NYS IPM Weekly Field Crops Pest Report

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Volume 19, Number 10

View from the Field

Potato leafhopper

Potato leafhopper (PLH) populations remain very high in many fields of alfalfa. We are also getting reports of high levels of PLH in hemp and low levels of PLH damage starting in some soybean fields.  This insect pest can be VERY damaging. Both the nymphs and adults use piercing-sucking mouthparts. They insert the mouthpart into the phloem of the alfalfa, suck out the sugary sap, and replace it with their own saliva.   The saliva of potato leafhopper is toxic to the plant. Leaflets turn the classic V-shaped yellow.  Once the yellowing starts the field has most likely lost 5% crude protein and 1/2 ton per acre. For more information, please view the following video:

IPM for Potato Leafhopper on Alfalfa

 

A photo of potato leafhopper damage to alfalfa

V-Shaped Yellowing

Japanese Beetles

There are reports of Japanese beetle starting to feed on soybeans. It takes a lot of damage by Japanese beetles to cause a yield loss. Last week’s pest report has an article on Japanese beetle thresholds and a table of registered insecticides for this pest.

Spider Mites

Mike Stanyard (CCE Northwest Dairy, Field Crops and Livestock Team) reports moderate levels of spider mites on soybeans. When the weather is hot and dry, spider mite populations can increase very quickly.

Fusarium Head, Bacterial pustule and Septoria Brown Spot

Given the hot, dry weather patterns across much of the state, we aren’t seeing many diseases at concerning levels in any crops.  However, Fusarium Head Blight is appearing at low levels in some spring malting barley fields, and we’re finding low levels of bacterial pustule and Septoria brown spot in some soybean fields.

a photo of Darkened kernels indicate Fusarium head blight in spring malting barley. (Photo by J. Cummings)

Darkened kernels indicate Fusarium head blight in spring malting barley.  (Photo by J. Cummings)

a photo of Bacterial pustule on soybean can appear during hot, humid weather.  (Photo by J. Cummings)

Bacterial pustule on soybean can appear during hot, humid weather.  (Photo by J. Cummings)

A photo of Septoria brown spot on soybean typically appears lower in the canopy on older leaves. (Photo by J. Cummings)

Septoria brown spot on soybean typically appears lower in the canopy on older leaves.  (Photo by J. Cummings)

Soybean Cyst Nematode

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) was confirmed in one field in Clinton County.  This is the first report of this pest in this county, and only the eighth county in NYS to have a confirmed infestation of this pest.  Symptoms caused by this potentially devastating pest can be vague and easily confused with nutrient deficiencies or drought stress.  NYS IPM and CCE have funding to test 75 fields across the state for SCN in 2020.  Contact your local extension specialist if you suspect SCN in your field and would like a free test.  Plenty of resources are available to learn about why SCN is such a big deal and how to identify and manage it on the Soybean Cyst Nematode Coalition website.

a photo of Soybean cyst nematode cysts

Soybean cyst nematode cysts appear as tiny, yellowish lemon-shaped structures on soybean roots that are much smaller than nodules.  (Photo by S. Markell, NDSU)

Degree Days Base 50 F

From March 1, 2020 to July 11, 2020

 

Station Location

 (Base 50)

March 1

Canton 1019
Ceres 943
Chazy 968
Cobleskill 947
Geneva 1139
Highland 1228
Ithaca 1066
Kinderhook 1205
Malone 943
Massena 976
Oriskany Falls 1060
Red Hook 1216
Versailles 1090
Watertown 1008

 

 

Clipboard Checklist

Keith Waldron, NYS IPM

 

 General

*Walk fields to check general field condition, weed issues

*Watch for crop maturity, stand assessments, weed escapes, lodging issues

 

 Alfalfa:

*Evaluate established legume stands for approximate days until harvest
*Monitor potato leafhopper
*Monitor new seedings for potato leafhopper, pythium blight, phytopthora root rot.

Small Grains:
*Monitor winter grain fields for growth stage, disease issues, cereal leaf beetle
*Check stands for diseases, cereal leaf beetle, weed escapes

*Monitor winter wheat and winter malting barley for signs of Fusarium Head Blight

*Monitor spring grains for potential risk of fungal diseases – consult Fusarium Head Blight prediction model

 

Corn:
*
Conduct plant population assessments, early season corn pests including seed corn maggot, white grub, wireworm, black cutworm, armyworm, slugs, diseases, weed issues, vertebrate damage

 

Soybeans:
*
Post emergence weed evaluation, timely cultivation and/or weed management
*Conduct plant population assessments, early season corn pests including seed corn maggot, slugs, soybean aphid, diseases, weed issues, vertebrate damage

 

Pastures:
*
Check and mend fences as needed.
*Check crop growth
*Invasive species, plants harmful to livestock
*Review/Plan rotation system

 

Equipment:
*Remove / clean soil and crop debris from equipment
*
Arrange for custom weed control or check your own application or cultivator equipment for repairs.
*Carry appropriate / necessary NYS DEC and EPA required documents: (pesticide applicators license, pesticide labels, MSDS sheets, etc.) with application equipment
*Calibrate:

  • planting equipment – maintain records on planting rate per field
  • manure spreaders – maintain records on amount spread per field
  • pesticide application equipment – Check nozzles, pumps, etc., recalibrate pesticide application equipment before use. Maintain pesticide use records

 

Storage:
* Check stored grain bins for temperature, moisture and signs of mold and insects. Aerate, core, transfer grain or treat as necessary
*
Check forage allocation and anticipate feed program adjustments as forages from previous year are used up
*Plan where forages should be stored for optimum allocation next feeding season
*Mow around storage bins and facility to minimize pest hiding places

 

Dairy Cattle Barn Fly Management:
*Monitor animals and barn area for house fly, stable fly and other pest management needs including presence of rodents and birds.
*Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,
*Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation – clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
* Continue fly monitoring: install “3X5″ index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn
*Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards
*Consider purchase and release of Muscidifurax raptor and/or M. raptorellus natural enemies of house and stable fly pupae.

 

Dairy Cattle on Pasture:
*Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy per animal side, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal  (all four legs)
*Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter – spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal exercise yard.
*Check pasture for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
*Check pasture for vegetation poisonous to livestock
*Consider use of pasture fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly populations

 

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