New York State IPM Program

March 4, 2020
by Debra E. Marvin
Comments Off on Summary of Stacked Cultivation Trials in New York

Summary of Stacked Cultivation Trials in New York

photo portrait of Dr. Bryan Brown

Dr. Bryan Brown

Today’s Post comes from NYSIPM’s Dr. Bryan Brown

Using several different cultivation implements at once, or “stacking” tools, can improve weed control effectiveness. From my work at the University of Maine, Eric Gallandt and I showed that certain cultivation tools work synergistically together, particularly those combinations that undercut, then uproot, then bury weeds. Unfortunately crop damage was high in the trial results from Maine. So in New York, I made some adjustments to be gentler on the crop ­– wider spacing between tools, removed center tines on the row harrow, and tested a new hiller to bury weeds without contacting the crop (Figure 1). And GPS guidance was a big improvement too!

 

Figure 1. Cultivation implements used in these trials were A) sweeps, B) finger weeders (yellow and row harrow (blue), and C) a disk hiller. For full explanation of implement adjustments and trial methods, see the project report at  https://ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/64539

Figure 2. Results of cultivation trials in snap beans. This was the first cultivation event following planting and tillage. At cultivation, snap beans were 6” tall, while weeds were 0.5” tall in 2018 and 1” tall in 2019.

Figure 3. Results of cultivation trials in beets. First cultivation occurred at either the 2-leaf stage or about one week later at the 4-leaf stage. 2019 beets trials were planted in the spring, whereas 2018 beets were planted late-summer, with lower-growing winter annual weeds present.

Overall, the adjustments made in these trials greatly reduced crop damage while weed control remained high. I was most impressed with the stacked combo of sweeps plus fingers plus disk hillers, which consistently controlled the greatest percentage of weeds. These results also demonstrate that in-row cultivation should not be conducted prior to the 4-leaf stage in beets. For more information on integrated weed management, contact bryan.brown@cornell.edu. This project was supported by a USDA NIFA CPPM.

 

 

 

November 18, 2014
by Mary M. Woodsen
Comments Off on For New Invasive Lanternfly, Best IPM Tool is Your Eyes

For New Invasive Lanternfly, Best IPM Tool is Your Eyes

Spotted lanternfly, aka Lycorma delicatula — put it on your radar now. True, as far as we know it’s not in New York. Yet. And with winter blowing in, any likelihood of seeing it this year is grows smaller by the day. But considering the havoc this new invasive could wreak if it breaks through the quarantine in Berks County, Pennsylvania, this is one pest to remember. And — especially if you’ve been in southeastern Pennsylvania of late — you can take action now.

Yes, it's pretty. Pretty bad. Even though it's probably not in New York yet, scout now for egg masses (below); next year for nymphs and adults. Photo credit: L. Barringer, PA Dep't of Agriculture.

Yes, it’s pretty. Pretty bad. Though it’s probably not in NY yet, scout now for egg masses; next year for nymphs and adults.
Photo credit: L. Barringer, PA Dept of Agriculture.

This pest lays egg masses — beginning in September and up till the onset of winter — on just about anything with a smooth surface. So check your truck or camper, or any smooth-surfaced outdoor furniture or equipment you picked up during your travels. Here’s what to look for: a grey, puttylike, waxy coating over a mass of seedlike eggs that look as if they’re trying to poke through it.

What’s at risk? Apples. Grapes. Peaches. Dogwoods. Lilacs. All told, this natty but nasty critter (adults and nymphs alike are handsome little devils) hammers 70-plus species of smooth-barked trees and shrubs — plants we rely on for everything from apple pie and fine wine to the beauty they bring our yards and landscapes. And right now, our eyes are the best IPM tool we have for keeping this pest at bay.

Like a waxy gray putty — that's what you're scouting for to find hitchhiking egg masses. Photo credit: L. Barringer, PA Dep't of Agriculture.

Like a waxy gray putty — that’s what you’re scouting for to find hitchhiking egg masses. Photo credit: L. Barringer, PA Dept of Agriculture.

Actually, spotted lanternfly isn’t a fly. Not even a moth, though with wings spread it sure looks like one. It’s what entomologists call a “true bug” — an insect that pierces a plant with specially adapted mouthparts that suck up sap, rather as we might drink soda with a straw. But that sap is a plant’s lifeblood. Get enough sap-sucking bugs on your grapevines or cherry trees, and you’ve got a problem on your hands.

True, lanternfly gets around by hopping and seems not to move quickly on its own, despite the adults’ pretty wings. Problem is, this adaptable pest can hitchhike unseen on just about anything — not just on trucks cars and campers but flowerpots or outdoor furniture. Suddenly, Berks County doesn’t seem so far away.

New York’s orchards and vineyards alone contribute about $330 million to the state’s economy. When you factor in the value fine wines and grape juice, peaches and cherries, landscape and forest trees and shrubs, it looks lots worse. So of course we’ll remind you about spotted lanternfly next spring.

If you think you found egg masses, take a photo, scrape some off, place your sample in alcohol or hand sanitizer in a leak proof container and report to the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets, Division of Plant Industry at 518-457-2087 or via email at plants@agriculture.ny.gov. Think you’ve seen the bug itself? Do the same photo-hand sanitizer-report-it thing. Now.

 

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