NYS IPM Weekly Field Crops Pest Report, September 16, 2019

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View from the Field

 Western Bean Cutworm

There are reports of rather high infestations of western bean cutworm in Northern NY. Note that at this point there are no management tactics to control the larvae in the corn ears. It would be good to get an indication of the level of infestations in your fields. Here is how to identify western bean cutworm:

Western Bean Cutworm larvae

Western Bean Cutworm larvae

Remember there could also be corn earworm in the ears. Last year there were many reports of corn earworm in field corn. They were also found in Bt corn that was supposed to be resistant to corn earworm.

Corn Earworm

 

Regional Reports

Mike Stanyard (CCE Northwest Dairy and Field Crops Team): reports moderately high brown stem rot in some soybean fields in WNY.

Jodi Putman (CCE Northwest Dairy and Field Crops Team) reports white mold and spider mites in soybeans.

Josh Putman (CCE Southwest Dairy and Field Crops Team):  reports new infestations of Palmer Amaranth in about 6 fields in Steuben County.  The weeds were found in dry bean fields. It is speculated that the weed  may have come on machinery from the Midwest. Josh also reports northern corn leaf blight and gray leaf spot increasing in field corn. He also found white mold in soybeans. Josh found a population of Mexican bean leaf beetles and flea beetles at high populations in dry beans.

Jeff Miller (CCE Oneida County) reports that white mold is starting to increase in soybeans. He also reports moderate levels of Cercospora leaf blight and downy mildew in soybeans. There were low infestation levels of soybean aphids in soybeans

Mike Hunter (CCE Northern NY Dairy and Field Crops Team) reports that white mold in soybeans are increasing rapidly in some fields.  He also reports more glyphosate resistant marestail, especially along roadsides in Jefferson County. Please note that this can contribute to in-field issues.

Jaime Cummings (NYS IPM) reports vascular wilts and leaf spots continue to be sporadic and prevalent in hemp fields. Note that there are a few products now available for insects and diseases of hemp: please see NYSPAD search for available product. Jaime states that corn foliar diseases are minimal but N deficiency is rampant in many fields in Tompkins County.  She also is finding soybean northern stem canker showing up in more soybean fields. There is also sudden death syndrome and  frogeye leaf spot spreading in some fields – keep in mind it requires race-specific resistance, and is easily managed with resistant varieties. She reports moderately high damage in soybean fields from Japanese beetles and grasshoppers

 

 Weather Outlook –September 12, 2019

Jessica Spaccio 

NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

Last week temperatures were near normal to 6 degrees below normal. Precipitation has ranged from a trace to 2 inches. Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 20 to 100.

Above-normal temperatures this week!

Today will be cooler & cloudy with scattered showers and thunderstorms and temperatures in the 60s and low 70s. Overnight lows will be in the 40s to mid 50s.

Friday temperatures will be in the 60s to mid 70s with breezy conditions. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 40s to upper 50s with showers and thunderstorms; locally heavy rainfall is possible.

Saturday temperatures will range from the 60s to 70s with showers and thunderstorms ending from west to east by afternoon/evening. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s.

Sunday highs will be in the mid 70s to low 80s with mostly clear conditions; northern NY could have a few showers. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s.

Monday temperatures will be in the mid 70s to low 80s. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s

Tuesday highs will be in the mid 70s to low 80s. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s.

Wednesday highs will be in the mid 70s to low 80s. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s.

The seven-day precipitation amounts will range from a trace one inch.

The 8-14 day outlook (September 19-25) favors above-normal temperatures with high probability and slightly favors above-normal precipitation for most of the state.

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:

http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/predictions/814day/index.php

National Weather Service watch/warnings map:

http://www.weather.gov/erh/

US Drought Monitor

http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/Home.aspx

Drought Impact Reporter:

https://droughtreporter.unl.edu/map/

CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface):

http://climodtest.nrcc.cornell.edu

 

Planting Winter Small Grains? What are the Pest Concerns?

Ken Wise, NYS IPM

There are several factors to consider when planting winter wheat and winter small grains. The first is to never plant wheat in the same field two years in a row. By rotating you reduce the risk of several diseases like eyespot foot rot, powdery mildew, leaf rust, stagonospora nodorum blotch, glume blotch and more. The second item to consider is what winter wheat variety to plant. Of course you will look at potential grain yield, grain test weight and straw quality. It is also important to consider resistance to diseases in the varieties you select. Diseases of particular concern are wheat spindle streak mosaic virus, soil borne mosaic virus, barley yellow dwarf virus, powdery mildew, leaf & stem rust and/or other disease problems your farm has had in previous years.  For a list of potential wheat varieties consult your Cornell Guide for Integrated Field Crop Management. Next, remember to plant AFTER the Hessian fly free date. By doing so, not only are you avoiding infestations of Hessian fly but also certain aphids that can transmit yellow dwarf virus. The following figure shows the “Hessian Fly Free Dates” in NYS:

The use of certified wheat seed should be considered. When seed is certified you can be confident of the quality and it is void of diseases and weed seed. Next is to remember to always use a fungicide seed treatment to protect the crop from certain seed and seedling related diseases. Another core consideration is having a sound fertility program. When a plant is healthy it can complete with weeds and may tolerate more insect pest pressure and still maintain good yield.

 

Western Bean Cutworm Trap Numbers

 

Clipboard Checklist

Keith Waldron, NYS IPM

 General        

*Walk fields to check general field condition, weed, vertebrate and other issues

*Watch for crop maturity, stand assessments, weed escapes, nutrient deficiencies, lodging issues

*Update crop records and field history

 

 Alfalfa:

*Monitor potato leafhopper, foliar, systemic and crown rot diseases, signs of alfalfa snout beetle (in counties where ASB has been confirmed).
*Monitor new seedings for potato leafhopper, pythium blight, phytopthora root rot.
*Evaluate established legume stands for health, productivity and potential rotation. Days until harvest

Small Grains:
*Plant winter small grains after the Hessian Fly Free Date.

*Monitor small grain seedings for stand counts, establishment issues

 

Corn:

*Monitor late-season corn pests including European corn borer, corn rootworm, western bean cutworm, slugs, foliar diseases such as northern corn leaf blight and gray leaf spot, ear molds, stalk strength/lodging potential, weed issues, nutrient deficiencies, vertebrate damage.

 

 Soybeans:

*Monitor for growth stage, soybean aphid, defoliators, foliar diseases, white mold, weed issues, vertebrate damage

*Record diseases present, location and types of weed escapes

 

 Pastures:

*Check water sources, mend fences as needed.
*Check crop growth, clip pastures between grazing as needed
*Monitor for invasive species, plants harmful to livestock
*Review/Plan rotations

 

Storage:

*Check stored grain bins for temperature, moisture and signs of mold and insects. Aerate, core, transfer grain or treat as necessary

*Clean and disinfect empty storage bins in preparation for grain harvest
*Mow around storage bins and facility to minimize pest hiding places

 

Dairy Cattle Barn Fly Management:

*Expect an increase in fly numbers in barns as flies seek warmer habitats to escape cooler outside temperatures.

*Monitor animals and barn area for house fly, stable fly and other pest management needs including presence of rodents and birds.
*Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,
*Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation – clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
* Continue fly monitoring: install “3X5″ index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn
*Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards
 

Dairy Cattle on Pasture:

*Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy per animal side, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal (all four legs)
*Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter – spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal exercise yard.
*Check pasture for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
*Check pasture for vegetation poisonous to livestock
*Consider use of pasture fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly populations

*Plan to remove insecticide ear tags in fall to reduce risk of developing insecticide resistance