It might not look that way from your car window, but farmland covers 23 percent of New York. It’s the foundation of New York’s multi-billion-dollar agricultural economy—one that benefits all of us, no matter where we live.
Zooming out to read the report? How easy it is to forget a severe drought after a year like 2017.
Most of that cropped land? It’s in field crops: corn, soybeans, alfalfa, and the like. (These crops sustain New York’s dairy industry, third in the nation.) Scouting all that land for pests? A job for super-heroes—or lacking that, an efficient, well-designed app.
So IPM researchers built the app. Now Extension educators with their boots on the ground and a smartphone in their pocket can note hotspots for bad little buggers. Each entry helps map trends that matter: where the pests are, when they got there, and where they’re likely to show up next.
The educators’ audience? Why, farmers, of course.
True, right now the app is mainly used by educators tracking data. But the turnaround is quick, keeping farmers in the know and New York’s farm economy healthy. Think of it as scouting on steroids. Scouting is what keeps farmers abreast of what’s happening out in the field and what they can do to prevent or minimize damage (core values of IPM!). Downloading the data farmers need, then visualizing, manipulating, and editing it—that and more, this app does it all.
August 10, 2017
by Mary M. Woodsen Comments Off on Invasives IPM Update: ALB and oak wilt stand-ins
Back in mid-July, during Invasive Species Awareness Species Week, we wrote a post using asian longhorns beetle (ALB) and oak wilt as stand-ins for the multitude of invasive species already here or knocking at our doorstep.
And we promised we’d tell you what to do should you suspect these two big-time baddies might be in the neighborhood or down the road — info you can draw from to report other invasives too.
Of course, first you have to know what the symptoms of ALB and oak wilt are. After all, an accurate ID is key to IPM. So zip over to the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation’s website for their ALB and oak wilt info.
Killer beetle has distinctive markings. DEC tip line: 866-702-9938. Photo credit Kyle Ramirez.
You’ll learn that trees under attack by ALB often have wilted foliage and canopy dieback. But here are the main things to look for:
Round exit holes, ⅜” to ½” in diameter. Beginning from late July on, those mark where adults are exiting trees. Stick a pencil in there to see if the hole is at least an inch deep.
Round depressions — egg-laying sites, ½“ — in the outer bark.
Sap oozing from egg-laying sites and exit holes.
Sawdust (aka frass) in small mounds at the tree’s base or branch crotches.
To corroborate what you’ve seen, take pictures of the holes, including something for scale — a coin or ruler, for instance. Be sure to note the location — intersecting roads, landmarks or GPS coordinates.
Then call the ALB tip line: 866-702-9938.
You’ve got other options too, but best you go to DEC’s website for them.
On the loose and here at last. DEC tip line: 866-650-0652. Photo credit ISU.
And oak wilt? It’s scary. This killer pathogen — Ceratocystis fagacearum — can take down a red oak in as little as a few weeks. Where tree roots overlap, it can travel via those roots from one oak to the next, the next … sometimes taking down miles of forest. Then too, fungal mats from under their bark and exude a sweet odor that attracts bark or sap-feeding beetles, which carry the spores from one tree to another, another — sometimes miles away.
Put together, the red and white oak tribes include dozens of species. Many are common to the Northeast. But white oaks are luckier; years can pass before they die. Why? Mainly because the wilt doesn’t suffuse through the root systems of neighboring trees, nor does a sweet-scented spore mat form under the bark. But it kills them all the same.
Yes, it might seem odd that an organism first found in Iowa and Texas took more than 50 years to get to New York. But such is the way with nature. At any rate, it’s here now, an implacable foe — and all the lessons learned in the Midwest help bolster ours.
Our space is limited, so for now let’s just consider red oaks. Scarlet, blackjack, and pin oak belong to this clan. The main things to look for?
Outer leaf edges turn a tan, coppery, or reddish brown, progressing toward the mid-veins.
Branch dieback starts at the top of the tree’s canopy and works its way down — quickly engulfing the entire tree.
Leaves suddenly wilt in the spring and summer and often fall while still partly green.
Think you’ve seen oak wilt? Call 866-650-0652. If you need to prune trees —and even if you don’t — check out DEC’s two-minute video. Because regardless — this is one of those situations where citizen awareness and involvement matter. A lot. Prevention (key to IPM) and protective zones, for instance — learn more about them while you’re on DEC’s website too.
Solutions — chemical or biocontrol (especially biocontrols)? If only. But we’re just not there yet.
July 20, 2017
by Abby Seaman Comments Off on Got late blight in your garden? Here’s what to do.
Some varieties of potato — Elba, Kennebec, Sebago, and Serran among them — have some resistance; they will slow but not prevent late blight infection. If late blight becomes prevalent in your area, fungicides can protect your plants.
But act quickly, applying fungicide before plants are infected. Why? Products available for gardens cannot cure existing infections.
Want to track where late blight has been found? Sign up for text or email alerts on the usablight.org web site.
What to do if you find late blight in your garden
Take immediate action — otherwise you’ll be a source of infection for other gardens and farms. Infected plants release hundreds of thousands of spores that move on the breeze. But first confirm that what you have is late blight and not another tomato or potato disease.
County Cornell Cooperative Extension offices can offer a diagnosis or can submit a sample through the usablight.org web site. Reporting your find on usablight.org and submitting close-up and in-focus photos can sometimes be enough for us confirm a late blight infection.
Though we hate to say it, if the rainy conditions we’ve had so far this season continue, some of us will lose the battle against late blight. If that happens, you can find some suggestions for how to prevent your garden from being a source of infection for the whole neighborhood in the video What to Do if You Find Late Blight in Your Garden.
Good luck! And here’s hoping late blight doesn’t find you this season.
Lesions on leaves, stems, and fruit — it’s late blight in full bloom.
July 11, 2017
by Mary M. Woodsen Comments Off on It’s Invasive Species Awareness Week all over the U.S.
It’s Invasive Species Awareness Week — now. Pay it heed. Invasive species, it turns out, are a huge deal in the US, in New York. Everywhere, in fact.
Coping with invasive insects, pathogens and the like have cost, in the US as a whole, upward of … OK, I’m hedging already. Is it $40 billion a year? $120 billion, maybe? The estimates vary widely.
What about global losses? Ahhhhh. Nailing those, especially vital ecosystem-regulating services, is where “difficult” morphs into “impossible,” for now and perhaps forever. It’s tricky, measuring something when it’s gone.
So what about the price here in New York? Unknown, though not for lack of trying.
Example: My admittedly quick-and-dirty search uncovered a 2005 report which noted that costs for eradicating Asian Long-horned beetle from New York City and Long Island had ranged between $13 and $40 million.
Killer beetle has distinctive markings. See something? Say something. Photo credit Kyle Ramirez.
Likewise in of 2005, New York spent about a half million dollars to control sea lampreys in lakes Ontario and Erie — with no end in sight.
More recently, in 2016, I learned that oak wilt — first discovered In New York in 2008 — has cost $500 grand to control. Some midwestern states spend over $1 million a year to control it. Pretty pricey if you ask me.
What helped here? Partly it’s the luck of the draw — oak wilt arrived decades ago, making inroads throughout the Midwest slowly but relentlessly. It can take time to recognize the true nature of a pathogen — or most any invasive pest. Then it’s a catch-up game to stay on top of it. If you can.
On the loose all over the Midwest — and now here. Photo courtesy Iowa State Plant Disease Clinic.
New York saw what had happened elsewhere and has aggressively surveyed (good IPM!) and eradicated infestations quickly while still small. But that $500 grand price tag? Yow.
Still, the economic costs of losing every (yes, every) oak would far greater.
Yet to come — what to if you find Asian long-horned beetle, oak wilt, and the like.
June 7, 2017
by Mary M. Woodsen Comments Off on Invasives are pests! Learn more at our July IPM conference.
We tend to default to bugs — to insects — when we think about pests. But plant diseases and weeds are pests too. And all threaten our fields and farms, our forests and streams, our homes and workplaces.
Pests provide no end of challenges — especially pests that come from afar. Among IPM’s strengths? Researching and crafting powerful ways to cope with them.
Coming up soon, our “Invasive Species in New York: Where We Are and What We Can Do” conference, held just north of Albany at Siena College. The date? July 13, 2017. Join us!
April 12, 2017
by Mary M. Woodsen Comments Off on Earth Day. It’s Every Day. Especially for Farmers.
For farmers everywhere, but perhaps most of all for organic farmers, every day has to be Earth Day. And since what matters for farmers matters for us all, every day is Earth Day for you, me, everyone.
Take farmer Lou Lego. He earned an Excellence in IPM award earlier this year for his inspired, inventive work putting IPM into action at 100-acre Elderberry Farm and Restaurant, midway between Owasco and Skaneateles lakes in New York’s Finger Lakes Region.
Pigs on pasture cycle carbon by eating and fertilizing grasses which take up carbon dioxide and return it to the ground. Watch the video at Elderberry Farm’s Facebook page.
According to Lou, Earth Day means thinking about the future — think of it as the “every day is Earth Day” approach. One day he’s thinking about cover crops or providing for beneficial insects. On another, tillage practices — about rebuilding and nourishing the soil. Yet another, slowing or reversing wind erosion. All good IPM.
And always about slowing or reversing climate change.
Every year, Lou says (and he’s been at this a while), his soil is richer, better, healthier. Healthier soil means healthier crops. And while healthy crops can’t ensure freedom from every disease and insect pest, still — healthier soils and crops are among the IPM tactics Lou relies on, the better to cope with pests that seem bent on destruction.
For Lou, though, dealing with greenhouse gases such as atmospheric carbon — that’s the biggie.
Granted, on Elderberry Farm it’s the “a journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step” approach. And it takes a village — no, it takes pretty much all of us — to pull off climate change. What about on Lou’s scale? Sure, healthier soils can help. Tilling right can help. The research is coming in and yes, sustainable agricultural practices (think IPM) have a role to play.
Tall cover crops and sunflowers bordered by trees provide habitat for beneficial insects and wild bees.
And growing trees helps. Elderberry Farm’s fields are bounded by hedgerows or orchards, trees whose leaves pull carbon out of the atmosphere. Much stays in twigs and branches, but even more gets stashed in their roots — and they keep it there for the life of the tree and beyond.
For Lou Lego — and for IPM too — short term, long term: every day is Earth Day.
Photos courtesy Lou Lego.
March 16, 2017
by Mary M. Woodsen Comments Off on Invasive species New York: save the date for IPM conference
Christy Hoepting grew up on a small farm north of Toronto, Ontario. Enrolling at the University of Guelph, a top-tier ag school, was a natural fit. And though she focused on onion production while earning her master’s degree, she never dreamed she’d make a career of it. But then her advisor told her that a job with cooperative extension had opened up in western New York. She suggested she apply. The interview, after all, would be a good learning experience.
“What’s extension?” Christy remembers asking. But exceptional preparation and delivery were second nature. She got the job.
“I didn’t know the destination on the road I was traveling,” Christy says. “But I sure knew when I had arrived.” Need we say she loves her job?
This cover shot says it all.
Few people know onions inside-out as well as Christy Hoepting does. That “inside” part is critical. If you’re a farmer, you win when your onions pay their way; in a good year you could make upward of $4000 per acre. But you lose when one too many onion thrips — tiny pests, hard to find — sneaks between the leaf folds and starts laying eggs within its tender tissues. Or when pathogens hiding beneath the skin of healthy-looking onions trigger the long road to decline in a crop you counted on to get you through the winter.
Which is why Christy has conducted hundreds of on-farm research trials in plant pathology, entomology, weed science, cultural practices and crop nutrition. She’s presented at scores of stakeholder and scientific meetings and published scores of articles and research papers.
It’s also why she scouts farm fields relentlessly — a core practice of IPM — tracking every movement of insect and disease pests. And growers from miles around know that when Tuesday morning rolls around, they’ll meet at a corner of the road and Christy will recount what she’s seen.
It’s Tuesday. That means it’s muck donut hour.
Christy calls it the “Muck Donut Hour,” and it doesn’t take long for the conversation to start rolling. “I’m constantly tweaking our recommendations based on our research, of course, but also on what I hear from growers at the corner of the road,” Christy says.
Now for her exemplary work on behalf of farmers, not just in the rich muck-soil region of western New York but statewide and nationally, the New York State Integrated Pest Management Program (NYS IPM) presented an Excellence in IPM award to Christy Hoepting on March 8, 2017 at Cornell Cooperative Extension’s “Elba Muck Region Onion School” in Albion, New York.
Good work, Christy.
August 2, 2016
by Mary M. Woodsen Comments Off on Climate, Weather, Data: Crops and Landscapes
With all the talk about climate change you might wonder how it will affect food production, pests, and even landscapes—and what you can do about it. From the Valentine’s Day massacre winter freeze to plant life gasping for water, changing weather patterns have affected our crops all over the Northeast. Learn how gathering information on weather and climate can help growers, gardeners and landscapers plan for changes. Find details on The Climate and Weather Conference webpage.
Remember the adage “knee high by the 4th of July”? This year it was ankle high. And dry.
Climate, Weather, Data: Protecting Our Crops and Landscapes. It’s all happening August 15, 2016 at the Albany County Cornell Cooperative Extension Office, 24 Martin Rd., Voorheesville, NY, 12186.
We’re honored that Richard Ball, the Commissioner of the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets, will kick off the conference. Speakers from New York and across the Northeast will discuss the current state of knowledge on climate change and changes in weather patterns. We’ll also learn how collecting climate and weather data can help us predict and manage pests. Open discussion sessions are included so you can ask your own questions. Join us.
The New York State IPM Program seeks four new staff to amplify our IPM outreach and research for farms and communities around New York. Here are the positions (three of them new) we seek to fill:
Biocontrol Specialist (Extension Associate)
Alternative Weed Management Specialist (Extension Associate)
Coordinator for the Network for Environment and Weather Applications (Extension Associate)
Coordinator for Livestock and Field Crops IPM (Senior Extension Associate)
Our mission: to develop sustainable ways to manage disease, insect, weed, and wildlife pests; and to help people use methods that minimize environmental, health, and economic risks. Our agricultural and community programs have overlapping issues and settings. Agricultural IPM programming includes fruits, vegetables, ornamentals, and livestock and field crops. Community IPM promotes insect, weed, plant disease and wildlife management in schools, homes, and workplaces as well as on lawns, playfields, golf courses, parks and landscapes; it also includes invasive species and public health pests. NYSIPM is a national leader in developing and promoting IPM practices.
Hands-on workshops held on neighborhood farms are a tried and true way to get IPM practices to stick.
We foster a collegial and cooperative environment where teamwork is emphasized and appreciated. We also collaborate with Cornell University faculty, staff, and Cornell Cooperative Extension educators, as well as with specialists from other states and universities. These positions will be housed either in Geneva (NYSAES) or Ithaca (Cornell campus).
Education and Experience
All applicants must have an MS (required) or PhD (preferred) degree in entomology, plant pathology, horticulture or other suitable field. A minimum of two years professional experience in extension education and research or demonstration in required for extension associates and eight years for the senior extension associate. We will consider experience as a graduate student.
Additional Information AND HOW TO APPLY
For more information and application instructions, click here. Applications will be accepted until 8/31/2016 or until a suitable candidate is found.