Oneida County Scouting Report – July 5, 2012

July 5, 2012 – The first generation of armyworm seems like it is finally on the wane. Local farmers reporting light yields of second cut. Potato leaf hopper numbers are way up and local farmers are treating fields. Find more information in this weeks Oneida county  field crop report.

The Oneida County Scouting Report includes a weekly update of weather conditions including local rainfall and GDDs, and periodic comparisons with the rainfall and GDD averages from the past 20 years. It also includes current condition of field crops: corn, soybeans, hay, wheat and oats. Any potential threats from pests of these crops are reported with information from the Central New York region as well as from local fields.

To access the full report, click here.

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Oneida County Scouting Report – June 21, 2012

June 21, 2012 – The Oneida County Scouting Report includes a weekly update of weather conditions including local rainfall and GDDs, and periodic comparisons with the rainfall and GDD averages from the past 20 years. It also includes current condition of field crops: corn, soybeans, hay, wheat and oats. Any potential threats from pests of these crops are reported with information from the Central New York region as well as from local fields. During the month of May samples are taken from local hay fields weekly with reports of NDF, NEL and CP are included in the report.

To access the full report, click here.

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NYS IPM Weekly Field Crops Pest Report – June 21, 2012

This newsletter is on-line at: www.nysipm.cornell.edu/lfc/tag/pestrpt/index.html

  1. View from the Field
  2. Weather Outlook
  3. Time to Start Scouting for Potato Leafhopper on Alfalfa
  4. Dairy Cattle Pest Management Resources
  5. Mark Your Calendars
  6. Contact Information

 View From the Field

The True armyworm is center stage again for the 4th week. They are being found statewide and mostly in grasses and mixed stands. There have been reports of armyworm over threshold in oats and corn. The majority of the damage is still occurring in Western NY and into St. Lawrence county. But there are reports of some fields over threshold in Eastern, NY from Clinton County to Dutchess County and out to Oneida County. A light of hope is that in Eastern NY extension educators are reporting that some of the populations are showing signs of biological control. Both parasitoids and pathogens have been found in populations of armyworms. The pathogen can wipeout a population armyworms in a field. Parasitoids can hold a population in check so it does not build. Again as we have said you never know where and when this will happen.  It might come to a field near you!

Armyworm damage with true armyworm (Photo by Dale Dewing)

A question was raised this week on whether the 2nd generation of true armyworms would cause more damage to crops Elson Sheilds (Cornell Field Crops Extension Entomologist) responded that there is no useful reason to monitor or worry about the second generation of armyworm!!  The same behavior which makes this insect a long-distance migrant (the need to fly long distance before settling down to lay eggs) is in force in all generations.  In addition, the dilution in the vast habitat in NY reduces any potential to a non problem.  The reason we had a spring problem was that millions of moths were concentrated into a small zone due to weather issues and dumped on us in a wide swath from Michigan across Ontario to NY.

Paul Cerosaletti and Dale Dewing are reporting black cutworm damage in corn. Paul stated that they have found damage in very clean fields (weed free) of corn.  They also found a loose smut on the heads of barley. I also found a lot of loose smut in organic wheat in Essex county last week.

Loose Smut on Barley (Photo taken by Paul Cerosaletti)

Gary Bergstrom reports finding several wheat diseases near Aurora this week. These include brown leaf rust, striped leaf rust, eye spot foot rot, and Fusarium foot rot. Rusts can dramatically reduce yields on wheat. Eye spot root rot and fusarium root rot can also affect yield.

Potato leafhoppers (PLH) can be found readily on alfalfa throughout the state.  In western NY Mike Stanyard is reporting very high levels of PLH on alfalfa. He stated that they are even over threshold on PLH resistant alfalfa. The rest of the state is reporting finding PLH but not at threshold levels. See article below on how to scout for PLH in alfalfa.

An interesting thing is that Mike Stanyard reports that PLH are at high levels in soybeans. Elson Shields (Cornell Field Crops Extension Entomologist) responds that pubescent soybeans are not generally damaged by PLH.  The plant hairs interfere with the adult’s egg laying ability.  Eggs are inserted in the leaf and stem tissue and the plant hairs interfere with those activities.  It is a mechanical resistance.  Remove the plant hairs (glabrous) and soybeans are very susceptible to PLH.  In pubescent soybeans, you will find adults but rarely nymphs.  It is the nymphs which cause the majority of the economic damage.

Keith Severson reports an issue we should all be aware of “BEES”! This time of year with fields being sprayed with insecticides it is important to consider protection of bees. Always follow insecticide label instructions. If there are flowering plants in the fields you are spraying you have the potential to kill bees. Many times the bees will carry an insecticide back to the hive and kill many more. If you observe bees in a field you are going to spray you could consider a better time of the day to spray. Spraying in the evening after bees have returned to their hives is one option. Notify the bee keeper of your intentions to treat a field.

Stripe Rust on Wheat (Photo taken by Gary Bergstrom)

Western Bean Cutworm (WBCW) trapping began statewide the week of June 10. Twenty-eight locations are now reporting WBC collection data.

The first WBC moths (2) were collected last week in Eden (Erie County) in a sweet corn field. This week WBC moths (1 each) were collected in Eden and Lockport (Niagara county). Both traps were adjacent to sweet corn fields.

 

Weather Outlook

July 21, 2012

Jessica Rennells

NOAA NE Climate Center, Cornell University

Last week temperatures ranged from normal to 6 degrees above normal. Precipitation amounts ranged from a trace to half an inch.  The base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 75 to 150 for most of the state.

Hot!  We’ll have one more day of heat before a cold front comes through to bring us back to normal temperatures.  Temperatures will continue to cool into next week as a large upper low persists over the Northeast.

Today will be hot & humid with temperatures in the upper 80’s and throughout the 90’s, and heat indices into the 100’s.  A cold front will move across the state, starting in the evening, and bring a chance of showers and thunderstorms.  Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 60’s to low 70’s. Friday temperatures will be closer to normal, in the upper 70’s and low 80’s.  The Catskills and lower Hudson Valley could still see some near 90.  Showers and thunderstorms will be possible as the front moves along.  Lows will be in the mid 50’s to low 60’s. Saturday will be sunny with highs in the upper 70’s and low 80’s.  Lows will be in the mid 50’s to low 60’s. Sunday will be partly sunny with temperatures in the mid 70’s to low 80’s.  Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 50’s to low 60’s. Monday scattered showers will be possible with highs only in the low to mid 70’s.  Lows will be in the 50’s. Tuesday will be cool with highs in the mid 60’s to low 70’s and a chance of showers.   Lows will be in the 50’s.Wednesday’s temperatures will also be cool, in the mid 60’s to low 70’s.  Overnight temperatures will be in the 50’s. The five-day precipitation amounts will range from .25 to 1.25 inches. The 8-14 day outlook is below normal temperatures and normal precipitation.

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:

http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/predictions/814day/index.php

National Weather Service watch/warnings map:

http://www.erh.noaa.gov/er/hq/

NRCC Drought Page which features the US Drought Monitor map (updated every Thursday):

http://www.nrcc.cornell.edu/page_drought.html

 

Time to Start Scouting for Potato Leafhopper on Alfalfa

Ken Wise, NYS IPM

Scouting alfalfa fields is the key to early detection of potato leafhopper infestations. Use a 15-inch diameter sweep net to determine the potential risk a potato leafhopper infestation may pose to your alfalfa. Scouting for potato leafhopper starts after the first cutting of alfalfa (about the first part of June) till the first fall frost. You will want to use a potato leafhopper sequential sampling plan to determine if an infestation requires management or not. The first thing to do is determine the height of your alfalfa. Smaller plants are more vulnerable to potato leafhopper; thus there are different action thresholds for different heights of alfalfa. The second thing you will need to know is how to sample for potato leafhopper. A sample consists of a set of 10 sweeps of the net. A sweep is one pass in front of you as you walk through the alfalfa. The return swing is counted as another sweep. Sequential sampling reduces the time spent in each field and tells you whether to treat (management action) or not treat (no management action). Sequential sampling is particularly helpful in minimizing time required to make a management decision in situations where PLH populations are very high or very low. Use the following chart to determine potato leafhopper infestation levels.

Write down the number of potato leafhoppers for each sample taken on the card. Add each sample to the next, keeping a running total of potato leafhoppers. You will need to take at least 3 samples using the sequential sampling method. On the sequential sampling card “Don’t Treat” is defined as no treatment (no management) needed at this time and “Treat” is defined as treatment (management) needed within in a week. If the sample is smaller than the “Don’t Treat” number stop and scout 7 days later. If the number of leafhoppers is larger than the “Treat” number then management action needs to be taken within a week. If the number of potato leafhoppers fall between “Don’t Treat” and “Treat” then continue and take the next sample till a decision can be determined.

 

Dairy Cattle Pest Management Resources

Keith Waldron, NYS IPM

Summer is here and warmer temperatures have been favorable for potential increases in fly pests affecting dairy animals and other livestock.

A quick source of factsheets, management recommendations and other resources on Livestock (dairy cattle, poultry, sheep, goats, swine, and horses)  Integrated Pest Management can be found at: http://nysipm.cornell.edu/livestock/ and http://www.entomology.cornell.edu/Extension/Vet/index.html.

For those with a specific interest in dairy barn fly management an archive of a 2 hour Web stream broadcast is available for viewing or download at: http://nysipm.cornell.edu/livestock/teleconf.asp

 

Clipboard Checklist

Keith Waldron, NYS IPM

General

  • Emergency contact information (“911”, local hospital, Chem. Spill emergency contact, other?) posted in central posting area
  • Maintain crop records by field, including variety, planting date, pesticides used, nutrient inputs including manure, etc.
  • Walk fields to check crop condition, growth, and emergence. Look for signs of vertebrate pests (birds, ground hogs, deer, etc.).
  • Mow around farm buildings to minimize rodent and other pest habitat
  • Begin grain bin and auger clean up and preparations for storage.

Alfalfa and Grass Hay:

  • Monitor alfalfa for crop condition, watch re-growth for alfalfa weevil, potato leafhopper, and diseases.
  • Evaluate alfalfa seedings for weeds, insects (potato leafhopper, armyworm) & diseases.
  • Monitor grass hay for crop condition, watch re-growth for armyworm

Small Grains:

  • Monitor winter wheat for foliar & grain head diseases, Fusarium Head Blight incidence
  • Monitor winter grain fields for crop growth stage, signs and symptoms of diseases, weed pressure, insects (armyworm, cereal leaf beetle)

Field Corn:

  • Post emergence: Determine corn plant populations, monitor for emergence problems, weeds, noting presence of “who”, “how many” and “where”
  • Early season corn pests: seedling blights, seed corn maggot, white grub, wireworm, black cutworm, armyworm, slugs, birds
  • Adjust post emergence weed control actions

Soybeans:

  • Post emergence: Determine plant populations, monitor for germination and emergence problems, monitor for weeds, noting presence of “who”, “how many” and “where”
  • Monitor for soybean aphid

Pastures:

  • Monitor pastures for crop condition, watch re-growth for armyworm
  • Check and mend fences as needed.
  • Check crop growth
  • Check for presence of undesirable plant species harmful to livestock.
  • Review/Plan rotation system

Equipment:

  • Arrange for custom weed / disease management or check your own application or cultivator equipment for readiness or need for repairs.
  • Check nozzles, pumps, etc., recalibrate pesticide application equipment regularly before use.
  • Calibrate manure spreaders – maintain records on amount spread per field

Cattle on Pasture:

  • Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal (all four legs)
  • Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter – spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
  • Check paddocks for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
  • Check paddocks for vegetation poisonous to livestock
  • Consider use of fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly populations

Dairy Cattle Barn Fly Management:

  • Monitor animals and barn area for house fly, stable fly and other pest management needs including presence of rodents and birds.
  • Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,
  • Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation – clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
  • Continue fly monitoring: install “3X5” index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn
  • Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards
  • Consider purchase and release of Muscidifurax raptor and/or M. raptorellus natural enemies of house and stable fly pupae

 

Mark Your Calendars

2012 CORNELL SEED GROWERS FIELD DAY

Tuesday, 3 July 2012

For Seed Growers, Seed Treatment Applicators, and other Seed Professionals

Place: NYSIP Foundation Seed Barn, 791 Dryden Rd., Rt. 366, Ithaca, NY

Time: 8:30 AM-12:00 noon (registration starts at 8:30 and the program runs fro 9:00 until noon)

 

JULY 17 – TUESDAY – H. C. THOMPSON RESEARCH FARM

Freeville, NY (10 miles Northeast of Ithaca, Fall Creek Road, Rt. 366 extension)

8:00 a.m. Registration

Coffee (beverage), doughnuts, and informational trial packet

($8.00)

8:30 a.m.-11:30 a.m. Vegetable Crop Weed Control (Bellinder)

JULY 17, TUESDAY – ROBERT B. MUSGRAVE RESEARCH FARM

Aurora, NY (Poplar Ridge Road, connects 90 and 34B)

12:00 – 1:30 p.m. NYSABA Pork BBQ lunch at Musgrave Research Farm.

1:30 p.m. Registration

2:00 – 5:00 p.m. Field Crop Weed Control (Hahn)

CCA and DEC Credits have been requested for field crop and vegetable

 

JULY 18-ROBERT B. MUSGRAVE RESEARCH FARM FIELD DAY

1256 Poplar Ridge Road, Aurora, New York

WEDNESDAY, July 18, 2012, 9:00-3:00 pm

FREE and open to all!

Registration at 9:00 with Coffee and Donuts (no preregistration)

FREE Lunch will be available at 12:00 noon

Pesticide Applicator and Certified Crop Advisor Credits will be available

Questions: Please call (607-255-2177) or email (mem40@cornell.edu) Mary McKellar

 

Contact Information

Keith Waldron: NYS Livestock and Field Crops IPM Coordinator

Phone: (315) 787 – 2432

Fax: (315) 787-2360

Email: jkw5@cornell.edu

Ken Wise: Eastern NYS IPM Area Educator: Field Crops and Livestock

Phone: (518) 434-1690

Fax: (518) 426-3316

Email: klw24@cornell.edu

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NYS IPM Weekly Field Crops Pest Report – June 15, 2012

This newsletter is on-line at: http://nysipm.cornell.edu/fieldcrops/tag/pestrpt/default.asp.

1. View from the Field

2. Weather Outlook

3. True Armyworm (aka Common armyworm) Alert

4. Clipboard Checklist

5. Mark Your Calendars

6. Contact Information

 

View From the Field
ARMYWORMS, ARMYWORMS, ARMYWORMS….

True Armyworm is hitting western NY hard. They have been over economic threshold in wheat, grass hay, alfalfa/grass mixes and corn. They’re in mixed sizes, meaning adult moths came in on several different weather fronts. Eggs were laid different days and possibly weeks this spring. This will extend the time armyworm will feed in fields. Once one generation pupates, there are still others behind it.

In the past we’ve seen good biological control of this pest. This year we are not seeing many, and some speculate the second generation will be at higher levels. Over 60 wasps and fly parasitoids infect armyworm, along with pathogens that help control a population when it gets very large. This has been seen in a few wheat fields in Western NY. The armyworm will crawl to the wheat head, dies, and shrivels up.

At times birds help control armyworms. Once the forage has been cut, birds flock in and eat the larvae. The problem is, like with the pathogen and parasitoids you never really know when they will occur.

Armyworm Larva

Armyworm has also been found over threshold levels in fields in Northern, Central and Eastern NY also. While armyworm aren’t as widespread in northern, central and eastern NY as in western NY, you STILL need to get out and look to make sure, because they’re over threshold in some fields. Reminder: if you spray, Armyworm and the Crop have to be on the label.

True armyworm larvae appear smooth, cylindrical, and pale green to brownish when they are still small. Mature larvae are smooth and marked with two orange, white-bordered strips on each side. True armyworm ranges in size from 1/8 inch to 1.5 inches long.

Mike Stanyard found an uncommon soybean insect pest this week: variegated cutworm. They were in patchy areas across the whole field. If you see leaf-feeding damage in soybeans, do not mistake them for armyworms. Armyworm rarely feeds on non-grass plants.

Variegated cutworm has a line of yellow or whitish-yellow spots the center of the back. The body is mottled and variable in color ranging from gray to brown. The head has a dark net-like pattern with dark stripes.

Mike Stanyard also reports potato leafhopper (PLH) was over threshold in alfalfa in a few fields in Western NY. Several others have reported that they have found PLH but have not seen them at threshold levels. PLH has been reported statewide and it’s

Variegated Cutworm Photo Mike Stanyard

time to scouting alfalfa fields for this pest.

I was at the Willsboro farm looking at organic winter wheat, spring wheat and spelt variety trials this week. Many of these were heritage varieties. The wheat had a very high infection of Stagonospora nodorum, Septoria tritici and powdery mildew. The S. nodorum and S. tritici was on 100 percent of flag leaves. In some cases the leaves were turning brown while the head was still green. Powdery mildew was not in every plot or variety. Loose smut was in the some of the plots too, and we found some leaf symptoms that looked liked yellow dwarf virus. We also saw a little cereal leaf beetle damage. But—no armyworm at the Willsboro farm.

Western Bean Cutworm (WBC) monitoring began this week with traps being installed statewide. There were no WBC moths caught this week.

 

Weather Outlook
June 14, 2012
Jessica Rennells, NOAA NE Climate Center, Cornell University

Last week temperatures ranged from normal to 6 degrees above normal. The warmer areas were in the Great Lakes and St Lawrence Valley regions. Precipitation amounts ranged widely from just a trace to over an inch. The base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 75 to 125 for most of the state. High pressure will be in control for most of the next week bringing mostly dry and warm weather. Today will be sunny with temperatures in the mid to upper 70s. Tonight will be clear and range from the low 40s to mid 50s.Friday will be sunny with highs in the mid 70s to low 80s. Lows will range throughout the 50s.Saturday will have continued sunshine and temperatures in the upper 70s and low 80s. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 50s to low 60s. Sunday will be mostly sunny with highs in the low to mid 80s. Lows will be in the upper 50s and low 60s. Monday highs will be in the low to mid 80’s. Lows will be in the upper 50s to mid 60s. Tuesday highs will be in the throughout the 80s. Lows will be in the 60s. Wednesday’s temperatures will be in the mid to upper 80s, nearing 90 for some areas. Lows will be in the 60s.

The five-day precipitation amounts will range from a trace to a quarter of an inch. The 8-14 day outlook is showing normal temperatures for most of the state, the Hudson Valley region and southern Eastern Plateau are in above normal temperatures. Above normal precipitation is expected for the whole state.

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:

http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/predictions/814day/index.php

National Weather Service watch/warnings map:

http://www.erh.noaa.gov/er/hq/

NRCC Drought Page which features the US Drought Monitor map (updated every Thursday):

http://www.nrcc.cornell.edu/page_drought.html

 

True Armyworm (aka Common armyworm) Alert – Update
Keith Waldron NYS IPM

Reports of true armyworm continue to come in from across New York. The highest concentration of armyworm activity to date has been in western counties with reports of more scattered incidence in central, northern and eastern New York. While reports have been confirmed in many counties, not all fields have been over threshold so it is important to get out and check your fields.  Checking your fields early and often is critical to avoid economic damage or unnecessary spraying.

Armyworm moths are long-range migrants that arrive on the spring storms from their southern overwintering locations. Armyworm moth migrations are somewhat sporadic, cyclic from year to year and difficult to predict. This year the early spring in their overwintering areas enabled the moths to get an earlier start in their migrations north. True armyworms are primarily a pest of plants in the grass family: forage / pasture /grasses (& lawns), wheat, corn and small grains. Note: Under hunger stress true armyworms will also attack some legumes and other plants. Moths lay their eggs on weeds and/or grasses along field margins, on leaves of corn, or on small grains. Larvae hatch about a week later and develop over approximately a 3 week period, feeding mostly at night.

Fields at most risk for armyworms feeding are:

  1. grass or mostly grass hayfields, pastures. (Armyworms will also feed on grass lawns.)
  2. wheat and other small grain fields and cut hay fields
  3. corn fields that:
  • were planted into a small grain cover crop (such as rye grass)
  • have grassy weeds, quackgrass, crabgrass and bluegrass and other perennials
  • were planted into burned down sods, have grass weed issues, no-till or reduced tillage fields, fields with crop residue
  • fields near severely infested small grain and cut hay fields, and in no-tillage corn established in grain stubble or on grassy land.

In many years natural enemies including various fungal and viral diseases and parasites such as tachinid flies, play a role in helping to suppress armyworm populations. This year our armyworm natural enemies appear to be lagging behind. Some tachnid fly parasitism has been observed in the Finger Lakes and diseased armyworm larvae are beginning to be observed in an increasing number of fields in western NY.

Armyworms may have 2 and possibly 3 generations in New York. Each generation takes about 5 weeks to complete. In a “normal” year the later generation armyworm impacts are usually minimal and or isolated. However, the presence of varying sized armyworm larvae (1/2 inch and greater) indicate there have been multiple flights and we may see an extended period of armyworm activity.

Many armyworms first observed in western NY around Memorial Day, are now about 1.5 inches in length or greater and may be pupating soon if not already. If so, the next generation of armyworms could be expected to be observed about mid July. To be sure, all crops at risk such as grasses and corn should be continue to be monitored for signs of this insect.

Identification:
True armyworm larvae appear smooth, cylindrical, pale green to brownish when they are still small. Mature larvae are smooth and marked with two orange, white-bordered strips on each side. Larvae range in size from 1/8 inch to 1 1/2 inches long.

Healthy armyworm larva (left), parasitized armyworm with white tachinid fly eggs (center), diseased armyworm larvae on wheat heads (right) Photo: K. Waldron, NYS IPM Program

Healthy armyworm larva (left), parasitized armyworm with white tachinid fly eggs (center), diseased armyworm larvae on wheat heads (right) Photo: K. Waldron, NYS IPM Program

Watch your fields!
It is important to detect armyworm infestations areas early, while larvae are still small. Large larvae do most of the feeding, are capable of destroying whole stands of corn, grasses and small grains and are harder to control. Armyworm larvae feed at night so look for signs of feeding: chewed ragged leaves, cut stems, lodged plants, pellet-like frass on the ground. Larvae tend to hide during the daytime often hidden under the plant canopy and in / under surface residue. In corn check under the canopy and within the whorl.

Armyworms can move from field to field in large numbers very quickly. As small grains begin to dry down or harvested, grass hay fields are cut or grass weeds dry down, larvae can move quickly to alternate hosts like corn. For management decisions refer to the monitoring and management guidelines below. Note the size of larvae and their relative number when making management decisions. Larger larvae eat more and 80% of the feeding damage happens in the last 7 days of larval feeding before pupation. There are several natural enemies that can impact armyworm populations including diseases and parasites. If there are sufficient numbers of armyworm larvae and damage is present, an insecticide could be justified. Larger armyworm larvae, greater than 1 inch long, are much more tolerant of insecticides, reducing the effectiveness and economic viability of this option. Always read, understand and follow insecticide label recommendations. Be aware of pre-harvest intervals.

Economic Threshold Guidelines For True Armyworm
Corn – Penn State extension specialists recommend treating seedling stage corn when 10 percent or more of the seedling corn plants are damaged and larvae are still present. For whorl-stage corn, apply an insecticide only if most plants show damage and about three larvae per plant are found.  Tall corn will seldom need to be treated unless the leaves above the ear are also damaged. Note: control can be challenging if caterpillars are greater than one-inch long.

Wheat – 3 to 5 or more larvae square foot, larvae less than 1.25 inches and not parasitized. Watch for flag leaf reduction or clipped-off heads as these will lead to yield losses.  A spray before soft dough to save the remaining 3 upper leaves is generally beneficial since these tissues are still important to grain filling.

Grass pastures – Midwestern extension guidelines indicate 
insecticide treatments are justified when four or more non-parasitized, half-grown or larger larvae are present per square foot. No specific guidelines are available in NY, need for treatment based on the level of damage observed in relation to the expected value of grass harvest. REMEMBER… if you have a true armyworm infestation in a mixed alfalfa – grass stand, alfalfa and grass BOTH NEED to be on the insecticide LABEL to be a legal application!!!

If treatment is necessary be sure that the insecticide is labeled for true armyworm and the crop.  Be careful to evaluate pre-harvest interval when making decisions. Spray coverage is very important. Use higher spray volume for better coverage. Read and follow label instructions.

If field monitoring determines armyworm numbers have reached control guidelines, consider, where possible, treating only the infested portion of the field and a 20- to 40-foot border around it. A border 20 to 40 feet wide treated with insecticide will prevent armyworms from invading from an adjacent infested field. Because the larvae are active at night, apply treatments late in the day.

Armyworm identification Factsheets:
Armyworm (Pseudaletia unipuncta Haworth)
http://ipm.illinois.edu/fieldcrops/insects/armyworm.pdf

Armyworm Damage to Field Corn and Grass Hay and Pasture
pss.uvm.edu/mg/archive703/mg/pdf%20files/armyworm.pdf

Armyworm as a Pest of Field Corn
http://ento.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/armyworm

Armyworm Management
See armyworm management guidelines in crop(s) of interest at Cornell University’s Cornell Cooperative Extension Crop IPM Guidelines website: http://ipmguidelines.org/

Help and advice on armyworm management?
Contact your local County Cornell Cooperative Extension Office: http://cce.cornell.edu/learnabout/pages/local_offices.aspx

To stay informed on field crop production and pest management issues see the Cornell University – Cornell Cooperative Extension Field Crop News Blog: http://fieldcrops.org/

 

Clipboard Checklist
Keith Waldron, NYS IPM           

General: 

*Emergency contact information (“911”, local hospital, Chem. Spill emergency contact, other?) posted in central posting area

*Maintain crop records by field, including variety, planting date, pesticides used, nutrient inputs including manure, etc.

*Walk fields to check crop condition, growth, and emergence. Look for signs of vertebrate pests (birds, ground hogs, deer, etc.).

*Mow around farm buildings to minimize rodent and other pest habitat

*Begin grain bin and auger clean up and preparations for storage.

Alfalfa and Grass Hay:

*Monitor alfalfa for crop condition, watch re-growth for alfalfa weevil, potato leafhopper, and diseases.

*Evaluate alfalfa seedings for weeds, insects (potato leafhopper, armyworm) & diseases.

SmallGrains:

*Monitor winter wheat for foliar & grain head diseases, Fusarium Head Blight incidence

*Monitor winter grain fields for crop growth stage, signs and symptoms of diseases, weed pressure, insects (armyworm, cereal leaf beetle)

Field Corn:

*Post emergence: Determine corn plant populations, monitor for emergence problems, weeds, noting presence of “who”, “how many” and “where”

*Early season corn pests: seedling blights, seed corn maggot, white grub, wireworm, black cutworm, armyworm, slugs, birds

*Adjust post emergence weed control actions

Soybeans:

*Post emergence: Determine plant populations, monitor for germination and emergence problems, monitor for weeds, noting presence of “who”, “how many” and “where”

*Monitor for soybean aphid

Pastures:

*Check and mend fences as needed.

*Check crop growth

*Check for presence of undesirable plant species harmful to livestock.

*Review/Plan rotation system

Equipment:

*Arrange for custom weed / disease management or check your own application or cultivator equipment for readiness or need for repairs.

*Check nozzles, pumps, etc., recalibrate pesticide application equipment regularly before use.

*Calibrate manure spreaders – maintain records on amount spread per field

Cattle on Pasture:

*Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal (all four legs)

*Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter – spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard

*Check paddocks for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate

*Check paddocks for vegetation poisonous to livestock

*Consider use of fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly populations

Dairy Cattle Barn Fly Management:

*Monitor animals and barn area for house fly, stable fly and other pest management needs including presence of rodents and birds.

*Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,

*Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation – clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard

* Continue fly monitoring: install “3X5” index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn

*Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards

*Consider purchase and release of Muscidifurax raptor and/or M. raptorellus natural enemies of house and stable fly pupae.

 

Mark Your Calendars
2012 CORNELL SEED GROWERS FIELD DAY

Tuesday, 3 July 2012
For Seed Growers, Seed Treatment Applicators, and other Seed Professionals
Place: NYSIP Foundation Seed Barn, 791 Dryden Rd., Rt. 366, Ithaca, NY
Time: 8:30 AM-12:00 noon (registration starts at 8:30 and the program runs fro 9:00 until noon)

JULY 17 – TUESDAY – H. C. THOMPSON RESEARCH FARM
Freeville, NY (10 miles Northeast of Ithaca, Fall Creek Road, Rt. 366 extension)
8:00 a.m. Registration
Coffee (beverage), doughnuts, and informational trial packet
($8.00)
8:30 a.m.-11:30 a.m. Vegetable Crop Weed Control (Bellinder)

 JULY 17, TUESDAY – ROBERT B. MUSGRAVE RESEARCH FARM
Aurora, NY (Poplar Ridge Road, connects 90 and 34B)
12:00 – 1:30 p.m. NYSABA Pork BBQ lunch at Musgrave Research Farm.
1:30 p.m. Registration
2:00 – 5:00 p.m. Field Crop Weed Control (Hahn)
CCA and DEC Credits have been requested for field crop and vegetable crop field days

 

Contact Information
Keith Waldron: NYS Livestock and Field Crops IPM Coordinator
Phone: (315) 787 – 2432
Fax: (315) 787-2360
Email: jkw5@cornell.edu

Ken Wise: Eastern NYS IPM Area Educator: Field Crops and Livestock
Phone: (518) 434-1690
Fax: (518) 426-3316
Email: klw24@cornell.edu

 

 

 

 

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Checking the Back Forty Volume 2 Issue 3 – May 29, 2012

Kevin H. Ganoe, Regional Field Crop Specialist, Central New York Dairy & Field Crops Team, Cornell Cooperative Extension of Chenango, Herkimer, Otsego,and Schoharie Counties

Weather Data for Week Ending Sunday, May 27, 2012
No doubt no two years are alike and certainly 2012 is living up to the tradition. The 2012 growing season started with May temperatures in mid March and deep freezes in April. Table 1 below has Growing Degree Days (GDD) at 2 week intervals since the first corn was planted the week of April 23. Table 2 is the rainfall since April 1.

Table 1. Growing Degree Days

The 2012 season continues with GDDs ahead and though since April 1 for the most part we are rainfall ahead, we have had weeks such as the past week where rainfall was behind. Remember corn needs about 110 GDDs from planting to germination with soybeans needing similar heat units.

Table 2. Rainfall Data (From the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service New York Field Office and the New York Department of Agriculture and Markets 1/ Season accumulations are for April 1st to date. Weekly accumulations are through 7:00 AM Sunday Morning)

Right now early planted corn is in the 4-5 leaf stage. Corn should be sidedressed with nitrogen at the V6 stage. Looking ahead it should take 1250 GDDs for 96-100 RM hybrids and 1300 GDDs for 101-105 RM hybrids to reach tasseling/silking.

Potato Leafhopper Present
We are starting to find Potato Leafhoppers (PLH) present in new seedings and in second cutting alfalfa. Yesterday we were in second cutting alfalfa stands 6-7 inches tall that were over threshold and should be controlled with in-secticide. Harvest is always a good control meth-od if there is enough alfalfa present to harvest. PLH will move on to fields with newer growth. New seedings should receive some special atten-tion as there always seems to be enough leaves left on the young plants that harvest does not al-ways drive the PLH away. Check all regrowth, new seeding or established stands, after harvest with a sweep net for the presence of these in-sects. To determine economic thresholds use the table below from the 2012 Cornell Guide for Inte-grated Field Crop Management (http://ipmguidelines.org/FieldCrops/Chapters/CH04/CH04-10.aspx).

Economic Threshold for Potato Leafhopper (http://ipmguidelines.org/FieldCrops/Chapters/CH04/CH04-10.aspx)

Using a 15 inch sweep net and using 10 sweeps at 5 locations in a field determine the number the average number of PLH per sweep. Get the height of your alfalfa and look at the table above to determine if your average number of PLH per sweep is greater than the economic threshold indicated above. If it is above the threshold treatment or harvest is warranted.

Counting on a post-emergence weed control program in corn: NOW is the time!
With many things to do in the field this time of year you may be planning on a post emergence herbicide program for your corn but time has slipped by without it. Check your fields now to see if weed and corn height is appropriate for the herbicides you have se-lected. You might find given the good growing condi-tions weeds and corn have progressed faster than you would have thought. Post-emergence herbicides can provide good control of weeds but if delayed can cause yield losses from weed competition.

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Oneida County Scouting Report – May 23rd, 2012

May 23, 2012 – The Oneida County Scouting Report includes a weekly update of weather conditions including local rainfall and GDDs, and periodic comparisons with the rainfall and GDD averages from the past 20 years. It also includes current condition of field crops: corn, soybeans, hay, wheat and oats. Any potential threats from pests of these crops are reported with information from the Central New York region as well as from local fields. During the month of May samples are taken from local hay fields weekly with reports of NDF, NEL and CP are included in the report.

To access the full report, click here.

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Oneida County Scouting Report – May 17th, 2012

May 17, 2012 – The Oneida County Scouting Report includes a weekly update of weather conditions including local rainfall and GDDs, and periodic comparisons with the rainfall and GDD averages from the past 20 years. It also includes current condition of field crops: corn, soybeans, hay, wheat and oats. Any potential threats from pests of these crops are reported with information from the Central New York region as well as from local fields. During the month of May samples are taken from local hay fields weekly with reports of NDF, NEL and CP are included in the report.

To access the full report, click here.

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Oneida County Scouting Report – May 10, 2012

The Oneida County Scouting Report includes a weekly update of weather conditions including local rainfall and GDDs, and periodic comparisons with the rainfall and GDD averages from the past 20 years. It also includes current condition of field crops: corn, soybeans, hay, wheat and oats. Any potential threats from pests of these crops are reported with information from the Central New York region as well as from local fields. During the month of May samples are taken from local hay fields weekly with reports of NDF, NEL and CP are included in the report.

To access the full report, click here.

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