New York State IPM Program

April 6, 2020
by Debra E. Marvin
Comments Off on Timely School IPM Tip #3: Sanitation

Timely School IPM Tip #3: Sanitation

This is the third and final post dedicated to tactics of school IPM most appropriate to the current situation of shuttered schools. (If your building is open to provide meals for at-home students, we applaud your efforts!)

Post #1 Scouting, Post #2 Exclusion. Sanitation is a third step in structural pest management, as it reduces pest habitat (food, water, shelter).

Sure to gain your attention, this photo (below) proves there’s been a lack of sanitation (and scouting, and exclusion!) But this scenario might well be the case in buildings left unattended during the Covid-19 closures. This may seem extreme, but sanitation isn’t just removing dead rodents, it’s keeping storage areas, kitchens and classrooms free of crumbs, condensed water, and recyclables.

photo shows a sticky trap with three mise on it. one is still alive, the other two dead. one is just what's left after other pests have fed on it.

Below is a (partial) look at our recommended Best Management Practices chart. We left off the Daily practices in favor of what can be done best during shutdown. Sanitation is more than just cleaning greasy stove tops.  It’s getting to all those places we’d rather ignore, and reducing clutter and keeping food products in pest-proof containers.

a partial chart of things to do monthly, quarterly or annually to reduce pest problems in buildings.

For example, the non-chemical practices to reduce cockroaches:

The key factor is sanitation and reduction in habitat. Take care not to bring them in on packaging material (inspect incoming food). Clean up all spilled foods; don’t leave dirty dishes overnight; store all food in pest-resistant packaging; modify areas where pipes and utilities enter walls (caulk and screen all entrances); reduce moisture by improving plumbing and insulating pipes that routinely sweat. Empty garbage every day. Keep floor drains capped or full of water. Increase ventilation in moist areas. Baits are the most efficient and widely used form of control, but prevention is the least toxic method of control.

photo shows a corner in a storage or boiler room where rodent droppings have accumulated.

(Above) Mouse droppings are not just unsightly, they can cause allergic reactions and health issues, and can carry disease. Cockroaches exacerbate conditions like asthma. SANITATION also assists monitoring. If this area was cleaned last week, you can be sure the droppings are new.

photo shows a plugged floor drain in a commercial kitchen

(Above) Drain Fly Harborage: Clogged floor drains with decaying organic material provides breeding habitat for drain flies.

Photo shows metal storage shelves with proper spacing and pest-resistant storage of food items. Spacing the metal shelves in a way that allows cleaning and reduces pest habitat

(above) This commercial storage area shows good spacing and pest-resistant storage. Keeping cardboard to a minimum, and providing space between items, and space below and behind the shelving makes for easier cleaning. (photo Dr. Matt Frye)

Here are some resources:

UC IPM: How to Get Rid of Pantry Pests

(A longer video on Cockroach control in the home) Minnesota Dept. of AG and EPA: Cockroach Prevention and Control  and (En Espanol)

Green Cleaning Products – EPA – Protecting Students and Staff with Green Cleaning Products

And in this time of specific cleaning needs, EPA Recommended Cleaning products against Virus

 

April 2, 2020
by Debra E. Marvin
Comments Off on Timely School IPM #2: Excluding Pests

Timely School IPM #2: Excluding Pests

Last week we promoted SCOUTING for pests.

Today, we want to emphasize ways to EXCLUDE pests. Exclusion is a fundamental way to reduce pests in buildings. Unfortunately, it’s not always a quick and easy job.

Some gaps are easy to see. Improperly fitting door sweeps or gaps along utility lines, for instance.  Others, like gaps along roof lines are harder to locate, and harder to access.

We’ve included some videos and some links to METHODS and exclusion product resources. NOW is a great time to address pest reduction or prevention needs in quiet school buildings. Trade names used herein are for convenience only; no endorsement of products is intended, nor is criticism of unnamed products implied.

While you’re at it, visit our School IPM Best Management Practices Website where we’ve gathered plenty of resources for successful school IPM.

Photo shows the gaps entry doors of a school building

(Above) “You might be a pest management champion” if you automatically look for gaps like this in structural doors.

Photo shows a large2-3" gap around a pipe going into a brick wall foundation

(Above) This gap is obvious, but so often ignored. A proper job of completely sealing this with cement will keep rodents out. Even so, areas like this should be scouted on a regular basis, as pests will find a way to re-use old pathways.

photo shows a gap in a cement wall around a utility pipe.

Before adding ‘exclusion’ in the form of stainless steel wire mesh fiber

photo shows gap around pipe filled with metal mesh fiber

After. Stainless steel mesh resists rusting.

VIDEO: NYSIPM Rodent Management – How to keep them out

VIDEO: NYSIPM: Exclusion – an old concept with new life

VIDEO: TEXAS SCHOOL IPM: Sealants versus Caulking

VIDEO: TEXAS SCHOOL IPM: Patching a rat hold with mesh

ONLINE ARTICLE: PCT’s Annual Pest Exclusion Issue.

ONLINE ARTICLE with VIDEO: Stop Pests in Housing: Developing a Pest Exclusion for Cockroaches and Rodents

March 30, 2020
by Debra E. Marvin
Comments Off on Timely School IPM #1: Scouting for Building Pests

Timely School IPM #1: Scouting for Building Pests

While pests like bedbugs are inactive waiting out school re-openings, the old standards like cockroaches and rodents can use quiet buildings to their advantage if habitat needs are met.  Food, water and shelter are available in areas such as storage rooms, kitchens, boiler rooms and crawlspaces. If your building is currently unoccupied, pest activity can go unnoticed by staff, especially if there is a disruption in pest control operator visits.

OUR NUMBER ONE SUGGESTION NOW IS…SCOUTING. Building maintenance remains (at this time) essential work. Just like in the summer months, buildings without students allow much great opportunity for extensive scouting and cleaning.

LOOK FOR PESTS, PEST ACTIVITY and PEST ENTRY POINTS. The partial inspection list below notes areas that may not be addressed daily during the school year.  Now is the time to move large pieces of kitchen equipment in buildings no longer providing meals.

image shows three samples of pest droppings for comparison, rat, cockrock, mouse

Rat, cockroach, and mouse droppings. Can you identify? (cockroach on the right)

Our Best Management Practices for School IPM website is available to help.  For example: Resources for custodial and building maintenance staff.  We have at least forty links to online or printable resources for IPM Policies and Protocols, General IPM Resources, Indoor IPM Resources and Outdoor IPM Resources

a partial chart of things to do monthly, quarterly or annually to reduce pest problems in buildings.

Here are some videos to help you out:

Signs of rodent infestations in buildings: NYSIPM’s Dr. Matt Frye

Setting snap traps : NYSIPM’s Dr. Matt Frye

Insect monitoring: West Virginia’s IPM Minute: Sticky traps for insects

How to conduct a Pest Assessment in Schools: EPA Webinar

Inspecting a Child Care Facility – Detailed video applicable to all school buildings

photo shows water lines inside a building's utility room. Grease marks are dark and greasy trails showing where rodents travel. This also shows how water condensation provides water for pests.

Dark areas known as grease marks show consistent routes of rodents. Their greasy fur leaves a trail. Why are they here? Pests rely on water sources such as condensation.

 

 

March 16, 2018
by Mary M. Woodsen
Comments Off on Pests, Pesticides and Proposals: Funding IPM Community Projects

Pests, Pesticides and Proposals: Funding IPM Community Projects

Pests and pesticides—both can pose problems to our health, our environment, and our economy. At the New York State Integrated Pest Management Program (NYS IPM), we help New Yorkers address those problems safely and thoughtfully. How? Through innovative biological, cultural, technological, and educational practices. IPM, in a word.

Community IPM takes place in settings as varied as school buildings and grounds; residential and office buildings; gardens, parks and landscapes; and golf courses and right-of-ways. Now we invite grant proposals from qualified New Yorkers who want to develop, evaluate, or demonstrate feasible IPM methods. Budgets must not exceed $8,500. Our deadline: April 6, 2018. Funds must be spent by February 28, 2019.

The German cockroach needs no introduction. If it can get on your fork, it can get in your food. Credit Clemson University, USDA.

All projects must accomplish one or more of the following:

  • develop, advance, test or refine new IPM strategies;
  • demonstrate a link between IPM practices and reduced risk to human health or pesticide residues;
  • measure the positive change or potential impact of IPM practices or adoption, or survey current IPM knowledge;
  • develop Community IPM resources, such as brochures, websites, fact sheets, manuals, and apps for smartphones and tablets;
  • develop IPM educational programs, such as workshops or curriculum;
  • educate others about IPM through outreach and demonstrations.

Audiences could include school administrators, teachers and students; landscape and structural pest management professionals; vector control specialists; municipal employees; nuisance wildlife control operators; golf course personnel; arborists; right-of-way managers; day care operators—just about anyone, in fact. We encourage projects that reach new audiences or develop new partnerships.

Two years. Yup. Ticks know how to make good use of their time.

Our Community IPM priorities include: develop or demonstrate solid strategies for dealing with rodents or cockroaches; develop, confirm or promote methods to lessen the impact of ticks; research, demonstrate or create outreach projects that promote pollinator health and conservation; and research and demonstrate alternatives to imidacloprid on lawns and athletic fields.

Yes, there are plenty more. But for 2018, these four are our greatest needs.

Got Questions? We encourage you to discuss your ideas with NYS IPM community staff, including:

  • coordinator: Jody Gangloff-Kaufmann, Long Island, 631-539-8680, jlg23@cornell.edu (Do you work outside Cornell University and Cornell Cooperative Extension? Get in touch with Jody Gangloff-Kaufmann.)
  • educator: Lynn Braband, Rochester, 585-753-2562, lab45@cornell.edu
  • educator: Amara Dunn, Geneva, 315-787-2206, arc55@cornell.edu
  • educator: Matthew Frye, Westchester, 914-285-4633, mjf267@cornell.edu
  • educator: Joellen Lampman, Albany, 518-441-1303, jkz6@cornell.edu

NYS IPM Ornamentals IPM Staff

  • coordinator: Elizabeth Lamb, Ithaca, 607-254-8800, eml38@cornell.edu
  • educator: Brian Eshenaur, Rochester, 585-753-2561, bce1@cornell.edu

And consider: the most common critiques of past proposals have been that the budget lacked in clarity, explanation or justification—and those seeking grants didn’t discuss projects ahead of time with IPM staff.

May 4, 2017
by Joellen Lampman
Comments Off on Stop Pests in Housing IPM Conference — Bed Bugs, Cockroaches and Mice, Oh My

Stop Pests in Housing IPM Conference — Bed Bugs, Cockroaches and Mice, Oh My

“An investment in knowledge pays the best interest.” –  Benjamin Franklin

Do you work with public housing? Inevitably, pest issues come up. Knowing how to prevent problems and what to do when an issue arises can help save time and money while reducing human health risks. The May 31st “Stop Pests in Housing Conference” at the Century House in Latham, NY, will provide you with the information you need.

Join speakers renowned for their expertise as they address the big three pests: bed bugs, cockroaches, and mice.

Registration is free but pre-registration is required. Coffee and lunch are provided. Click here to register.

This workshop is a part of the “Stop Pests in Housing Project:  Enabling Residents to Live Pest Free and Housing Managers to Implement Integrated Pest Management.” It’s targeted to public housing managers, public works staff, maintenance staff, social workers, resident coordinators, Extension educators, and pest management professionals.

Agenda
8:15-8:45 Coffee. Pick up registration materials. Sign up for DEC credits.
8:45-9:00 Introduction – Susannah Reese, StopPests in Housing, Northeastern IPM Center
9:00-10:00 IPM for Bed Bugs in Multifamily Housing – Changlu Wang, PhD, Rutgers University
10:00-10:15 BREAK
10:15-11:15 How to Avoid Getting and Spreading Bed Bugs – Jody Gangloff-Kaufmann, PhD, NYS IPM Program
11:15-12:15 Monitoring and Management of German Cockroaches in Multifamily Housing – Changlu Wang, PhD, Rutgers University
12:15-1:00 LUNCH
1:00-2:00 Managing Mice in Multifamily Housing – Robert Corrigan, PhD, RMC Consulting, Inc.
2:00-3:00 One Time Treatments and Pest Exclusion to Reduce Pest Allergens – Gil Bloom, ACE, Standard Pest Management
3:00-3:15 BREAK
3:15-4:15 The People Side of Pest Management – Allie Allen, BCE, National Pest Management Association
4:15-4:30 Evaluation and wrap up – Matthew Frye, PhD, NYS IPM Program
4:30 Adjourn. Safe travels!

DEC Pesticide recertification credits available – 6.0 for categories 7a, 8 and 10.

Questions? Contact Joellen Lampman at jkz6@cornell.edu.

 

February 14, 2017
by Mary M. Woodsen
Comments Off on Rat czar Robert (Bobby) Corrigan earns IPM award

Rat czar Robert (Bobby) Corrigan earns IPM award

For Robert Corrigan the moment was pivotal. Enchanted from childhood by the story of iconic oceanographer Jacques-Yves Cousteau, Corrigan enrolled at the State University of New York at Farmingdale with one dream: to be the next Cousteau. That changed the day biology professor Austin Frishman was a substitute teacher. So riveting was that one class that Corrigan immediately switched majors to Frishman’s specialty — pest management.

Pest management on a par with oceanography? Metaphorically, yes — for pests inhabit unseen worlds of their own. Corrigan had stumbled into a vocation that’s earned him accolades wherever pests and people collide.

Grates aren’t so great at keeping rats out if a hole has rusted through.

Now for his unparalleled integrity and expertise, Corrigan has earned an Excellence in IPM award from the New York State Integrated Pest Management Program (NYS IPM) at Cornell University.

NYS IPM’s Matt Frye says Corrigan was pivotal to his own life. “Bobby inspired me to pursue pest management as a passion, not just a livelihood,” Frye says. “I’m not alone. If you’re in roomful of pest management pros when Bobby speaks, and you see light bulbs blinking on all over the place, you get a feel for the impact he has had — not just in New York, but around the world.”

Corrigan is best known for his work with rats, and it’s no wonder. “Bobby’s Rodent Academy is a golden experience, an epiphany of information,” says Gil Bloom, Director of Public Affairs at the New York Pest Management Association. “That he gives out his email to his students is a risky gambit few would take. But this is the man.”

On the surface, Corrigan’s approach is simplicity itself. Keep parks, building foundations, alleyways and streets (not to mention kitchens) clear of all dropped or discarded food scraps, and you’ll put a serious dent in how many rat complaints you get. Daunting, perhaps, but doable.

In his work with the New York City Department of Health, Corrigan took the time to really listen to people, says Caroline Bragdon, director of Neighborhood Interventions. “His greatest achievement was integrating the people management part. He was so graceful in sewing together the layers of our bureaucracy to create a working, science-based program.”

Now Corrigan, a founding member of the Scientific Coalition On Pest Exclusion (SCOPE 2020), brings decades of field experience and data to the cause. “Bobby’s breadth and depth of knowledge are key to crafting promising new ways to prevent pests from taking refuge in buildings and public places,” says Jody Gangloff-Kaufmann, chair of SCOPE and coordinator of Community IPM with the NYS IPM Program. “Once these methods are in place, we can say goodbye to chronic pest infestations.”

“Bobby is young to be a legend, but it’s true,” says Jennifer Grant, director of the NYS IPM Program. “From rats to roaches, he’s an expert at preventing, excluding and removing urban pests. He knows the community is key to success, so he involves everyone along the way—always the consummate teacher.”

Corrigan received his award at the Food Processing Sanitation and Pest Management Workshop on February 7 in Rochester, New York.

 

August 24, 2016
by Matt Frye
Comments Off on Fighting Waterbugs — with Water

Fighting Waterbugs — with Water

Plumbing issues lead to pest problems — there’s little doubt about that. Leaks offer standing water to rodents, and clogged, scummy drains are breeding sites for flies. How curious that one of the most common plumbing-related pest problems I see is drains and pipes without water.

Unused, uncapped drains are an open door for cockroaches and more.

Unused, uncapped drains are an open door for cockroaches and more.

Case Study
At a multi-story office building, workers reported the presence of waterbugs, aka American cockroaches, on unconnected floors. Sanitation at the site was great, and no obvious leak created harborage for cockroaches: both excellent IPM practices. But a thorough inspection uncovered an unused bathroom on one floor where the water had been shut off during renovation. Not only could we smell sewer gasses — this bathroom contained several dead American cockroaches, suggesting this was the source for that floor. On another floor a drainpipe in a mop closet was open, and we could see cockroach frass.

A drain trap — and never mind the large gap at the wall. Exclusion is an entirely different topic.

A drain trap — and never mind the large gap at the wall. Exclusion is a whole different matter.

Plumbing Traps 101
If you’ve ever looked under a  sink, you’re familiar with a plumbing trap: that U-shaped pipe that changes the flow of water from vertical to horizontal. Its job: to create a water seal that prevents odors and harmful sewer gasses from escaping into the living or work space. Each time the drain is used, fresh water replaces standing water in the trap to maintain a permanent seal.

Uncapped and unused.

Uncapped, unused — except as a highway for pests.

As side benefit, this design deters pests from using pipes to move within or between buildings. Sure, cockroaches and rodents (especially rats) can overcome plumbing traps by crawling through a small amount of water (see National Geographic video on rats in toilets). But when drains are regularly used, they’re unlikely to harbor pests.

Drain Fails
Problems with trap seals occur when drains are infrequently used and water evaporates over time, or if drains are clogged with debris. Floor drains are susceptible to drying out if

  • no one wet-mops the floors
  • they’re in production areas with lots of small spilled items or
  • they’re near a deep fryer
Water cannot penetrate drain grates clogged with dirt and debris. This drain should be cleaned (drain brush or shop vacuum) and flushed with water.

Water can’t penetrate clogged drains. Clean (drain brush or shop vacuum) and flush with water.

Inspection Tips and Solutions
Another core IPM practice: owners or facilities maintenance personnel need to check drains often to verify that water is present in the trap. Check them each time floors are cleaned. For traps that have dried out the solution is easy – pour water down the drain until the trap is full. While you’re at it, make sure that drains are clear of debris. If the pipe is cut and no longer used, cap the end for a permanent seal.

August 16, 2016
by Matt Frye
Comments Off on Ultrasonic Devices? Ultra-Ineffective

Ultrasonic Devices? Ultra-Ineffective

Sometimes I get questions about using ultrasonic devices for coping with pests. “Mrs. Jones uses them and she never sees a mouse!” is often how it goes. I understand the appeal: plug in this thing and my problem is solved. Sure! They also have great marketing campaign: this device will emit a sound you can’t hear that scares or annoys pests — forcing them to leave.

If it seems too good to be true, it probably is.

Cute, but ... wrong place, wrong time.

Cute, but … wrong place, wrong time.

History Lesson
The concept of using sound or vibration to deter pests was invented long before electricity. Ancient civilizations might well have used wind and water-powered devices to create vibration, movement or sound to ward off pests. And the concept of ultrasound as deterrent? Well, that might be based on the observation that some insects such as moths and crickets avoid high frequencies that mimic bat predators; similarly, certain sounds could distress rodents.

The Science
This theoretical frameworks aside, there’s no proof that ultrasonic devices really deter pests. In fact, scientific evaluations of ultrasonic devices have found no effect on target pests: German cockroaches, bed bugs and rodents. (See Literature section below.) In some cases, the frequency and intensity manufacturers claim don’t match up with actual output. Not only that, but some devices exceed limits imposed by the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) for human tolerance of sound exposure.

Can this really repel all of the above? Think twice before you invest.

Can this really repel all of the above? Think twice before you invest.

What Does Work?
So why doesn’t Mrs. Jones have mice? Well, prevention is cardinal to good IPM, and perhaps her house is well constructed and sealed against outdoor pest invasions. Or perhaps she keeps a clean home with no spilled food or water. Again, prevention is numero uno in IPM.

If a pest did invade her home, her best chance at management would involve eliminating access to food, water and shelter, then reducing the pest population by trapping or baiting. Again, core IPM.

Next time you’re dealing with a pest problem, figure out why they’re there and address that issue. Consult our IPM pest fact sheets to guide your way. And put away those ineffective ultrasonic devices.

Selected Literature

  • Bomford, M, & PH O’Brien. 1990. Sonic Deterrents in Animal Damage Control: A Review of the Device Tests and Effectiveness. Wildlife Society Bulletin 18(4): 411-422.
  • Gold, RE, TN Decker, & AD Vance. 1990. Acoustical Characterization and Efficacy Evaluation of Ultrasonic Pest Control Devices Marketed for Control of German Cockroaches (Orthoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 77: 1507-1512.
  • Koehler, PG, RS Patterson, & JC Webb. 1986. Efficacy of Ultrasound for German Cockroach (Orthoptera: Blattellidae) and Oriental Rat Flea (Siphonoptera: Pulicidae) Control. Journal of Economic Entomology 79: 1027-1031.
  • Shumake, SA. 1997. Electronic Rodent Repellent Devices: A Review of Efficacy Test Protocols and Regulatory Actions. In (ed.) JR Mason: Repellents in Wildlife Management (August 8-10, 1995, Denver, CO). USDA, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, CO.
  • Yturralde, KM, & RW Hofstetter. 2012. Efficacy of Commercially Available Ultrasonic Pest Repellent Devices to Affect Behavior of Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 105(6): 2107-2114.

 

October 1, 2015
by Matt Frye
Comments Off on If you’re not monitoring, you’re not performing IPM.

If you’re not monitoring, you’re not performing IPM.

Why? To start, let’s consider the distinction between an inspection and monitoring. An inspection is a view of pest activity at that moment in time. But what if pests are only active at night? Or on weekends when the building is quiet? Thus, monitoring is a record of pest activity in the times that you are not present.

Integrated Pest Management, or IPM, is a decision making process that uses information about pest populations to decide how to manage them. Monitoring is a critical step in IPM programs that offers valuable insights:

1. Species Identification: insect monitors intercept pests, allowing a trained professional to identify them. In turn, identification provides information about preferred harborage, food and water sources.

2. Early Detection: monitors can intercept pests that are present at low levels, and can help identify a problem before it gets out of hand.

3. Directionality: monitors can provide information about pest directionality: where are they coming from [harborage] and where they are going [food locations]. Monitors might also provide clues about non-obvious pathways, such as overhead areas (Figure 1).

DSCN1004

Fig. 1. This firebrat likely fell onto the monitor from above.

4. Age of Population: rodent bait stations can contain informative evidence (Figure 2). Are droppings all one size, or are they mixed sizes, suggesting the presence of different age groups? Are droppings black, meaning that they are visiting the station for the first time, or are some droppings the color of the bait, suggesting multiple feedings?

2011.2.23 (2)

Fig. 2. Mixed large and small droppings suggest adult and juvenile feeding; mostly black droppings suggest this is the rodents first feeding.

Parasitoids, predators and secondary pests can also tell you about the age of the infestation (Figure 3). Ensign wasps are egg-case parasitoids of American cockroaches. Their presence suggests that the cockroaches are actively reproducing nearby, whereas secondary pests may indicate the presence of old bait or pest carcasses.

Image 1 copy

Fig. 3. An Ensign wasp (egg-case parasitoid, 1), adult and juvenile (2) American cockroaches, and a spider beetle.

5. Proximity to Harborage: juvenile pests, including rodents and cockroaches, stay close the harborage. Intercepting them on monitors can narrow your search to nearby areas for identifying the harborage (Figure 4).

6. Management Efforts: some monitors might contain evidence about recent control efforts (Figure 4). Finding German cockroaches with crinkled wings is a sign that they have been treated with an insect growth regulator. But what if you didn’t apply this kind of product? Perhaps the cockroaches are coming from a neighboring area.

IMG_3168

Fig. 4. Nymph (1) and adult (2) German cockroaches on an insect monitor. The arrow indicates the location of crinkled wings from treatment with an insect growth regulator.

Effective monitoring programs provide good coverage of pest vulnerable areas. The location of monitoring devices are recorded on a facility map, and a pest catch log records the number of pests caught on each monitor. These specifications allow the pest professional to collect enough information to determine if a treatment is needed, where to focus efforts and what treatment should be applied.

August 12, 2015
by Joellen Lampman
Comments Off on The German Cockroach: America’s #1 Cockroach Pest

The German Cockroach: America’s #1 Cockroach Pest

German cockroaches are one of the most common insect pests found in urban areas throughout the world, and are the number one cockroach pest species worldwide. They are well-adapted to human environments, even enjoying similar humidity and temperature levels as we do. IPM can be used to exclude and eliminate this pest from our homes, schools, restaurants, ships, and greenhouses.

German cockroach Photo: Gary Alpert
German cockroach Photo: Gary Alpert

Did you know…?

  • By the Numbers: Roughly 3,500 species of cockroach are identified worldwide, with 70 of those species reported from the United States.
  • What’s in a Name? Despite its name, the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, probably originated in Africa. In the 375 years since its original description as a species, it has had 23 different scientific names.
  • Codependents: German cockroaches depend on humans for their survival. There are no known populations of this species that exist in the wild!
  • Ancient Animals: Scientists have found cockroach fossils that date as far back as 300 million years, making cockroaches about 300 times older than humans. The largest fossil, from Ohio, measures nearly 3.5 inches long!
    Sticky traps can help you identify both what species of cockroach you have and where their populations are highest.
    Sticky traps can help you identify both what species of cockroach you have and where their populations are highest.

Integrated pest management of cockroaches not only relies on the proper identification of German cockroaches, but also identifying their hiding areas, which tend to be in areas with high moisture and easy access to food (think: under the kitchen sink or refrigerator). Baiting and trapping can then be used most efficiently. And, as usual, good housekeeping and sanitation will go a long way to reduce both food and areas where cockroaches hide. For more information, see The German Cockroach: America’s #1 Cockroach Pest. For information on other species of cockroaches, click here.

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