Brief: The mid-Hudson Valley biofix for obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (OBLR) adult flight was Sunday, June 7th, in Highland (HVRL), Milton and Walden, NY. Egg laying and hatch is continuing in earnest. Based on NOAA weather forecasts, the predicted emergence date for the 1st generation OBLR larva was the 21st of June in the mid-Hudson Valley (HVRL).
Since the first hatch of OBLR larvae occurred approximately 350 DD base 43F after biofix, or 21st June in Highland, NY, a second spray should be made 10-14 days later, recommended in orchards that have had a past history of severe OBLR fruit damage or if populations of overwintering larvae were high.
In orchards managed for OBLR apply the 2nd protective application based on specific orchard site biofix dates. Employing the OBLR sustained capture date into the NEWA page for OBLR, will provide site specific biofix information.
Insects of concern also include the foliar feeding ‘June Beetle’ complex, leafhopper complex, most importantly the potato leafhopper reducing the vigor of newly planted tree shoots, wooly apple aphid and the green aphid complex reducing shoot growth and producing ‘honeydew’ dropped on fruit causing sooty mold and russetting, European corn borer and oriental fruit worm also infesting newly planted trees to kill the growing central leader. Continued drought in sandy shale loam with insufficient moisture will induce stress and begin ethanol (ETOH) production. Black stem borer are active, will begin infesting stressed trees, creating galleries to develop larva fed on fungal spores, which cause the trees to decline or die off.
Obliquebanded Leafroller (OBLR) is native to the continental US and widely distributed in North America. East Coast populations have caused considerable injury to tree fruit with OBLR larvae feeding on a wide range of preferred hosts in the plant family Rosaceae. Hosts include stone and pome fruit with feedng also observed in fruiting bushes such as blueberry and woody ornamentals, hawthorn, alder, and ornamental roses.
Two adult generations of OBLR can be observed yearly. Spring flight of the OBLR adult begins about three to four weeks after petal fall, continuing for three to four weeks.
Adults lay Egg masses, containing a few hundred eggs, are laid on the upper surface of leaves. Eggs hatch after 10-12 days. The larvae feed on floral parts, developing fruits and young leaves, folding leaves for shelter. There are 6 larval stages. At pupation the larva spins a cocoon attached to the leaf.
OBLR overwinters in the third larval stage and they start feeding on floral parts and developing fruit in Spring. The first summer generation of larvae feeds on more mature fruits causing significant damage.If we capture them over two to three successive days (sustained flight) we will establish the biofix date and begin calculating heat accumulations using 45DD to help us determine, using the NEWA model, the early period of emergence for optimum timing of insecticide applications. If you find OBLR in your traps prior to or after our trap findings you can use the NEWA site to fine tune your application window.
Over the past ten years, growers have been able to control OBLR larva through the use of effective insecticide programs targeting three periods of larval activity. These include:
* Employ applications against the overwintering generation during either the pre-bloom / bloom or petal fall periods
* Use 1-2 applications against the summer generation
* In high population years target 1 application against late summer generation.
For the three periods of management we recommend using two or three distinct yet very effective active ingredient groups or IRAC classes. In this way we hope to reduce the resistance potential of the insect over time.
The classes used against the leafrollers with highest degree of efficacy include:
• Entrust 2SC, 80WP (spinosad) (IRAC Class 5), have been used successfully against the leafroller surface feeding and internal Lep. complex.
• Delegate (spinetoram) (IRAC Class 5), is a broad spectrum synthetic modification of spinosad against leafroller and internal Lep. complex. The placement for these materials has been predominately at the onset of hatch of the summer generation larva of OBLR, providing excellent results in NY State.
• Proclaim (emamectin benzoate) (IRAC 6), a second-generation avermectin insecticide related to Agri-Mek, is also an excellent insecticide against the OBLR while having a low impact on beneficial mites.
• Bt products such as Biobit, Dipel, Javelin, and MVP (IRAC 11 B2) also have a low impact on beneficial mite and are very effective against OBLR.
• Intrepid (methoxyfen-ozide) (IRAC 18A) another reduced risk insecticide very effective against the larva, imitates the natural insect molting hormone and works by initiating the molting process. Intrepid is quite safe to birds, fish, and most beneficial insects.
• Altacor (chlorantraniliprole) (IRAC Class 28) is a anthranilic diamides, which activate the insect’s ryanodine receptors, stimulating release of calcium from muscle tissues, and causing paralysis and death, controls of a range of insect pests in pome and stone fruits. These include codling moth, oriental fruit moth, and obliquebanded leafroller, green fruitworm, spotted tentiform leafminer, apple sawfly, European corn borer, and suppression of apple maggot, cherry fruit fly, white apple leafhopper, and plum curculio. It has low toxicity to bees, beneficial mites, birds, fish and mammals. Not registered for use in Kings, Queens, Nassau, or Suffolk Counties.
• Exirel (Cyantraniliprole ) (IRAC Class 28) is also a 2nd-generation anthranilic diamide. Like Altacor, Exirel is labeled for the control of a range of insect pests in pome and stone fruits, including codling moth, oriental fruit moth, and obliquebanded leafroller. Other species listed on the label include green fruitworm, spotted tentiform leafminer, European apple sawfly, white apple leafhopper, cherry fruit fly, spotted wing drosophila, and Japanese beetle, with activity against pear psylla and plum curculio, and suppression of apple maggot. It has high toxicity to bees, but low toxicity to birds, fish and mammals.
• Verdepryn (Cyclaniliprole ) (IRAC Class 28) new insecticide Verdepryn 100SL is a next-generation’ anthranilic diamide. Like Altacor and Exirel, Verdepryn is labeled for the control of a range of insect pests in pome and stone fruits, the lep. complex including codling moth, oriental fruit moth, and obliquebanded leafroller, green fruitworm, and spotted tentiform leafminer. The broad efficacy of this tool includes activity on European apple sawfly, white apple leafhopper, cherry fruit fly, spotted wing drosophila, and Japanese beetle, with activity against pear psylla and plum curculio, with suppression of stink bug and apple maggot. This pesticide is toxic to aquatic invertebrates and oysters. Do not apply directly to water. This product is highly toxic to bees and other pollinating insects exposed to direct treatment or to residues in/on blooming crops or weeds but low toxicity to birds, fish and mammals.
• Besiege (Chlorantraniliprole/Lambda-cyhalothrin) (IRAC Class 28 & 3), pome fruit label includes internal worms and leafrollers, aphids, (excluding woolly apple aphid), apple maggot and cherry fruit fly adults, leafhoppers, leafminers, plum curculio, Japanese beetle, pear psylla, plant bugs, stink bugs, and other caterpillars.
• Voliam Flexi (Chlorantraniliprole/Thiamethoxam) (IRAC Class 28 & 4A) is effective against a range of pests in pome and stone fruits in NYS. This product is a mixture of thiamethoxam, the a.i. of Actara, and chlorantraniliprole, the a.i. found in *†Altacor and *†Voliam Xpress. The label lists lepidopteran pests such as codling moth and oriental fruit moth, obliquebanded leafroller, leafminers and green fruitworm; plum curculio; European apple sawfly; leafhoppers and aphids (except woolly apple aphid); pear psylla; plus (in stone fruits only) cherry fruit fly, stink bugs, tarnished plant bug and thrips.
• Minecto Pro (Cyantraniliprole/Abamectin) (IRAC Class 28 & 6) is a pre-mix combination of cyantraniliprole and abamectin, labeled for pome fruit and stone fruit use in NY to control Lepidoptera species and mite when used with a penetrant. It is a restricted use pesticide with a high bee-poisoning hazard; not registered for use in Nassau or Suffolk counties.
Since the development of insecticide resistance is dependent on the volume and frequency of applications of insecticides and the inherent characteristics of the insect species, we should limit one insecticide class to a single generation of pest for resistance management purposes. The present model for insecticide resistance management (IRM) practices then is to use a single insecticide class for a single generation of insect pest.
For example, an IRM program against the lepidopteran complex, specifically OBLR, would use effective insecticides listed above (X, Y, Z) in three different IRAC classes (A, B, C) throughout the season.
Insecticide X (Class A) 1 application @ TC-P or PF for overwintering OBLR
Insecticide Y (Class B) 2 applications @ 14d; first emergence of 1st brood OBLR larva
Insecticide Z (Class C) 1 application @ first emergence of 2nd brood OBLR larva if needed.
Given the historic failures the apple industry has experienced managing the leafroller and internal worm complex, we should consider designing programs to maintain the effectiveness of these excellent IPM tools beginning early in the season, before the heat of the battle begins.