Codling Moth: Integrating Control of Late Season Pests of Apple

Adult codling moth
Adult codling moth
Codling moth (Order Lepidoptera, Family Tortricidae): Our pheromone trap captures show increasing flight of the adult males beginning late last week. As of Monday July 13th, the degree day developmental model for 2nd generation codling moth predicts adult emergence at 6%. The adults are now mating, laying eggs and larva hatch beginning in orchards where CM is present. To determine the presence of CM in your orchard hang 1 trap per 10 acre orchard block at the top of the canopy, in blocks in which historic internal lep. damage has occurred. Cornell suggested trap threshold for CM: If > 5 codling moths are caught per trap per week using standard lures, there can be problems in fruit from the next generation. High trap counts are a warning to prepare for an application. If trap counts continue to exceed threshold throughout the season, maintain insecticide coverage on a 2 week interval.
CM Injury to GingerGold 6.24
CM Injury to GingerGold 6.24

When scouting for fruit injured from this pest during the 1st generation, which began in early June, look for frass at the calyx end of the fruit and red ringed holes along the cheek and shoulder with frass. If you cut open CM injured fruit, you are likely to find the seed fed upon. Core feeding from lesser apple worm and Oriental fruit worm will not result in seed feeding. San Jose scale also produce a red ring from feeding, however, there will be no hole or frass from SJS. If populations of CM reside within the orchard or if adults migrate in from abandoned trees along the borders, they are likely to give rise to damaging populations this week. Trapping in your orchard is the best way to determine presence of the insect.

Generally, we are seeing very high incidence of CM injury in untreated and organic treated fruit this season AND we have heard from New England growers regarding increased fruit injury from internal worms over the past few years.

Apple maggot trapping using baited red spheres.
Apple maggot trapping using baited red spheres.

Since apple maggot has now reached threshold in high pressure blocks, the selection of management tools to control both codling moth and apple maggot are in order. The neonicotinoids, Calypso and Assail are very effective against both insects. Given Calypso’s 30 PHI, it should be used during an earlier window given an early August cut off date for early harvested varieties.

Assail used only for CM management can be used effectively at lower rates (4-8 oz./A). However, for AM management, rates should be at the 8.0 oz./A. Restrictions for Assail include:
• Do not make more than 4 applications per season.
• Do not apply more than once every 12 days.
• Do not apply less than 7 days before harvest (PHI = 7 days).
• Do not exceed a total of 0.60 lbs. active ingredient (32.0 ozs. product) per acre
per growing season.

Codling Moth Calex End Frass and Fruit Injury with CM Larva 6.24.14
Codling Moth Calex End Frass and Fruit Injury with CM Larva 6.24.14

Imidan (Phosmet) is also very effective against both insects at 2 1/8 to 5 3/4 lbs/A. The pyrethroid group and pre-mix formulations with a pyrethroid will also perform well against this complex.

On some farms in the mid-Hudson Valley, including Highland, Milton, Marlboro, and further north in Hudson, consideration to control the stink bug complex, including the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB) would employ a pre-mix or Bifenthrin to manage this additional pest. BMSB tools for best control found here.

It’s important to note that BMSB has been lower in trap captures this season. Nymphs are presently being seen in traps. We typically expect to see 2nd generation of adults emerge in early to mid-August with management often required shortly there after.

Late season wooly apple aphid (WAA) and Comstock mealybug are often a part of late season management with scouting for these insects beginning in mid-late July. The material with the greatest impact on WAA populations is Diazinon (also very effective against AM and good activity against internal lep.). However, it is not without its flaws with regards to fruit finish on Golden Delicious.

Movento SC (spirotetromat) is also effective against 2nd generation San Jose Scale (SJS) later this season, and effective against WAA and Comstock mealybug. A true systemic, the insecticide moves downwards in the pholem to the root tissue and through the canopy in the xylem to new shoots and leaves. It works as a Lipid Biosynthesis Inhibitor (LBI) against immature insects feeding on treated plant tissue with reduced fecundity in adults and lower offspring survival. It does require the use of 0.25% penetrating surfactant.

About Peter J Jentsch

Peter J. Jentsch serves the mid-Hudson Valley pome fruit, grape and vegetable growers as the Senior Extension Associate in the Department of Entomology for Cornell University’s Hudson Valley Laboratory located in Highland, NY. He provides regional farmers with information on insect related research conducted on the laboratory’s 20-acre research farm for use in commercial and organic fruit and vegetable production. Peter is a graduate of the University of Nebraska with a Masters degree in Entomology. He is presently focusing on invasive insect species, monitoring in the urban environment and commercial agricultural production systems throughout the state
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