Recent Publications

Publications from the Hajek Lab in 2019:

PNAS CoverClifton, E.H., Castrillo, L.A., Gryganskyi, A., Hajek, A.E. May 2019. A pair of native fungal pathogens drives decline of a new invasive herbivore. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA (PNAS)

Clifton, E.H., Gardescu, S., Behle, R.W., Hajek, A.E. May 2019. Asian longhorned beetle bioassays to evaluate formulation and dose-response effects of Metarhizium microsclerotia. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 163: 64-66.

Eilenberg, J., Hajek, A.E. 2019. Insect resistance and susceptibility to pathogens: a multi-faceted topic. [Editorial for issue of Current Opinion in Insect Science organized and edited by Eilenberg & Hajek] Current Opinion in Insect Science 33: iii-v. doi: 10.1016/j.cois.2019.06.011.

Elkinton, J.S., Bittner, T.D., Pasquarella, V.J., Boettner, G.H., Liebhold, A.M., Gould, J.R., Faubert, H., Tewksbury, L., Broadley, H.J., Havill, N.P., Hajek, A.E. 2019. Relating aerial deposition of Entomophaga maimaiga conidia to mortality of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) larvae and nearby defoliation. Environ. Entomol. (in press).

Hajek, A.E., Morris, E.E., Hendry, T.A. 2019. Context dependent interactions of insects and defensive symbionts: insights from a novel system in siricid woodwasps. Current Opinion in Insect Science 33: 77-83. doi: 10.1016/j.cois.2019.03.006


New Hajek Books in 2018

        (click anywhere in the 2 images below for an enlarged view)


New Hajek Books in 2018:

Hajek, A.E. & J. Eilenberg. August 2018. Natural Enemies: An Introduction to Biological Control, 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press.  452 pp.
For information on ordering print or digital copies see:

Hajek, A.E., Shapiro-Ilan, D., eds. January 2018. Ecology of Invertebrate Diseases. Wiley. 688 pp.
Hardcover & E-book versions available:

Bittner, T.D., Hajek, A.E., Liebhold, A.S., Thistle, H. 2017. Modification of a pollen trap design to capture airborne conidia of Entomophaga maimaiga and detection by quantitative PCR. Applied & Environmental Microbiology 83: 1-11.

Brodeur, J., Hajek, A.E., Heimpel, G.E., Sloggett, J.J., Mackauer, M., Pell, J.K., Völkl, W. 2017. Predators, parasitoids and pathogens. In (H.F. van Emden, R. Harrington, eds.) Aphids as Crop Pests, 2nd edn. CABI, Wallingford, UK, pp. 225-261.

Caetano, I.A.L., Hajek, A.E. 2017. Mating behavior and sexual receptivity of Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 110: 276-280. DOI: 10.1093/aesa/saw095

Fisher, J.J., Castrillo, L.A., Donzelli, B.G.G., Hajek, A.E. 2017. Starvation and imidacloprid exposure influence immune response by Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to a fungal pathogen. Journal of Economic Entomology 110: 1451-1459. DOI: 10.1093/jee/tox124

Gardescu, S., Hajek, A.E., Goble T.A., Jackson, M.A. 2017. Metarhizium microsclerotia and hydrogel versus hydromulch: testing fungal formulations against Asian longhorned beetles, Biocontrol Science and Technology 27: 918-930. DOI: 10.1080/09583157.2017.1362546

Goble, T.A., Gardescu, S., Jackson, M.A., Hajek, A.E. 2017. Evaluating Metarhizium brunneum F52 microsclerotia in hydromulch formulations using different tackifiers under forest and orchard conditions. BioControl 62: 769-778. DOI: 10.1007/s10526-017-9835-7

Gryganskyi, A.P., Mullens, B.A., Gajdeczka, M.T., Rehner, S.A., Vilgalys, R., Hajek, A.E. 2017. Hijacked: Co-option of host behavior by entomophthoralean fungi. PLOS Pathogens, 13 (5): e1006274. DOI:

Hajek, A.E., Harris, D.C., Bittner, T.D. 2017. Symbiont spillover from invasive to native woodwasp. Microbial Ecology (online) DOI: 10.1007/s00248-017-1018-7

Hajek, A.E., Henry, J.C., Standley, C.R., Foelker, C.J. 2017. Comparing functional traits and abundance of invasive versus native woodwasps. NeoBiota 36: 39–55. DOI: 10.3897/neobiota.36.14953

Hajek, A.E., Solter, L.F., Maddox, J.V., Huang, W.-F., Estep, A.S., Krawczyk, G., Weber, D.C., Hoelmer, K.A., Sanscrainte, N.D., Becne, J.J. 2017. Nosema maddoxi sp. nov. (Microsporidia, Nosematidae), a widespread pathogen of the green stink bug Chinavia hilaris (Say) and the brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Stål). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology DOI: 10.1111/jeu.12475

Hajek, A.E., Tobin, P.C., Kroll, S.A., Long, S.J. 2017. Symbionts mediate oviposition behaviour in invasive and native woodwasps. Agricultural and Forest Entomology DOI: 10.1111/afe.12276

Hodge, K., Hajek A.E. 2017. Entomophthoralean pathogen infecting a millipede. Journal Invertebrate Pathology 149: 135-140.

Hodge, K.T., Hajek, A.E., Gryganskyi, A. 2017. The first entomophthoralean killing millipedes, Arthrophaga myriapodina n. gen. n. sp., causes climbing before death. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 149: 135-140.

Kenis, M., Hurley, B.P., Hajek, A.E., Cock, M.J.W. 2017. Classical biological control of insect pests of trees: facts and figures. Biological Invasions. DOI: 10.1007/s10530-017-1414-4

Kereselidze, M., Pilarska, D., Hajek, A.E., Jensen, A.B., Linde A. 2017. First record of Entomophaga maimaiga (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) in Georgia. Biocontrol Science and Technology 21 (11) DOI: 10.1080/09583157.2011.617872

Steinkraus, D.C., Hajek, A.E., Liebherr, J.K. 2017. Zombie soldier beetles: Epizootics in the goldenrod soldier beetle, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus (Coleoptera: Cantharidae) caused by Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina: Entomophthoraceae). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 148: 51-59.

Williams, D.W., Hajek, A.E. 2017. Biological control of Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) in the northeastern United States using an exotic parasitic nematode. Biological Control 107: 77–86.  DOI: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2017.01.008

Publications from the Hajek Lab in 2016:

gle2016Bittner, T.D., Hajek, A.E., Liebherr, J.K. 2016. Associations among Serropalpus substriatus (Coleoptera: Melandryidae) and Sirex (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) communities. The Great Lakes Entomologist 49: 18-26.

Caetano, I.A.L, Morris, E.E., Hajek, A.E. 2016. Growth of the Sirex-parasitic nematode Deladenus siricidicola on the white rot fungus Amylostereum. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 134: 12-14.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jip.2015.12.009

de Fine Licht, H., Hajek, A.E., Jensen, A.B., Eilenberg, J. 2016. Utilizing genomics to study entomopathogenicity in the fungal phylum Entomophthoromycota: A review of current genetic resources. Advances in Genetics 94: 41-65. [invited review].

Fisher, J.J., Hajek, A.E. 2016 Influence of mating and age on susceptibility of the beetle Anoplophora glabripennis to the fungal pathogen Metarhizium brunneum. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 136: 142-148.

Goble, T.A., Gardescu, S., Fisher, J.J., Jackson, M.A., Hajek, A.E. 2016. Conidial production, persistence and pathogenicity of hydromulch formulations of Metarhizium brunneum F52 microsclerotia under forest conditions. Biological Control 95: 83-93.

Goble, T.A., Gardescu, S., Jackson, M.A., Hajek, A.E. 2016. Evaluating different carriers of Metarhizium brunneum F52 microsclerotia for control of adult Asian longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Biocontrol Science and Technology, 26: 1212-1229.

Hajek, A.E., Gardescu, S., Delalibera Jr., I.   2016. Classical Biological Control of Insects and Mites: A Worldwide Catalogue of Pathogen and Nematode Introductions. USDA, Forest Service, FHTET-2016-06.  57 pp.

Hajek, A.E., Hurley, B.P., Kenis, M., Garnas, J.R., Bush, S.J., Wingfield, M.J., van Lenteren, J.C., Cock, M.J.W. 2016. Exotic biological control agents: a solution or contribution to arthropod invasions? Biological Invasions 18: 953-969. DOI: 10.1007/s10530-016-1075-8

Hajek, A.E., van Frankenhuyzen, K. 2016. Microbial control of forest insects. In: (L. Lacey, ed.), Microbial Agents for Control of Insect Pests: From Theory to Practice, Academic Press. [invited review]

Hajek, A.E., van Nouhuys, S. 2016. Fatal diseases and parasitoids: from competition to facilitation in a shared host. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2016.0154

Kanzaki, N., Giblin-Davis, R.M., Gonzalez, R., Trujillo, Y., Hajek, A.E. 2016.  Tylenchid entomoparasites isolated from Spondylis buprestoides (L.) and Asemum striatum (L.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Nematology 18: 775-780.

Pilarska, D., Hajek, A.E., Keena, M., Linde, A., Kereselidze, M., Georgiev, G., Georgieva, M., Mirchev, P., Takov, D., Draganova, S. 2016. Susceptibility of nun moth, Lymantria monacha to the entomopathogenic fungus Entomophaga maimaiga. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 68: 117-126.

Sarvary, M.A., Hajek, A.E., Böröczky, K., Raguso, R.A., Cooperband, M.F. 2016. Investigating the effects of symbiotic fungi on the flight behavior of Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae). Canadian Entomologist 148: 543-551.

Wingfield, M.J., Garnas,  J.R., Hajek, A., Hurley, B.P., de Beer, Z.W., Taerum, S.J. 2016. Novel and co-evolved associations between insects and microorganisms as drivers of forest pestilence. Biological Invasions 18: 1045. DOI: 10.1007/s10530-016-1084-7

Zúbrik, M., Hajek, A., Pilarska, D., Špilda, I., Georgiev, G., Hrašovec, G., Hirka, A.,  Goertz, D., Hoch, G., Barta, M., Saniga, M., Kunca, A., Nikolov, C., Vakula, J., Galko, J., Pilarski, P., Csóka, G. 2016. The potential for the fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga to regulate gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera; Erebidae) in Europe. Journal of Applied Entomology 140: 565-579. DOI: 10.1111/jen.12295

Publications from the Hajek Lab in 2015:

Castrillo, L.A., Hajek, A.E. 2015. Detection of presumptive mycoparasites associated with Entomophaga maimaiga resting spores in forest soils. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 124: 87-89.

Fisher, J.J., Hajek, A.E. 2015.  Maternal exposure of a beetle to pathogens protects offspring against fungal disease. PLOS One. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0125197

Goble, T.A., Hajek, A.E., Jackson, M.A., Gardescu, S. 2015. Microsclerotia of Metarhizium brunneum F52 applied in hydromulch for control of Asian longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 108:433-443. DOI: 10.1093/jee/tov013

Hajek, A.E., Tobin, P.C., Haynes, K.J. 2015. Replacement of a dominant viral pathogen by a fungal pathogen does not alter the collapse of a regional forest insect outbreak. Oecologia 177: 785-797. DOI: 10.​1007/​s00442-014-3164-7

Sarvary, M.A., Cooperband, M.F., Hajek, A.E.  2015. The importance of olfactory and visual cues in developing better monitoring tools for Sirex noctilio. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 17: 29-35.

Publications from the Hajek Lab in 2014:

Csóka, G., Hirka, A., Szôcs, L., Hajek, A.E. 2014. A rovarpatogén Entomophaga maimaiga Humber, Shimazu & Soper, 1988 (Entomophtorales: Entomophtoraceae) gomba megjelenése magyarországi gyapjaslepke (Lymantria dispar) populációkban. [First occurrence of the entomopathogenic fungus, Entomophaga maimaiga Humber, Shimazu & Soper, 1988 (Entomophtorales: Entomophtoraceae) in Hungarian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) populations.] NÖVÉNYVÉDELEM 50(6): 257-262. Abstract in English.

Desurmont, G.A., Hajek, A.E., Agrawal, A.A. 2014. Seasonal decline in plant defense is associated with relaxed offensive oviposition behaviour in the viburnum leaf beetle Pyrrhalta luteola. Ecological Entomology 39: 589-594.

Fisher, J.J., Hajek, A.E.  2014. Thermoregulatory behavior and fungal infection of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis. Environmental Entomology 43: 384-392.

Fuester, R.W., Hajek, A.E., Elkinton, J.S., Schaefer, P.W.  2014.  Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae). Chapter V (pp. 49-82) in The Use of Classical Biological Control to Preserve Forests in North America (R. Van Driesche & R. Reardon, eds.). USDA Forest Service Publication FHET-2013-2.

Goble, T.A., Rehner, S.A., Long, S.J., Gardescu, S., Hajek, A.E.  2014. Comparing the virulence of North American Beauveria brongniartii and commercial pathogenic fungi against Asian longhorned beetles. Biological Control 72: 91-97.

Hajek, A.E, Morris, E.E. 2014. Sirex woodwasp (Sirex noctilio Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Siricidae). Chapter XXXII (pp. 331-346) in The Use of Classical Biological Control to Preserve Forests in North America (R. Van Driesche & R. Reardon, eds.). USDA Forest Service Publication FHET-2013-2.

Morris, E.E., Hajek, A.E. 2014. Eat or be eaten: Fungus and nematode switch off as predator and prey. Fungal Ecology 11: 114-121.

Morris, E.E., Hajek, A.E., Zieman, E., Williams, D.W.  2014.  Deladenus (Tylenchida: Neotylenchidae) reproduction on species and strains of the white rot fungus Amylostereum. Biological Control 73: 50-58.

Reilly, J.R., Hajek, A.E., Liebhold, A.M., Plymale, R.S. 2014. Impact of Entomophaga maimaiga (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) on outbreak gypsy moth populations (Lepidoptera: Erebidae): the role of weather. Environmental Entomology 43: 632-641.

Ugine, T.A., Peters, K.E., Gardescu, S., Hajek, A.E.  2014. The effect of time postexposure and sex on horizontal transmission of Metarhizium brunneum conidia between Asian longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) mates.  Environmental Entomology 43: 1552-1560.

Publications from the Hajek Lab in 2013:

Hajek, A.E. 2013. Insect Pathology, Second Edition. (book review) Quarterly Review of Biology 88: 147-148.

Hajek, A.E., Longcore, J.E., Simmons, D.R., Peters, K., Humber, R.A.  2013. Chytrid mycoparasitism of entomophthoralean azygospores. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 114: 333–336.

Hajek, A.E., Nielsen, C., Kepler, R.M., Long, S.J., Castrillo, L.  2013.  Fidelity among Sirex woodwasps and their fungal symbionts. Microbial Ecology 65: 753–762.

Hrašovec, B., Pernek, M., Lukić, I., Milotić, M., Diminić, D., Franjević, M., Hajek, A., Linde, A., Pilarska, D. 2013. First record of the pathogenic fungus Entomophaga maimaiga Humber, Shimazu, and Soper (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) within an outbreak populations of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) in Croatia. Periodicum Biologorum 115: 379–384.

Kroll, S.A., Hajek, A.E., Morris, E.E., Long, S.J.  2013. Parasitism of Sirex noctilio by non-sterilizing Deladenus siricidicola in northeastern North America.  Biological Control 67: 203–211.

Liebhold, A.M., Plymale, R., Elkinton, J.S., Hajek, A.E.  2013.  Emergent fungal entomopathogen does not alter density dependence in a viral competitor.  Ecology 94: 1217–1222.

Morris, E.E., Kepler, R.M., Long, S.J., Williams, D.W., Hajek, A.E.  2013.  Phylogenetic analysis of Deladenus nematodes parasitizing northeastern North American Sirex species.  Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 113: 177–183.

Ugine, T.A., Gardescu, S., Hajek, A.E.  2013. The within-season and between-tree distribution of imidacloprid trunk-injected into Acer platanoides. Journal of Economic Entomology 106: 874–882.

Ugine, T.A., Jenkins, N.E., Gardescu, S., Hajek, A.E.  2013. Comparing fungal band formulations for Asian longhorned beetle biological control. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 113: 240–246.

Ugine, T.A., Jenkins, N.E., Gardescu, S., Hajek, A.E.  2013. Conidial acquisition and survivorship of adult Asian longhorned beetles exposed to flat versus shaggy agar fungal bands. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 113: 247–250.