View from the Field
Corn Foliar Diseases
There are many reports of corn foliar diseases this week. Northern corn leaf blight and northern corn leaf spot are the predominate diseases in fields. The diseases will cause very little yield losses this time of the growing season.
Northern Corn Leaf Spot
Northern Corn Leaf Blight
White Mold-Sclerotinia stem rot
There are many reports of white mold in soybeans. Sometimes a field can look very healthy and a few dead stem sticking up in the field. If you look below the canopy in these areas, it is likely you will find white mold. In severe infestations, it can reduce yield dramatically. Once it reaches this point there is nothing you can do this year. For more detailed information on which varieties had more or less white mold see Jaime Cummings article below: Soybean White Mold Variety Trial – Genesee County, 2018
Dead Plant-White Mold
Under the canopy-White Mold
Stored Grain Pests
Sometimes we forget about the grain bins and possible pests! It is very important to clean out the bins and all the excess grain. This can be a reservoir for certain insect pests. See article below for more information on stored grain pests.
Western Bean Cutworm
Western Bean Cutworm pheromone trapping has ended for this year. As you start to harvest your corn check for the worms and possible damage. As the population of this pest increases, you may start to see damage in areas of the state that has not had a problem yet.
Western Bean Cutworm Damage
Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome
There have been reports of finding soybean sudden death syndrome in soybean fields across the state. This relatively new disease in NYS is associated with soybean cyst nematode. While soybean cyst nematode has only been confirmed in Cayuga County it is thought across much of the state. If you get this disease, we would like to get a soil sample from the field. Here is the method of collecting the sample: https://www.thescncoalition.com/
Weather Outlook – September 13, 2017
NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University
Last week temperatures were within 2 degrees of normal. Precipitation has ranged from ¼ “ to over 3”. Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 40-120.
Scattered showers Thursday into Friday, dry for the weekend. Moisture from Hurricane Florence to reach NY next week?
Today temperatures will in the 70s to low 80s, with scattered showers and isolated thunderstorms. Localized heavy downpours are possible. Overnight lows will be in the low to mid 60s.
Friday will be in the 70s to mid 80 with scattered afternoon showers and thunderstorms. Overnight temperatures will be in the low to mid 60s.
Saturday will be dry with temperatures in the mid 70s to mid 80s. Just a slight chance of afternoon showers. Overnight temperatures will be in the upper 50s to mid 60s.
Sunday highs will be in the mid 70s to mid 80s with continued dry conditions. Overnight temperatures will be in the upper 50s to mid 60s.
Monday temperatures will be in the 70s. Precipitation is questionable due to Hurricane Florence. Overnight temperatures will be in the 60s.
Tuesday highs will be in the 70s. Precipitation is questionable due to Hurricane Florence. Overnight temperatures will be in the 60s.
Wednesday highs will be in the 60s to low 70s. Precipitation is questionable due to Hurricane Florence. Overnight temperatures will be in the 60s.
The seven-day precipitation amounts will range from an inch to over three inches. Highly dependent on track of moisture from Hurricane Florence.
The 8-14 day outlook (Sept 20-26) slightly favors below-normal temperatures for part of the state and slightly favors above-normal precipitation for western to central NY.
Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:
National Weather Service watch/warnings map:
US Drought Monitor:
CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface):
Soybean White Mold Variety Trial – Genesee County, 2018
Jaime Cummings, NYS Integrated Pest Management Program
White mold, or Sclerotinia stem rot, caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is the most economically important and difficult to manage disease of soybeans across NY State (Figure 1). This disease is so undermanaged because the pathogen survives for a long time (>10 years) in the soil, making crop rotations a challenging management option. Fungicide trials in other states have shown great promise for a number of products (https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/Carringtonrec/plant-pathology/fungicide-efficacy-testing-results-2013-soybeans), but application timing and canopy penetration is critical and may require multiple applications during a highly conducive season, which may not be economical. Genetic resistance to this devastating disease should be a viable option, but many commercial varieties lack even modest levels of resistance.
Figure 1. White mold infection on soybean in the variety trial (photo by Jaime Cummings)
A large-scale, non-replicated strip field trial was established in Genesee County to evaluate 24 soybean varieties for resistance white mold. The trial was organized by WNYCMA and planted on 5/1/18 in a field with a long history of white mold infection. The varieties evaluated in this trial included entries from five seed companies, and were representative of maturity groups 0.7 – 2.8. The trial was rated for white mold severity on 9/5/18 by Jaime Cummings of the NYS IPM Program and Dr. Gary Bergstrom of Cornell’s field crops pathology program using a 1 to 9 rating scale, where 1 = resistant, and 9 = susceptible. The disease was well established consistently across all strip plots at the time of rating, despite it being rotated out of soybeans since 2014. The disease ratings are summarized in Figure 2.
Figure 2. White mold disease severity ratings of 24 soybean varieties in a non-replicated field strip trial, rated on a 1-9 scale, where 1 = resistant and 9 = susceptible.
The ratings for all varieties ranged between 4 and 7, meaning that all varieties were classified as moderately resistant (3.6 – 5.9) or moderately susceptible (6.0 – 7.5) at the time of the rating. However, the disease would most likely progress in these plots over time, which would likely add one or two points to each rating, pushing many of them into the susceptible category (7.6 – 9). Even though none of the varieties evaluated showed strong resistance, it is good to note that there are noticeable differences among varieties.
New York soybean growers do have options for selecting varieties with some moderate levels of tolerance to this disease, and should know to avoid planting the most susceptible varieties in fields with a history of the disease. An integrated management plan which includes crop rotation, canopy management, foliar fungicides and planting tolerant varieties is the best approach to managing white mold in NY.
- For more information on white mold of soybeans in NY, please see the soybean white mold disease page on fieldcrops.org (https://fieldcrops.cals.cornell.edu/soybeans/diseases-soybeans/white-mold-or-sclerotinia-stem-rot/).
- For information on other soybean diseases and their management options, please visit the Diseases of Soybeans section of fieldcrops.org (https://fieldcrops.cals.cornell.edu/soybeans/diseases-soybeans/).
- And, check out the soybean disease survey pages (https://fieldcrops.cals.cornell.edu/soybeans/diseases-soybeans/soybean-disease-survey/
Storing grain…Remember Pests!
Ken Wise, NYS IPM
Do you have plans to store your soybeans and grain corn harvest on the farm? If so CLEAN your storage bins before loading grain into the bins. Sanitation is the key to keeping insect pests out of your stored grains. The following is a step by step method for IPM in stored grain:
- Clean grain handing equipment (augers, combines, wagons, scoops, and trucks).
- Clean inside the grain bin (remember to clean under the false floor). Mice, moths, weevils and much more can survive under the false floor.
- Clean around the outside of the grain bin. Remove all weeds, spilled grain and debris 6 to 10 feet from around the grain bin. This will remove all habitats that can support a grain bin pest problem.
- Seal all cracks and crevices. Cracks are prime locations for insects to enter grain bins.
- Cover fans when they are not being used. Insects can enter the grain bin this way also.
- Use a registered sanitizing insecticide spray in and around the structure after cleaning.
- Never store new grain with old grain.
- Dry the grain bin before adding new grain. Insect pests need moisture to survive.
- Level the surface after filling the grain bin. Moisture accumulates in a grain peak. Microbial activity in the wet area will heat up and attract secondary insect pests.
- Do not fill grain bin all the way to the top. Leave a few feet for aeration.
- Aerate the grain to at least the ambient temperature. The hotter the grain gets the faster insect pests can develop. Stored grain insect pests development slows when the temperature falls below 500 F.
- Monitor grain for insect pests every 20 days from spring till fall and every 30 days in the winter.
- If you discover an infestation of insect pests you may consider an insecticide application. Select a NYS registered product for your stored grain. READ THE LABEL.
- Keep areas around grain bins mowed to limit rodent hiding places.
Common Insect Pest of Stored Grain
|Granary weevil||Rice weevil|
|Red flower beetle||Flat grain beetle|
|Larger cabinet beetle||Angoumois grain moth|
|Lesser grain borer||Confused flower beetle|
Need More Information?
Maintaining Quality in On-Farm Stored Grain: https://extension.tennessee.edu/publications/Documents/PB1724.pdf
Stored Product Protection (KSU). 2012.
Webinar: Stored Grain Integrated Pest Management in North Central US – See more at: http://igrow.org/agronomy/corn/webinar-stored-grain-integrated-pest-management-in-north-central-us/#sthash.ARyppYYR.dpuf
Keith Waldron, NYS IPM
*Walk fields to check general field condition, weed, vertebrate and other issues
*Watch for crop maturity, stand assessments, weed escapes, nutrient deficiencies, lodging issues
*Update crop records and field history
*Monitor potato leafhopper, foliar, systemic and crown rot diseases, signs of alfalfa snout beetle (in counties where ASB has been confirmed).
*Monitor new seedings for potato leafhopper, pythium blight, phytopthora root rot.
*Evaluate established legume stands for health, productivity and potential rotation. Days until harvest
*Plant winter small grains after the Hessian Fly Free Date.
*Monitor small grain seedings for stand counts, establishment issues
*Monitor late-season corn pests including European corn borer, corn rootworm, western bean cutworm, slugs, foliar diseases such as northern corn leaf blight and gray leaf spot, ear mold, stalk strength/lodging potential, weed issues, nutrient deficiencies, vertebrate damage.
*Monitor for growth stage, soybean aphid, defoliators, foliar diseases, white mold, weed issues, vertebrate damage
*Record diseases present, location and types of weed escapes
*Check water sources, mend fences as needed.
*Check crop growth, clip pastures between grazing as needed
*Monitor for invasive species, plants harmful to livestock
*Check stored grain bins for temperature, moisture and signs of mold and insects. Aerate, core, transfer grain or treat as necessary
*Clean and disinfect empty storage bins in preparation for grain harvest
*Mow around storage bins and facility to minimize pest hiding places
Dairy Cattle Barn Fly Management:
*Expect an increase in fly numbers in barns as flies seek warmer habitats to escape cooler outside temperatures.
*Monitor animals and barn area for house fly, stable fly and other pest management needs including presence of rodents and birds.
*Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,
*Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation – clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
* Continue fly monitoring: install “3X5″ index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn
*Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards
Dairy Cattle on Pasture:
*Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy per animal side, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal (all four legs)
*Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter – spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal exercise yard.
*Check pasture for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
*Check pasture for vegetation poisonous to livestock
*Consider use of pasture fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly populations
*Plan to remove insecticide ear tags in fall to reduce risk of developing insecticide resistance