New York State IPM Program

September 6, 2019
by Debra E. Marvin
Comments Off on Weeding Now Reduces Weeds Later

Weeding Now Reduces Weeds Later

Photo shows Dr. Bryan Brown in a soybean field looking at a waterhemp plant.

Dr. Bryan Brown examines a single WATERHEMP plant capable of producing thousands of seeds.

Summer annual weeds start flowering in early August, so it’s important to control them beforehand to prevent seed production. This is true for commercial growers and for homeowners.  One of the most prolific is waterhemp, a bane to growers because it’s also resistant to herbicides. According to our INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT SPECIALIST, DR. BRYAN BROWN, waterhemp is likely resistant to herbicide Groups 2, 5, and 9 in NY.

photo of top of mature waterhemp plant

That’s why Bryan is collaborating with growers and researchers around the state to investigate other controls, including cultivation, cover cropping, and even a device that zaps weeds with electricity.

“Here we’re removing waterhemp that survived some of our herbicide treatments in soybeans. Because this trial is done in a grower’s field and we don’t want it to spread, we’re removing it before it sets seed (up to 500,000).”

Soybean grower? Here’s what Bryan and Regional Field Crops Specialist, Mike Hunter explained in their CORNELL FIELD CROPS Blog:

While other pigweed species have short hairs on their stems, waterhemp and Palmer amaranth have smooth stems. The best way to distinguish waterhemp and Palmer amaranth is to rip off one of the lower leaves. Another characteristic of waterhemp and Palmer amaranth is separate male (pollen producing) and female (seed producing) plants. Herbicide resistance traits can transfer by pollen, which has allowed these weeds to develop resistance faster.

To prevent these weeds from taking hold, growers are also recommended to start weed-free with tillage, followed by a 2-pass program of residual and post-emergence herbicides that utilizes several effective sites of action. Foliar applied herbicides should be used when these weeds are less than four inches tall. Since these weeds emerge over a broader timeframe than most weeds, mid-season residual herbicide applications should be considered, along with increased planting density or tighter row spacing to help close the canopy earlier.

photo shows close up of water hemp stalk with small leaves

Waterhemp weed showing growth pattern.

If you do find yourself with escapes of these weeds, it makes economic sense to go hand-rogue those weeds out of your fields rather than deal with 200,000 to one million seeds in your soil from each weed. If there are too many to bag up by hand, consider sacrificing that patch of your crop by mowing and tilling the area before the weeds produce seed. Avoid harvesting these areas. Combines are especially good at spreading weed seeds. If you must harvest these areas, know that combines can carry 150 pounds of plant material even you think it’s empty, so check out some of the great online videos on how to clean them out after going through weedy fields.

The weakness of waterhemp and Palmer amaranth is the short lifespan of their seeds in the soil. Of those that don’t germinate, very few will survive in the soil for more than four years. So, if you can keep it under control for four years, you won’t have much of it after that. But as one Pennsylvania grower put it, “the cheapest way to control Palmer amaranth is to never get it in the first place.” So, it’s important to make sure that your seed, feed, bedding, and equipment are clean from the start.

Photo of Dr. Bryan Brown with waterhemp weeds we removed from a soybean field.

Dr. Bryan Brown works with growers, extension educators, industry leaders, and researchers to address knowledge gaps in weed IPM and develop programming to improve adoption of effective weed management practices. His work covers all agricultural crops throughout New York.

 

July 16, 2019
by Debra E. Marvin
Comments Off on Senior Worm Wrangler Safeguards North Country Crops, wins Excellence in IPM Award

Senior Worm Wrangler Safeguards North Country Crops, wins Excellence in IPM Award

Press Release by Mariah Courtney Mottley. Media contact: Jaime Cummings

Elson Shields, a Cornell entomology professor, received an Excellence in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Award from the New York State Integrated Pest Management Program (NYSIPM) at Cornell University’s Aurora Farm Field Day on the Musgrave Research Farm. NYSIPM develops sustainable ways to manage pests and helps people to use methods that minimize environmental, health and economic risks. The award honors individuals who encourage the adoption of IPM in their businesses, schools, communities, and farms, and who develop new tools and tactics for sharing these practices.

Elson Shields

Elson Shields, right, and Charles Bornt, left, Extension Vegetable Specialist with the Cornell Cooperative Extension Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture team. Elson is explaining the process of EPN application for a biocontrol project to suppress wireworms in the field. Photo: T. Rusinek.

The alfalfa snout beetle, an invasive pest, is a perennial threat to north country alfalfa. In the absence of any registered insecticides for this pest, growers are forced to only use cultural and biological controls. Shields found success protecting alfalfa from the snout beetle with the use of native entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). Nematodes are tiny worms that parasitize and eventually kill the beetle larvae, and stay in the soil to infect future generations of the pest. Shields pioneered the use of nematodes that persist in the soil, and has been able to control snout beetles as long as six years after a single application of EPNs.

Shields has taught growers to rear the EPNs and to apply them to their own crops. Dr. Shields is also exploring ways to use these beneficial nematodes to protect specialty crops. He works with agribusiness consultants in the private sector and other researchers in the public sector. His effective strategy with persistent EPNs has been featured in trade journals such as Growing Produce, Good Fruit Grower and Dairy Herd Management. He received an Entomological Foundation Award for Excellence in IPM in 2013, and his promotion of persistent EPNs is being widely adopted.

Dr. Shields is seen in this photo as he speaks with a group of growers.

Dr. Elson Shields speaks with farmers about his Northern New York Agricultural Development Program alfalfa snout beetle research at a field day in Belleville, NY. Photo courtesy of the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program.

By studying the persistence of nematodes applied to alfalfa through a crop rotation that included several years of corn, Shields observed that EPNs were also helping to control the corn rootworm, on their vacation time from alfalfa. Through collaborations with horticultural researchers, Shields is working on applying persistent EPNs as biological controls in crops such as strawberry, cranberry, sweet potato and turf. He is also studying the potential for using these techniques on greenhouse ornamentals.

Margaret Smith, Professor of Plant Breeding and Genetics at Cornell University, commends Shields’ willingness to question standard pest management orthodoxy and to follow research results wherever they might lead. She continues, “Elson’s snout beetle IPM effort is an exemplar of an outstanding public sector pest management program. Shields has done pioneering, innovating, and broadly effective research on an array of crops. His record of success will be hard to match.”

Laura McDermott, Regional Extension Specialist, says: “Dr. Shields’ work with native entomopathogenic nematodes is some of the most exciting applied research I’ve been involved with in my 30-year extension career. This integration of a biological control method as a way to manage difficult soil-borne insect pests is inexpensive, effective, and truly sustainable. Elson ALWAYS has the growers in the forefront of his mind. His efforts to teach farmers how to raise and apply these nematodes is testimony to his understanding of their abilities.”

“New York Agriculture, including the dairy, vegetable and fruit industries, have benefitted greatly from Elson’s vision and willingness to go above and beyond what is expected,” says Teresa Rusinek, Extension Associate for Vegetable Production in Cornell Cooperative Extension of Ulster County.  She continues, “I’ve observed at our field meetings and farm demo work that growers easily understand the system and readily adopt the biocontrol strategies Elson’s developed.”

July 12, 2019
by Debra E. Marvin
Comments Off on North Country Cutworm Crusader Mike Hunter receives an EXCELLENCE IN IPM Award

North Country Cutworm Crusader Mike Hunter receives an EXCELLENCE IN IPM Award

Press Release by Mariah Courtney Mottley. Media contact: Jaime Cummings

 

Fields Crop Specialist Mike Hunter is seen near a trap meant for pests entering this field corn plot.

Field crops specialist Mike Hunter works with the Cornell Cooperative Extension North Country Regional Ag Team.

Mike Hunter, a field crops specialist in the Cornell Cooperative Extension North Country Regional Ag Team, received an Excellence in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Award from the New York State Integrated Pest Management Program (NYSIPM) at Cornell University’s Aurora Farm Field Day. Hunter was supposed to receive the in January at the crop congress meeting in Watertown but dangerous snowstorms delayed the presentation. NYSIPM develops sustainable ways to manage pests and helps people to use methods that minimize environmental, health and economic risks. The award honors individuals who encourage the adoption of IPM in their businesses, schools, communities, and farms, and who develop new tools and tactics for sharing these practices.

Photo shows a western bean cutworm larva in the tip of a corn cob.

Western Bean Cutworm is a destructive corn pest.

Hunter has served the farming communities of Jefferson and Lewis counties for over 17 years as a field crops specialist. His personal experience on his family’s farm and in the private sector of agricultural business has inspired his passion for practical crop production and pest management solutions. He is considered an expert on weed management and the Western Bean Cutworm (WBC), an insect that recently invaded the North Country, and has spent years monitoring the pest and giving talks about it here and in Canada.

In 2017, Hunter was one of the first people in New York to encounter a population of WBC that were resistant to the CryF1 toxin that is incorporated into genetically modified corn. The WBCs are the larvae of a Noctuid moth notorious for causing significant yield and quality losses to corn and dry beans – the cutworm made its debut here in the Empire State in 2009. Of Hunter’s on-farm efficacy trials, Kitty O’Neil, an extension specialist in Canton NY, said, “the results were so clear and important, and Mike’s expertise is valued so highly, he was invited to speak at nine different winter field crop meetings across NY and Ontario last winter.” She continues, “Mike’s generosity and willingness to teach others has massively multiplied his impact.”

Photo shows Dr. Jennifer Grant awarding a plaque to Mike Hunter for his Excellence in IPM Award.

NYSIPM Director, Dr. Jennifer Grant awards Mike Hunter his Excellence in IPM award during the recent annual Aurora Field day at Musgrave Farm.

Hunter has collected data from pheromone trapping and field scouting, and made IPM recommendations for farmers suffering with WBC. Stephen Eisel, of the Copenhagen, NY farm where Hunter first identified the resistant pest reported, “Mike Hunter has been a great help to my farm…. We treated the fields following Mike’s recommendations and the fields recovered perfectly. Thanks to Mike and his IPM expertise, I was able to avoid a big and costly problem for my farm.”

In his role helping farmers with their crops, Hunter has also been a champion of using native beneficial nematodes (EPN) as a biological control for the alfalfa snout beetle, an invasive pest that causes much concern for farmers in the north country. Nematodes are tiny worms that parasitize and eventually kill the beetles, and stay in the soil to infect future generations of the pest. Hunter has researched the feasibility of applying EPNs to the soil via liquid manure—an application method that many farmers are excited to embrace.

Michael Kiechle, a farmer in Philadelphia NY, noted, “Over 10 years ago, Mike diagnosed a problem with Alfalfa Snout Beetle over the phone, confirmed it through farm visits and introduced me to the nematodes for control. I now have a pretty decent alfalfa crop… Mike followed up his reasoning with relevant research, and made contact with other researchers and agronomists on my behalf… He is knowledgeable, he understands agriculture and can adapt solutions to the unique needs of the farm.”

Ken Wise extension educator with NYSIPM said, “Mike takes time for everyone and helps them in a respectful and informative way.”

Learn more about Integrated Pest Management at nysipm.cornell.edu.

Post by Mariah Courtney Mottley

 

May 7, 2019
by Debra E. Marvin
Comments Off on NEWA Announces Partnership with Onset Corporation

NEWA Announces Partnership with Onset Corporation

Dan Olmstead and The New York State IPM Program at Cornell University are pleased to announce that Onset Corporation has joined the NEWA family and will be partnering to integrate HOBO® weather station data used by growers for use with insect pest and plant disease decision support tools at http://newa.cornell.edu.

The HOBO RX3000

Combining HOBO RX3000 weather stations with NEWA’s decision support tools will give farmers access to microclimate monitoring data and real-time crop management decision support, allowing for faster, well-informed farm management decisions. Growers simply select the NEWA data feed after logging onto the HOBOlink® cloud platform and then contact the NEWA Help Desk to complete the onboarding process to http://newa.cornell.edu.

Learn more about the RX3000 NEWA configuration

 Onset HOBO RX3000 Benefits

  • Free NEWA access in member states.
  • 5% NEWA discount on weather station equipment purchases.
  • NEWA tool and resource compatibility.
  • Reliable weather monitoring with low-cost data plans.
  • Hobolink® alarm notifications via text.
  • Hobolink® 24/7 data access.
  • Wide area farm coverage with HOBOnet add-on mesh network sensors (optional).

Onset is ready to answer your questions about HOBO RX3000 station configurations suitable for use with the NEWA platform. Visit the Onset NEWA partner page to learn more, or contact designated Onset support staff below with your questions regarding equipment and purchases.

Matt Sharp, Strategic Sales Representative

Environmental & Environmental Monitoring

Direct: 508-743-3126

Main: 1-800-LOGGERS (564-4377)

matt_sharp@onsetcomp.com

Farm-scale monitoring

Jamie Pearce, Onset’s VP of Marketing and Corporate Development says, “We’re very excited to be integrating our HOBO RX3000 weather station data with NEWA. Not only does it help our agricultural customer base gain actionable insights, but it also delivers the option to leverage our new wireless sensors with the HOBOnet® Field Monitoring System. Now, apple growers to vineyard managers can get a better sense of what’s happening throughout their fields.”

More About Onset

Based on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, Onset has been designing and manufacturing its data loggers and monitoring solutions since the company’s founding in 1981. The company’s award-winning HOBO® data logger and weather station products are used around the world in a broad range of monitoring applications, from water and coastal research to indoor and outdoor environmental monitoring. https://www.onsetcomp.com.

For more information follow the NEWA Blog or contact Dan Olmstead

 

 

April 11, 2019
by Debra E. Marvin
Comments Off on Blogs as Varied as our Program…

Blogs as Varied as our Program…

The THINK IPM Blog tries to cover the breadth of our program but if you know anything about us, it’s that pest management covers much more than cockroaches and dandelions. Here’s the rest of our blogs:

BIOCONTROL BYTES

The goal of this blog is to inform New Yorkers who are trying to control pests – on farms, in backyards, in businesses, or in homes – about the role that biological control plays (or could play) in successful integrated pest management. Additional information and resources can be found here.

The information is posted by Amara Dunn, Biocontrol Specialist with the New York State Integrated Pest Management Program. New content will be posted approximately once a month. Click the “Subscribe” button on the right to make sure you don’t miss anything! Content may include information on the effective use of biocontrol, responses to questions from stakeholders, and updates on new or ongoing biocontrol projects of interest to New Yorkers.

If you have questions about biocontrol, you can contact Amara by email (arc55@cornell.edu), or you can call her office (315-787-2206).


CHRISTMAS TREE IPM

Brian Eshenaur is the lead on this blog and with a new evergreen planting being established at the NYSAES/Cornell Agritech, we expect to see new posts this growing season.

Sr. Extension Associate for Ornamental Crops
Integrated Pest Management Program, 2449 St. Paul Blvd., Rochester, NY 14620
(585) 753-2561

NYSIPM WEEKLY FIELD CROPS PEST REPORT

This is a seasonal scouting report providing information on presence, identification, and management guidelines for significant field crop pests in New York. This report provides timely information to help users learn about, and better anticipate, current and emerging problems and improve their integrated pest management efforts.

The report is written by Ken Wise Extension Educator with Cornell University’s New York State IPM Program for Livestock and Field Crops in collaboration with other Cornell Cooperative Extension personnel, and Jamie Cummings, Livestock and Field Crops Coordinator.


ORNAMENTAL CROPS IPM


SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA

This blog is managed by Juliet Carroll, Fruit IPM Coordinator, NYS IPM Program, IPM House, Cornell AgriTech, Geneva, NY 14456, (315) 787-2430

SWD first reports and first finds contain GDD and day length information.

If you have questions contact her at jec3@cornell.edu. For more information on SWD, consult the websites listed in the right hand column, under More SWD Resources.


ABCs of SCHOOL AND CHILDCARE PEST MANAGEMENT

Joellen Lampman, School and Turfgrass IPM Extension Support Specialist housed at CCE Albany County, 24 Martin Road, Voorheesville, NY 12186, (518) 441-1303, Email: jkz6@cornell.edu


TREE IPM

The content of this blog is derived from inquiries of Nurseries and Christmas Tree Farms.

The IPM Program staff fielding the questions are Brian Eshenaur bce1@cornell.edu and Elizabeth Lamb eml38@cornell.edu

The IPM Ornamentals program works with university researchers, extension educators, crop consultants and growers to identify pest management issues and find answers. We deliver the IPM solutions to growers through hands-on workshops, demonstrations, and publications.


SWEET CORN PHEROMONE TRAP NETWORK

The purpose of this site is to provide weekly reports from the NY sweet corn pheromone trap network.  The trap network is a collaboration between the NYS IPM Program, local Cornell Cooperative Extension programs, farmers, and crop consultants.  We also provide scouting and threshold information for fresh market sweet corn and links to resources on the major sweet corn insect and disease pests.  The information on these pages is maintained by Marion Zuefle, Vegetable IPM Extension Area Educator with the New York State Integrated Pest Management Program, with help from Craig Cramer, Communications Specialist with the Department of Horticulture at Cornell University.
To contact Marion: mez4@cornell.edu

Marion Zuefle, Vegetable IPM Extension Area Educator

Marion Zuefle

IPM House, 607 W. North St., Cornell AgriTech, Geneva, NY 14456,  (315) 787-2379,  Email:  mez4@cornell.edu


YOU’RE NEWA

You’re NEWA is managed by Dan Olmstead, NEWA Coordinator, NYS IPM Program.

The Network for Environment and Weather Applications (NEWA) delivers weather data from weather stations primarily located on farms through the Internet at newa.cornell.edu and automatically calculates and displays weather data summaries, crop production tools, and integrated pest management (IPM) forecasts. NEWA tools promote precision IPM and crop production practices.

Dan Olmstead

Dan Olmstead, NEWA Coordinator, housed at IPM House, Cornell AgriTech, Geneva, NY 14456, 315-787-2207, Email: dlo6@cornell.edu

December 26, 2018
by Joellen Lampman
Comments Off on 2018’s Best of NYS IPM

2018’s Best of NYS IPM

“None of us is as smart as all of us.” –Ken Blanchard

2018 has been quite the year and we have been busy blogging, tweeting, videoing, and Facebooking about it. Here’s a recap of some of our more popular 2018 offerings:

ThinkIPM – our catchall blog and a great way to keep a pulse on what’s happening in New York State IPM.

Our most popular blog post was actually a guest blog by Paul Hetzler, CCE St. Lawrence County, Move Over, Medusa: Pretty? Poisonous! in the Caterpillar Clan. We’re big fans of his writing and this post on a venomous caterpillar caught a lot of your attention as well. (photo credit: Wikimedia Commons)

 

Are you safe now?

Ticks in February?

Ticks in the cold was also a popular topic. And relevant to now! Check out these two blog posts, Ticks don’t care what month it is and Ticks and the freezing weather. Hopefully they both convince you to keep up your daily tick checks.

While visiting our blog, you have also been checking out older posts. Our second most popular post viewed in 2018 was a 2014 post, Identifying Your Pest – with Poop?. There are a lot of budding scatologists out there.

Other IPM Blogs – Besides ThinkIPM, we have more dedicated blogs, and you don’t need to be a specialist to subscribe to them. Here are some of the more popular posts:

The Spotted Wing Drosophila blog has an obvious focus, but the post Spotted lanternfly found in two counties in NY captured the most views.

 

Biocontrol Bytes was begun at the end of 2018 and many of you have been enjoying the updates on the Creating habitat for beneficial insects project.

 

We saw a number of news reports about bed bugs in schools, so we wrote Bed bugs in schools aren’t going away in The ABCs of School and Childcare Pest Management blog. And you read it. We just wish the news reporters and commenters did too.

 

The 2017 NEWA Survey: IPM impact includes such gems as “93% agreed or strongly agreed that NEWA pest forecast information enhances IPM decision-making for their crops”.

 

Gypsy moths on Christmas trees? Check out the Tree Integrated Pest Management blog and see how it’s now a thing in the Gypsy Moth Caterpillars -Scout for them now post.

 

Facebook

When it comes to Facebook, video rules. Our most popular Facebook post was our claymation video, Life Cycle of the Blacklegged Tick (and Lyme Disease Prevention!). And, by the way, this claymation was part of a large Don’t Get Ticked NY campaign launched in 2018!

Our new Spotted Lanternfly video, Have YOU Spotted Lanternfly Egg Masses was just posted, but it has already reached the number two spot. This invasive insect is getting a lot of attention and we need your help to keep track of it in New York.

 

Twitter

We’re not surprised that our most popular Tweet of 2018 was about spotted lanternfly. Follow us on Twitter to keep up with the latest information.

 

 

 

Annual Report

This might be cheating, because it was just released and we have no data to show its popularity, but our 2017-2018 annual report is a 2019 calendar and everyone we have shown it to has been pretty excited.

Here’s a picture of the spotted lanternfly you have been hearing about.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

So, as we raise our glasses to 2018 and look forward to 2019, include keeping up with NYS IPM Program amongst your resolutions.

Happy New Year!

December 20, 2018
by Debra E. Marvin
Comments Off on Avipel Shield seed repellent reduces feeding by birds on newly planted corn

Avipel Shield seed repellent reduces feeding by birds on newly planted corn

NYSIPM’s Livestock & Field Crops IPM Extension Area Educator, Ken Wise, has news for field corn growers.

Crows, ravens, black birds, starlings, grackles, Canada geese, sea gulls and wild turkeys have been a pest problem annually for corn growers in New York. Damage to corn stands occurs when planted corn emerges and birds pull the seedling corn out of the soil to eat the seed. This damage dramatically reduces corn plant populations.

Avipel Shield is a seed treatment that is classified as a bio-pesticide designed to deter bird feeding on newly planted corn seed in a nontoxic manner. Avipel’s active ingredient is anthraquinone, an extract from the rhubarb plant.

Over the past two years, we have had field trials at 36 locations across the state to evaluate the Avipel seed treatment. Overall, the results of the trials showed a significant improvement in corn seedling populations in the Avipel treated plots, compared to the non-treated controls. Therefore, Avipel is a viable, and environmentally-sound integrated management option for NY corn growers to manage losses to bird predation in newly planted corn.

Figure 1: Avipel vs Control Plant Populations in 2017

Figure 2: Avipel vs Control Plant Populations in 2018

Avipel Shield is now registered to use on corn seed in New York State

Visit our website for more about NYSIPM’s Livestock and Field Crops team.

Ken’s long service with the NYSIPM program makes him known to many farmers across the state. He provides leadership in innovative educational and applied research programs relative to IPM in Field Crops and Livestock Producers in New York; assists Extension Educators in extension program development, assessing needs, implementation, and evaluation relative to IPM in Field Crops and Livestock Producers in New York; conducts applied research relative to IPM in Field Crops and Livestock in Eastern New York; and he’s the Acting/Interim NYS IPM Livestock and Field Crops Coordinator. Ken is located in the Hudson Valley. Field crop IPM assistance is also supported by Jaime Cummings in Eastern NY, and by vegetable educators Abby Seaman and Marion Zuefle.

November 23, 2018
by Debra E. Marvin
Comments Off on Training the Next Generation of Crop Scouts and Advisors

Training the Next Generation of Crop Scouts and Advisors

Today’s post is by  Jaime Cummings, NYS IPM Field Crops and Livestock Coordinator

Scouting for corn pests and diseases (photo by Ken Wise)

Each year, hundreds of prospective certified crop advisors (CCA’s) prepare for the certification exams across the country.  This certification is required by many reputable independent crop consultant firms for their scouts and consultants to ensure that they hire only the best and most well-informed applicants.  Each region of the country has its own certification exam, including the Northeast region.   Preparation for the Northeast region certification involves a three day intensive training in Syracuse in November, followed by self-study with online tutorial videos, and finally two exams in February.  One exam is to earn the International Certified Crop Advisor certification, and the other is more specific to each region.  It is required that all registrants pass both exams to earn their certification.  Once certified, CCA’s must also earn annual continuing education credits to retain their certification and to stay current on relevant issues.

It is a challenging process, and only those who are well-prepared will pass the certification exams.  The curriculum of the courses and exams covers four core competency areas:  crop management, soil fertility and nutrient management, soil and water management, and pest management.  Northeast regional CCA experts from the University of Vermont, Penn State University, Cornell University, SUNY Morrisville, SUNY ESF, NYS Department of Ag and Markets, USDA, DEC and other agribusiness industries, all come together to facilitate the annual basic and advanced trainings.

The steps of IPM are a key portion of the CCA training session.

The NYS IPM program has had a long history of involvement with these trainings in order to best prepare CCA’s for scouting for pests and diseases and for making sound management recommendations to their farmers, with the goal of reducing unnecessary pesticide applications through attention to thresholds and appropriate management guidelines.  This year is no exception.  The NYS IPM Field Crops and Livestock team members, Jaime Cummings and Ken Wise, who are both CCA’s, have been preparing to host sessions in the annual training next week.  Jaime developed a training video for the IPM portion of the pest management basic training and will be co-hosting the Q&A session on weeds, pest and diseases.  These sessions will provide the basic background information on the concepts and practices of integrated pest management.  Ken will be leading an advanced training session on the importance of crop scouting and the proper scouting methods for various pests.  Ken will also be co-hosting a session with another IPM specialist, Marion Zuefle, on bird management in cropping systems.  The topics for the advanced training session vary each year, and other members of NYS IPM have been involved with leading those sessions on topics such as IPM in vegetable production systems, and development and use of weather-based tools for predicting pest and disease occurrence in past years.

Scouting for insects in alfalfa. (photo by Keith Waldron)

Through our involvement in this process, NYS IPM ensures that the next generation of CCA’s understands the importance of implementing the best IPM practices throughout their careers.  Earning this certification means that a CCA understands that an integrated approach to pest and disease management is the best approach to minimize risk to individuals, the environment and the farmers’ bottom line through correct identification of pests, proper scouting and attention to action thresholds to minimize unnecessary pesticide applications.  As the CCA exams approach, we wish all prospective CCA’s the best of luck, and look forward to working with them on NY farms in the future!  If you’re interested in more information on the CCA program, check out this six minute video.

CCAs learn the basic concepts of IPM during the training.

Jaime Cummings is the Field Crops and Livestock IPM Coordinator of the NYS IPM Program. She is housed at  524 Bradfield Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca NY, 14853

Jaime Cummings

October 24, 2018
by Debra E. Marvin
Comments Off on Western Bean Cutworm Population Boom

Western Bean Cutworm Population Boom

This post is based on an article written for Cornell’s WHAT’S CROPPING UP blog by Ken Wise (NYS IPM) and Mike Hunter (CCE North Country Regional Ag Team) with editing by NYS IPM’s Jaime Cummings and Marion Zuefle.

Read the full article here

 

Western bean cutworm (Striacosta albicosta) aka WBC was first discovered in New York State in 2009. This insect pest of corn and dry beans can cause significant yield and quality losses to field corn grain.

The Western bean cutworm moth (Photo by: Adam Sisson, Iowa State University, Bugwood.org)

The adult moth lays eggs on the upper surface of leaf just before tasseling. White eggs turn tan, and then a purplish color before hatching (Fig. 2). Tiny and protected1st instar larvae feed on their own egg shell before moving on to leaves, pollen and silk. (Fig. 3). 4th instars bore into the corn ear to feed on kernels (Fig. 4), and here’s the big difference between WBC and other worm pests (European corn borer, corn ear worm): multiple worms in one ear. Matured larvae drop to the soil surface, then burrow down to overwinter in a pre-pupa stage (Fig. 5). They complete pupation in late spring and emerge from the soil from mid-July through mid-August. The adult moths fly and mate during late July to early August.

Figure 2: Eggs are white when first laid and then turn purplish before hatching (Photo by Mike Hunter, CCE)

Figure 3: First instar Western Bean Cutworm larvae (photo by Mike Hunter, CCE)

Figure 4: Mature Western Bean Cutworm Larvae (Photo by Ken Wise, NYS IPM)

Figure 5: Soil chambers created by Western bean cutworm larvae- (Photo by Keith Waldron, NYS IPM)

Figure 6: Western Bean Cutworm Lifecycle

In 2010, we developed a WBC pheromone trap monitoring network. Each year, from late June through August, this network of CCE Educators, crop consultants and agricultural professionals place out bucket pheromone traps. A female WBC pheromone lure attracts and catches only the males. Each week they are counted and reported (along with location of the trap) to determine when scouting should occur. This, however, doesn’t determine if or when a field should be sprayed with an insecticide.

Since 2010, the population of the WBC in New York has increase exponentially. Likewise, we started with 19 volunteers and 44 traps in 29 counties, and in 2018, we had 50 volunteers and 118 traps in 45 counties.

Table 1. New York Western Bean Cutworm 2010 – 2018 Collection Data Summary*

Includes traps in field corn, sweet corn and dry beans

Average captures by trap went from 15 in 2010 to 333 in 2018. Northern NY is the hot spot for WBC—some traps had almost 3000 in a single trap.

Figure 8: Average Western Bean Cutworm Moths Caught in Traps Weekly (Includes traps in field corn, sweet corn and dry beans)

A very important aspect of managing WBC is knowing when peak flight occurs. This generally ranges from the last week in July to the first week in August. Because females prefer to lay eggs in pre-tassel corn, growers can determine when to be vigilant about scouting for WBC egg masses and small larva.

Figure 9: Average Moth Counts/Trap without Northern NY (Includes traps in field corn, sweet corn and dry beans)

The data suggests the population is beginning to build up in previously low-count areas of the state. In time, management of WBC populations will likely be needed across the state. Widespread, high WBC populations in Northern NY have resulted in insecticide treatments.

While WBC damage to corn ears can be significant and may have detrimental effects on corn grain yield and quality, the economic impact on corn silage is less understood. For more on this read the full report.

No matter what 2019 brings, the NY WBC Pheromone Trap Monitoring Network will be watching!

 

 

Kenneth Wise

Ken Wise

Livestock & Field Crops IPM Extension Area Educator, housed at CCE Dutchess County, Millbrook, NY

2018 New York WBC Pheromone Trap Monitoring Network: Thanks to cooperating growers for allowing us to use their fields for sample sites. Special thanks to the following individuals for their enthusiasm, dedication, excellent data collection and maintenance of the WBC trap network:  Adam Abers, Brian Boerman, Chuck Bornt, Elizabeth Buck, Sara Bull, Paul Cerosaletti, Mike Davis, Janice Degni, Dale Dewing, Natasha Field, Cassidy Fletcher, Jennifer Fimbel, Aaron Gabriel, Kevin Ganoe, Jeffrey Gardner, Don Gasiewicz, John Gibbons, Ethan Grundberg, Mike Kiechle, Ariel Kirk, Jeff Kubeka, George Krul, Christy Hoepting, Mike Hunter, Amy Ivy, Joe Lawrence, Jodi Lynn Letham, Jen Masters, Laura McDermott, Carol MacNeil, Sam Meigs, Stephanie Melancher, Sandy Menasha, Jeff Miller, Anne Mills, Eric Nixon, Kitty O’Neil, Jessica Prospers,  Bruce Reed, Teresa Rusinek, Erik Kocho-Schellenberg, Jack Steele, Abby Seaman, Keith Slocum, Paul Stackowski, Mike Stanyard, Dan Steward, Crystal Stewart, Allie Strun, Linda Underwood, Katherine Vail, Ken Wise, Anastasia Yakaboski, Glenn Yousey, Marion Zuefle, WNYCMA.  The WBC Bt corn trials were made possible with support from both the New York Corn Growers Association and the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program.

 

October 17, 2018
by Debra E. Marvin
Comments Off on Seed Selection for Resistance to Insects and Diseases

Seed Selection for Resistance to Insects and Diseases

Today’s post is authored by  Jaime Cummings, NYS IPM Field Crops and Livestock

Whether planting a home garden or a one hundred acre soybean field, it’s important to consider all the pest, weed and disease issues that may occur during the growing season.  We have many tools in the IPM toolkit to help us manage these issues, including crop rotation, hand weeding, reliance on natural predators, and use of exclusion barriers, insect traps and pesticides.  But one of the most important cultural practices everyone should consider as a first line of defense against pests and diseases is genetic resistance in the varieties you select to grow.

Selective breeding, or genetic modification, for improved harvests has been occurring since the beginning of agriculture, and all modern crops have been modified in some way from their wild ancestor plants.  Think about corn, also known as maize, as one familiar example.  All modern corn was derived from the ancestral grass called teosinte through selective breeding by our ancestors (Figure 1).  Many advancements in breeding methods and technologies have developed in recent decades, but the goal is the same:  To develop elite varieties that are well-adapted to specific regions with resistance to common diseases and pests to achieve high yields.  We now have a wide range of corn varieties and hybrids with different maturities, different colored and sized kernels, and different levels of resistance to a wide variety of pests and diseases (Figure 2).  Some modern corn hybrids even have specific traits or genes that enable them to tolerate certain herbicides or to ward off some insect pests.  All these breeding advancements have resulted in improved yields and decreased pesticide use.  And there are many other disease resistance genes that have been discovered and integrated into many corn varieties.  These too have significantly reduced farmers’ reliance on pesticides for managing diseases and the harmful mycotoxins produced by some pathogenic fungi.

Figure 1. 

Teosinte is the wild plant that all modern corn originated from 8,700 years ago.  (Image from National Geographic)

Figure 2. 

Diversity in corn varieties developed through selective breeding efforts.  (Image from USDA)

Corn is just one example among all the crops we grow with options for genetic resistance to numerous pests and diseases.  We have similar opportunities when selecting varieties for our fruits, vegetables and grains (Figures 3 and 4).  Choose wisely and consider the advantages of selecting varieties with resistance.  Many insects and diseases plague our crops that are challenging to manage, with or without the natural or synthetic pesticides used in organic or non-organic agricultural systems.  To improve your chances of success in minimizing losses, consider all the strategies of integrated pest management, starting with the seeds you select to plant.

Figure 3. 

Tomato varieties that are susceptible (left) and resistant (right) to late blight.  (Image from Cornell University, Martha Mutschler)

Figure 4.

Soybean varieties that are susceptible (left) and resistant (right) to aphids.  (Image from University of Minnesota)

Whether developed through traditional selective breeding methods or high-tech genetic engineering, all of our crops have been modified from their original form to provide us with improved feed, fiber and fuel yields.  When selecting varieties to plant in your garden or on your farm, take advantage of these breeding advancements, and consider choosing varieties with resistance to the pests and diseases that are commonly problematic in your area.  You’ll be glad you did when you have fewer bugs chomping on your crops and fewer losses to those unsightly molds and mildews.

 

Jaime Cummings

Jaime Cummings

Field Crops and Livestock IPM Coordinator

524 Bradfield Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca NY, 14853
Jaime works with growers, dairy and livestock producers, extension educators, research faculty and staff and industry counterparts to promote the adoption of IPM practices for insect, disease and weed management for all field crops and livestock. Her work includes research and educational outreach throughout New York State.

 

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