studies and previous director of the Civil War Institute at Gettysburg College, will give a lecture celebrating the 150th anniversary of the Gettysburg Address. Abraham Lincoln’s most famous speech was delivered at the dedication of the Soldiers’ National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania on November 19, 1863, during the Civil War. Cornell University has one of five known manuscript copies of Lincoln’s handwritten speech.

Boritt’s book The Gettysburg Gospel: The Lincoln Speech That Nobody Knows (Simon & Schuster, February 5, 2008) is an elaborately detailed study of the events surrounding Lincoln’s speech, and his new book The Will of God Prevails, also about Lincoln, will be published in 2014. Boritt received the National Humanities Medal in 2008 from President George W. Bush and his life story is the subject of a feature-length documentary film titled Budapest to Gettysburg.

A reception will follow the lecture in the Carl A. Kroch Library, level 2B, at 6:00 p.m.

The lecture is funded through the generosity of Gail ’56 and Stephen Rudin.

“The world’s love of Lincoln’s address focuses on the beauty of its language, its devotion to democracy, and above all its eternal promise of “a new birth of freedom” for all “the people.” — Gabor Boritt, The Gettysburg Gospel, p. 202.

Lincoln at the Movies

Cornell Cinema: The Gettysburg Address turns 150

Cornell Cinema: The Gettysburg Address turns 150

Cornell Cinema joins in the Library’s celebration of the 150th anniversary of the Gettysburg Address this month by screening three related films: Buster Keaton’s 1926 silent film, The General, with live musical accompaniment by the Alloy Orchestra; a free screening of the new documentary, The Gettysburg Story, with filmmaker Jake Boritt in person for an intro and follow-up Q & A to his dramatic retelling of the historic battle; and on the sesquicentennial anniversary of the Gettysburg Address–November 19– Steven Spielberg’s Lincoln, featuring an Oscar-winning performance by Daniel Day-Lewis.

Friday, November 8:  The General

Buster Keaton's "The General"

Buster Keaton’s “The General”

“Keaton’s best, and arguably the greatest screen comedy ever made. Against a meticulously evoked Civil War background, Buster risks life, limb, and love as he pursues his beloved railway engine, hijacked by Northern spies up to no good for the Southern cause. The result is everything one could wish for: witty, dramatic, visually stunning, and full of subtle, delightful human insights and constantly hilarious.” (Time Out Film Guide)

Tuesday, November 12:  The Gettysburg Story

The Gettysburg Story

The Gettysburg Story

“‘The Gettysburg Story’ film dramatically tells the history of the greatest battle fought in the Western Hemisphere. Narrated by Stephen Lang (Avatar, Gettysburg) and directed by Jake Boritt, the stories of characters who experience the battle come alive through dynamic, innovative imagery that captures the historic battleground as you have never seen it before. ” (The Gettysburg Story web site)

Tuesday, November 19: Lincoln

Steven Spielberg's Lincoln

Steven Spielberg’s Lincoln

Lincoln is a 2012 film directed by Steven Spielberg. Based in part on Doris Kearns Goodwin’s book,Team of Rivals, it covers the final four months of Lincoln’s life, focusing on his efforts in January 1865 to have the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution passed by the House of Representatives.

Take a study break and come see Lincoln at the Cinema and in the Library.