Soybean Disease Identification, Expansion of Soilborne Soybean Diseases and the Soybean Cyst Nematode in NYS, and Considerations for Soybean Seed Treatment Options for these Threats
Cayuga County CCE specialist Ron Kuck held a shop meeting at Dumond’s farm in Union Springs on February 19th. Jaime Cummings, Field Crops and Livestock IPM Coordinator at NYSIPM shared information on how to correctly identify, differentiate and manage soybean diseases, which seed treatments are most beneficial and cost-effective for soybeans in NY, and how to deal with the new soybean cyst nematode now that it’s been confirmed more widely in NY.
A good turnout on February 19 for a Cayuga County Shop Meeting. Growers concerned with soybean diseases heard the latest from NYSIPM’s Jaime Cummings.
Participants took a pre-workshop quiz to gauge their knowledge of the subject, and a post-workshop quiz to see how much they learned. And, they learned a lot! The average quiz rating before the workshop was 57%, and was 87% after. This means a 30% knowledge gain regarding when and which management methods are most effective for each soybean disease, including when pesticides are not the best option, and how to incorporate integrated pest management options for minimizing losses to the soybean cyst nematode.
Soybean Sudden Death (SDS) Foliar Symptoms
Ron Kuck received positive feedback from a number of participants, who each said that they appreciated the workshop and Jaime’s expertise and enthusiasm on the subject matter.
About 35 farmers and agriculture professionals attended February’s Shop Meeting in Union Springs, NY.
Symptoms of Northern stem canker on soybean.
Thank you to all who coordinated and attended this successful event.
“None of us is as smart as all of us.” –Ken Blanchard
Each year, NYS IPM staff are busy blogging about relevant topics. Here’s a recap of some of our more popular 2019 offerings:
ThinkIPM is our catchall blog and a great way to keep a pulse on what’s happening in New York State IPM.
No one wants to find an embedded tick.
We have spent a lot of time in the past year talking about how to prevent tick bites, from dressing in long pants, using repellents, and conducting daily tick checks. But sometimes one gets past you and you discover that new lump behind your knee has legs. There are always question about what to do next, and Help! I found a tick on me! was the most popular 2019 blog post.
Spotted lanternfly distribution map as of November 2019
Spotted lanternfly was also on your mind, and Traveling for the Holidays? provided a checklist for those traveling within the spotted lanternfly quarantine zone. Trust us when we say that you do not want to unintentionally transport Spotted Lanternfly egg masses in New York state.
Other IPM Blogs – Besides ThinkIPM, we have more dedicated blogs, and you don’t need to be a specialist to subscribe to them. Here are some of the more popular posts:
The most popular Biocontrol Bytes offering was a guest post from our collegues in the Cornell’s School of Integrative Plant Science, section of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, Anna Wallis, Kerik Cox, and Mei-Wah Cho. They discussed moving beyond antibiotics to the use of biopesticides in the post, Battling Fire Blight with Biologicals.
Combining HOBO RX3000 weather stations with NEWA’s decision support tools will give farmers access to microclimate monitoring data and real-time crop management decision support, allowing for faster, well-informed farm management decisions. Growers simply select the NEWA data feed after logging onto the HOBOlink® cloud platform and then contact the NEWA Help Desk to complete the onboarding process to http://newa.cornell.edu.
5% NEWA discount on weather station equipment purchases.
NEWA tool and resource compatibility.
Reliable weather monitoring with low-cost data plans.
Hobolink® alarm notifications via text.
Hobolink® 24/7 data access.
Wide area farm coverage with HOBOnet add-on mesh network sensors (optional).
Onset is ready to answer your questions about HOBO RX3000 station configurations suitable for use with the NEWA platform. Visit the Onset NEWA partner page to learn more, or contact designated Onset support staff below with your questions regarding equipment and purchases.
Jamie Pearce, Onset’s VP of Marketing and Corporate Development says, “We’re very excited to be integrating our HOBO RX3000 weather station data with NEWA. Not only does it help our agricultural customer base gain actionable insights, but it also delivers the option to leverage our new wireless sensors with the HOBOnet® Field Monitoring System. Now, apple growers to vineyard managers can get a better sense of what’s happening throughout their fields.”
More About Onset
Based on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, Onset has been designing and manufacturing its data loggers and monitoring solutions since the company’s founding in 1981. The company’s award-winning HOBO® data logger and weather station products are used around the world in a broad range of monitoring applications, from water and coastal research to indoor and outdoor environmental monitoring. https://www.onsetcomp.com.
In late 2018, NEWA’s Coordinator, Dan Olmstead, and its creator, Dr. Juliet Carroll, concluded an assessment of a 2017 user survey. They, and the NEWA State Coordinators, reviewed user demographics, website content needs, and user experience before passing it on to Cornell’s Survey Research Institute.
The electronic survey included a subset of questions first asked in the 2007 survey. A summary of the 398 participants from 14 states provided a clear picture of NEWA’s impact. A more detailed summary has been shared in four posts at the NEWA Blog http://bitly12UatlMMW
Here’s the bottom line:
-NEWA is a reliable and trusted source of information among uses.
-All respondents said they would recommend NEW to other growers.
-NEWA provides reliable IPM information to support responsible management practices, enhance decision-making, and increase awareness of risks.
-96% of users say NEWA improves the timing of pesticide applications.
-NEWA has a positive impact on IPM practices.
Dan Olmstead presents a NEWA Workshop at the recent Empire State Producer’s Expo
Fewer vegetable than fruit models are available on NEWA. Cabbage maggot and onion maggot models are popular among growers (Fig. 2). Use percentages were based on the number of respondents to disease and insect model questions, which were 35 and 20, respectively. NEWA vegetable tool development is an area for future growth. In addition, promotion and education on how to use existing vegetable tools would increase use.
Dr. Juliet Carroll, Fruit IPM Coordinator, NYS IPM Program, NEWA founder
When putting the above statements into dollar figures, consider this:
Growers are saving money on an annual basis—an average of $4329—by reducing use of pesticide spray.
Estimated savings from crop loss, again on average, was $33,048.
Who uses NEWA? 75% are growers and 60% of them manage diversified farm operations.
20% of respondents managed farms smaller than 10 acres.
57% of respondents managed farms between 11 and 1000 acres.
4% had farms greater than 1000 acres.
Most NEWA growers grew apples, but a majority produced two or more commodities such as other tree fruit, grapes, berries, and tomatoes. Existing fruit and vegetable forecast tools will soon be joined by additional tools for field crops and ornamentals.
NEWA also provides links to other tools such as NOAA radar maps, USDA drought maps and websites that target particular problems like late blight or cucumber downy mildew.
While visiting our blog, you have also been checking out older posts. Our second most popular post viewed in 2018 was a 2014 post, Identifying Your Pest – with Poop?. There are a lot of budding scatologists out there.
Other IPM Blogs – Besides ThinkIPM, we have more dedicated blogs, and you don’t need to be a specialist to subscribe to them. Here are some of the more popular posts:
Our new Spotted Lanternfly video, Have YOU Spotted Lanternfly Egg Masses was just posted, but it has already reached the number two spot. This invasive insect is getting a lot of attention and we need your help to keep track of it in New York.
Boxwood blight, Cylindrocladium buxicola, was first identified in 2011 when submitted samples were examined at the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. This marked the first confirmed cases outside of the UK and New Zealand. Since then, it’s been found on many cultivars of boxwood, Buxus spp., up and down the east coast.
Boxwood Blight, Photo credit Oregon Department of Agriculture
Now, it’s not only showing up in many downstate counties and Long Island, but completely decimating formal gardens and landscape nurseries. With various landscape and cutting uses, Boxwood is a million dollar plus industry, including its use as a major component in holiday wreaths and decorations.
Boxwood Blight, photo credit Margery Daughtery
While boxwood blight might not be a concern in your yard, you’d notice its loss in many landscapes. This is a major concern of landscapers, horticulturalists and growers.
Boxwood blight shows up as dark brown spots on leaves. These lesions enlarge with dark borders until they merge with others. By then an entire leaf—and many nearby—may be covered. These browned out or straw-colored dead leaves drop in record time. “That’s why they call it a blight.”
Stem infection also occurs and shows up as long black lesions. This FUNGAL DISEASE forms sporadochia (fruiting structures), visible with a hand lens. In layman’s terms, sporadochia produce sticky spores—nasty seeds of destruction if you’re a fungal disease! Spores happily spread by wind, rain, splashing water, or by hitchhiking on you, your lawnmower and rake, your dog, even your favorite garden birds.
Why this sudden outbreak? Anyone who suffered through this swampy summer can guess. According to Cornell Alum and New York State Climatologist, Mark Wysocki, “This is more typical for the Gulf Coast states.” Syracuse, for example, sweated through 531 hours when the dew point, a standard measure of humidity, was at least 70 degrees. That’s more than double the number of sticky hours of the next closest year, 2005.
THIS CHART SHOWS # OF HOURS OF DEWPOINT >= 70 at Ithaca Tompkins Airport by year 1996-2018
With relatively new pests, IPM and conventional treatment options aren’t time-tested. Other factors such as soil health, over or under-watering and winter injury increase susceptibility, but this year’s humidity has come at a high cost to boxwood.
For more on boxwood blight, here are two great resources:
“I already found a tick on me!” – many people across NY
Many New Yorkers still equate tick activity with summertime, but blacklegged ticks, the ones that carry Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, Powassan virus, and Borrelia miamyoti, are most active in the spring and fall. (They can actually be active year round if the temperature and humidity levels are just right. Thus the heavy activity on the warm days in February.)
The goal is to prevent ticks from becoming embedded in the first place. But if you do find an embedded tick, remove it properly!
And in the springtime the blacklegged tick nymph turns to thoughts of questing. And nymphs are small. Poppy seed-sized small. If you are not intentionally conducting a daily tick check, you could easily miss one. And even if you are intentionally looking, one can occasionally get through your visual defenses. Which is why I was able to take this tick removal video after finding this tiny nymph on my leg when using my fingertips to search by feel. Since Powassan virus can be transmitted after 15 minutes of the tick being embedded, the incentive for not being bitten has risen dramatically.
Which brings us to the use of clothing treatments to protect ourselves. Permethrin is a pesticide that can be applied to clothing, footwear and gear before exposure. Researchers for the Center for Disease Control recently conducted a study showing how permethrin interferes with blacklegged, American dog, and lone star ticks’ ability to move and, thus, to bite. Read about it here.
Now the easiest option is to buy pretreated clothing or have your clothes professionally treated. The TickEncounter Resource Center has an excellent section of their website about tick repellent clothes, including where to get them.
For DIYers, permethrin can be purchased at many sporting goods and big box stores as a liquid or aerosol spray. But it must be applied safely and correctly. I try not to react in horror as people tell me they will spray the clothes they are wearing just prior to walking out the door. This product must NOT be applied to clothing while it is being worn. Or when one’s husband announces that he left his newly treated clothing in the basement. (And, yes, he sprayed the clothes down there too.) Permethrin must be applied outdoors. Don’t take my word for it. This information, and more, is found on the label. Let’s take a close look at the label from a commonly found product. (Does not imply endorsement.)
The label is the law and will tell you everything you need to know about using a pesticide correctly and legally.
The label, which is vetted through the EPA and, in NY, the DEC, provides information on the following topics (with a few examples thrown in):
Signal Word – this is your clue to how dangerous the pesticide is. To put it simply, categories include Caution (slightly toxic), Warning (moderately toxic), and Danger (highly toxic). This formulation of permethrin is labeled Caution.
DIRECTIONS FOR USE – includes, but is not limited to:
SHAKE WELL BEFORE USING. (Emphasis theirs. It must be important!)
This product must not be applied to clothing while it is being worn. Under no circumstances should bare skin or clothing on the body be treated. (Emphasis also theirs.)
Make all applications outside.
STORAGE & DISPOSAL
Store in a cool, dry place inaccessible to children.
Never place unused product down any indoor or outdoor drain
PRECAUTIONARY STATEMENTS – includes “Do not use on humans.”
FIRST AID – in case you didn’t follow the precautionary statements.
This product is extremely toxic to fish and other aquatic organisms.
We hit just some of the highlights, but it is all important. The label not only provides suggestions for using the product safely – the label is the law. That too is on the label: “Buyer assumes all risks of use, storage or handling of this product not in strict accordance with directions given herewith.”
So what is one to do? Why, follow the label of course. Decide which clothes you might wear into tick infested places and “select an outdoor area protected from the wind, spray outer surfaces of clothing (while not being worn) with a slow sweeping motion to lightly moisten the surface of the fabric, holding pump at a distance of 6 to 8 inches. Treat outer surfaces of each outfit, front and back, for 30 seconds on each side and allow to dry for at least 2 hours (4 hours under humid conditions). Pay particular attention to socks, trouser cuffs, and shirt cuffs.”
Then plan for the next application. “Clothing should be retreated after six weeks or after the sixth laundering to maintain adequate protection” I both mark the day I sprayed in my calendar and schedule an appointment for six weeks later.
By the way, professionally treated clothing also has a label, often found on the hang tag when purchased. Be sure to follow those instructions carefully as well.
If you’ve read our other posts on the blacklegged tick (aka the deer tick), you might guess—and rightly so—that it’s the tick that’s been on our radar the longest; the one we (still) give most of our time and attention to. And all for good reason.
Sheer numbers (how much Lyme disease we’ve seen; what the co-infections are and how commonplace they are; its reputation as the “great imitator”) keep the blacklegged tick in the spotlight. Meanwhile, with the exception of Long Island, the lone star tick is rarely seen in the metro New York area and points north. But it has colonized some islands off Connecticut and established a toehold on Cape Cod in Massachusetts.
The lone star tick is on a roll, with its own suite of diseases and syndromes, some still mysterious. (Credit CDC)
Indeed, the lone star tick’s potential for harm could, somewhere down the pike, become a force all northerners face.
And consider this: though deer serve as a great food source and taxi service for ticks, they are immune to Lyme disease. Not so with the lone star tick. Because given the right circumstances, it can kill even deer.
So … what diseases or conditions does this tick carry—and could any be fatal to people? Here’s the short list:
Ehrlichiosis is nasty. Upward of two percent of those who get it might die.
Tularemia is nasty too, though less so than ehrlichiosis.
Heartland virus is rare—and most people who do get it have mild symptoms; perhaps none at all. But yes, some will die.
Alpha-gal syndrome? Perhaps—especially if you don’t know it for what it is. While the symptoms can be frighteningly intense, not everyone reacts with that same level of intensity. Plus this syndrome’s transcontinental spread in places lacking lone star ticks leads to yet-unanswered questions.
So how about STARI, or southern tick-associated rash illness—can it do you in? My careful search turned up zilch, zip, zero. Doesn’t mean STARI won’t send you to an early grave. But if it could, I can’t find credentialed scientific sources to back up such a claim. You’ll be interested to know, though, that the rash STARI stands for can, on the surface of things, make you think you might have Lyme disease. And more unanswered questions: as of August 2017, the pathogen that causes STARI remains unknown.
Raccoons are pretty cute, but you really don’t want them pooping on the property. Photo: Nell McIntosh
We don’t have to go to wild places to find wildlife. A surprisingly wide range of species can be found in our sities and towns, from familiar animals like the raccoon to more exotic ones like the mountain lion. – Roger Tory Peterson
When I was younger, raccoons were my favorite animal. It was hard to resist their clever little hands and cute bandit masks. My stuffed raccoon was named Rickie. Even when I was old enough to learn about rabies, my love didn’t wane. But then, when taking a wildlife rehabilitation workshop, I learned about Baylisascaris procyonis (raccoon roundworm), an intestinal parasite passed in raccoon poo.
The speakers at that workshop recommended using a blowtorch to kill the eggs of this intestinal parasite which, terrifyingly, can enter our eyes and nervous systems. The cuddly raccoon lost its place in my heart.
My love-hate relationship with raccoons came to mind when I saw the CDC has released a fact sheet on raccoon latrines and Baylisascaris procyonis. I do work quite a bit with school and child care facilities with their obligatory playgrounds. The CDC notes that “young children or developmentally disabled persons are at highest risk for infection, as they may be more likely to put contaminated fingers, soil, or objects into their mouths.” But they fail to point out that sandboxes can serve as a raccoon latrine. (It’s listed as a possibility here.) Of course, cats, which carry their own suite of parasites, are more likely to use sandboxes as their own personal litter box. It’s good IPM to prevent all types of animals from accessing your sandboxes.
The idea is good, but the implementation is lacking. Without securing the tarp, animals can easily slip under it. Photo: Joellen Lampman
No need to rid your property of sandboxes — indeed, there are sensory and group play opportunities with sandboxes (just Google “sand play activities”). But you must prevent animals from gaining access. Here’s how:
Keep sanitation a priority to avoid attracting wildlife – ensure that trash is cleaned up and put in a sealed container at the end of each day. (This will also help with other pests such as rats and yellow jackets.)
Have a “no food in the sandbox” rule – there is no need to provide an enticement for local animals to check out the box.
Have a solid box bottom — not only will this help prevent sand loss, but it keeps critters from burrowing in from underneath.
Have a durable cover on your box and make sure it is only uncovered during playtime.
Pest proof your buildings (including outbuildings) to reduce den sites. Raccoons will gladly set up facilities in your attic or garden shed.
Sandbox with cover rolled back. Photo: Gil Garcia
Tarp ties on the sandbox hold the tarp securely in place. Photo: Gil Garcia
If you find a latrine, check out the CDC fact sheet that includes information on cleaning it up while protecting your health. (Spoiler alert: they also recommend using a propane torch, since chemicals will not kill the eggs.)
Just a note that raccoon latrines can be found in other areas, including (yikes!) inside buildings. Be sure to pest proof your buildings to prevent raccoons (and squirrels and bats and birds) from making your building their new den. To keep wildlife out of your buildings and discourage them from your grounds, visit the NYS IPM Program web page: What’s Bugging You: Wayward Wanderers.
November 7, 2017
by Mary M. Woodsen Comments Off on Pollinators, awards — and IPM
It takes teamwork — whether you’re a bee or a researcher. (Photo Sasha Israel)
New York, like the rest of the world, is highly dependent on the hundreds of species of crop pollinators that collectively contribute roughly $170 billion a year to the global economy. Many are in decline and under threat in New York and elsewhere.
That’s why Dean Kathryn J. Boor ’80 recognized the Cornell Pollinator Health Team for their outstanding outreach accomplishments in a ceremony that celebrated research, extension and staff excellence.
On hand to accept from Dean Kathryn Boor (L) were (L-R) Jennifer Grant, Bryan Danforth, Dan Wixted and Scott McArt.
The seven-member team includes entomologists, extension outreach specialists and pest management experts — one being NYS IPM‘s director Jennifer Grant.
The team provides critical extension and outreach on pollinator declines, including information on
optimal habitats for honey bees, native bees, and other pollinators
diseases that afflict bees
how pesticides affect bees — other pollinators too
what to do when your honey bees are in decline
Hi. I’m a hover fly and I pollinate lots of plants too. Plus my larvae eat aphids for breakfast, lunch and dinner. And no, I won’t sting you. (Photo credit Susan Ellis.)
With its focus on extension and outreach, the team has given more than 70 extension talks over the past three years in New York and elsewhere on pollinator health, bee diversity, integrated pest management practices and pesticide recommendations that minimize risks to bees — to all pollinators, in fact. Their audiences have included beekeepers, farmers, and lawmakers — as well as state and national organizations such as the New York Farm Bureau, the Audubon Society and Future Farmers of America.
“In three short years, the work of this team has made a notable impact both in scope and relevance to beekeepers,” Boor said at the ceremony. “The pollinator health team represents a model for how collaboration among different units at Cornell can lead to highly integrative and creative extension and outreach.”