Article: Good GH, Gerashchenko S and Warhaft Z (2012). “Intermittency and inertial particle entrainment at a turbulent interface: thee effect of the large-scale eddies.” Journal of Fluid Mechanics 694: 371-398.
Abstract: We present measurements of mean and conditional number densities, radial distribution functions (r.d.f.s), velocities and accelerations of sub-Kolmogorov-scale water droplets entraining at a shearless turbulence-turbulence interface (TTI) and a turbulence-non-turbulence interface (TNI). We thus look at statistics of an inhomogeneous inertial particle field in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous turbulence. As in a previous communication (Gerashchenko, Good & Warhaft J. Fluid Mech., vol. 818, 2011, pp. 293-303), an active grid produces high-Reynolds number turbulence (Re-lambda = 275) on either one or both sides of a splitter plate in a wind tunnel. Sprays seed droplets on one side of the splitter plate, while screens dampen turbulence in the adjacent flow for the TNI. Gravitational and inertial effects are isolated by turning of the apparatus with respect to gravity. We parameterize the droplets under homogeneous conditions, where it is demonstrated that both the sweeping and loitering effects on the droplet settling velocities are present. In the inhomogeneous conditions, we show that the droplets are entrained in bulk, resulting in large-scale clusters and preserving the droplet-ambient conditions of the seeded side of the flows.