USDA to Measure Small Grain Production

During the week of August 26th, growers of small grains around the country will receive survey forms from the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS). The agency is taking a comprehensive look into the 2019 production and supply of small grains, which include wheat, oats, barley, and rye.

“The small grains industry is an important part of Northeastern agriculture and it is crucial for all involved with the agriculture sector to have accurate data about this key sector of the economy,” explained King Whetstone, director of the National Agricultural Statistics Service. “We will contact more than 4,000 producers in Delaware, Maine, Maryland, New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania to accurately measure 2019 acreage, yield, and production for small grain crops. The data collected from this survey will also help set small grain acreage, yield, and production estimates at the county level, to be published in December 2019.”

NASS will contact survey participants to gather information on their 2019 production and the quantities of whole grains and oilseeds stored on farm. As an alternative to mailing the survey back, and to help save both time and money, growers will have the option to securely respond to the survey online. Farmers who have not responded by August 30, 2019 may receive a phone call or visit from a NASS representative who will help them fill out the survey form.

“NASS safeguards the privacy of all respondents and publishes only county, State and National level data, ensuring that no individual operation or producer can be identified,” stated Whetstone. “We recognize that this is a hectic time for farmers and ranchers, but the information they provide helps U.S. agriculture remain viable and capable. I urge them to respond to these surveys and thank them for their time and cooperation,” said King Whetstone.

NASS will analyze the survey information and publish the results in a series of USDA reports, including the annual Small Grains Summary and quarterly Grain Stocks reports, both to be released September 30, 2019. Survey data also contribute to NASS’s monthly and annual Crop Production reports, and the USDA’s World Agricultural Outlook Board’s monthly World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE).

All NASS reports are available online at https://www.nass.usda.gov/Publications/. For more information call the NASS Northeastern Regional Office at (800) 498-1518.

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NYS IPM Weekly Field Crops Pest Report – August 24, 2018

Fusarium head blight commentary on winter barley and wheat

Gary Bergstrom, Extension Plant Pathologist, Cornell University
This is a critical week for management of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in winter malting barley.  Some winter barley fields in New York are fully headed now and many more will head out this later week.  Even though we have had frequent rains, the Fusarium Risk Assessment Map (http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/riskTool.html) shows mostly low risk of Fusarium infection in New York because temperatures have been considered too low for spore production in many areas. A moderate to high risk of FHB is indicated for areas of the Southern Tier, southern Hudson Valley, and Long Island.  Maximal suppression of FHB and grain contamination by deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin results when fully emerged heads of winter malting barley are sprayed with full label rates of Caramba or Prosaro fungicides. A heads emerged spray with these triazole fungicides also helps protect upper leaves against fungal leaf blotches, powdery mildew, and rust.  Foliar sprays of Caramba or Prosaro up to seven days after head emergence may still result in significant FHB and DON suppression.   Fungicide products containing strobilurins should not be applied to headed wheat or barley as they may result in increased levels of DON in grain.
Winter wheat is generally a week or more behind in development from winter barley planted on the same fall date.  Winter wheat in New York varies from stem elongation to flag leaf visible stages.  We should reach the critical fungicide application window for winter wheat over the next two weeks.  The triazole products Caramba and Prosaro are the most effective fungicides for suppression of FHB and DON contamination when applied at flowering (emergence of anthers on heads).  A flowering application of triazole fungicide should be based on Fusarium head blight (FHB) risk as well as the risks of powdery mildew, rusts, and fungal leaf blotches in the upper canopy based on scouting of individual fields.  There is an application window of approximately 7 days from the beginning of flowering in which reasonable FHB suppression can be expected.   Check the Fusarium Risk Assessment Tool (http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/) and your local weather forecast frequently as your winter wheat crop approaches heading and flowering.
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New Weed Control Options in Winter Wheat and Barley for NYS

By Mike Stanyard, NWNY Dairy, Livestock & Field Crops Team – Field Crops Specialist and Team Leader

It has always been encouraged to spray the earliest planted fields for winter annual weeds (purple deadnettle, chickweed, chamomile) in late fall. However, there are so many other things going on in the fall and your windows of opportunity for spraying can be slim to none. You never know what the weather will be like in the spring and timely weed control can be tricky. Here is an update on broadleaf and grass control products for this spring with two new products just registered in 2018.

Broadleaf Weeds. Harmony Extra and Harmony SC are still the backbone of many spray programs. Harmony Extra (Harmony + Express), controls a wider range of broadleaves and it is favored over other products because of its control of corn chamomile, wild garlic and chickweed. A recent point of concern has been the number of marestail/horseweed plants that are making it through until harvest. This may be an indication that you have an ALS resistant marestail population. Both of these products can be applied up until the flag leaf is visible (before Feeke’s stage 8).

Growth regulator products like Clarity, Banvel, MCPA and 2,4,-D are effective against many broadleaves and should take care of ALS resistant marestail. They are usually tankmixed with Harmony products for extra control of winter annuals and perennials. Application past Feek’s stage 6 (jointing) is not advised as it could lead to plant injury and yield reductions. Unfortunately, I have seen annual marestail emerge after this stage.

Huskie (Bayer Crop Science) just received a 24(c) Special Local Needs label for New York on March 2nd. It is a combination of pyrasulfotole (an active not labeled in NY yet) and two formulations of bromoxynil (ie Buctril). The SLN labeling is for marestail/horseweed control in wheat, barley, rye and triticale. Huskie can be used for control of marestail in winter malt barley as well. Talking with Dwight Lingenfelter, Penn State weed scientist, Huskie would be best tank-mixed with Harmony Extra for complete broadleaf control. In fallow ground trials over the past two seasons, Penn State has been seeing (90-95%) control of 8 inch marestail with Huskie at the highest rate. Huskie can be applied up until flag leaf emergence.

Grasses. NYS has a 24(c) Special Local Needs label for Osprey for control of roughstalk bluegrass and cheat in winter wheat. It expires at the end of 2018. Osprey can be applied in the fall and spring but must be applied early in the spring, prior to the jointing stage in winter wheat.

Prowl H2O can be applied to wheat and triticale in the fall and the spring but must be applied before weed seeds germinate. It is very effective on our annual grass spectrum and some of our annual broadleaves but must be applied early in the spring prior to weed emergence.

Axial XL (Syngenta) was just registered on January 12 in NYS and is labeled for the control of grasses in wheat and barley. The active ingredient is pinoxaden which is in Group 1 (ACCase mode of action). Axial can be applied to wheat and barley from the 2-leaf stage to pre-boot stage. It is labeled for Foxtail (giant, green and yellow), volunteer and wild oats, annual ryegrass, barnyardgrass and canarygrass. Axial XL can be used for annual grass control (foxtails most importantly) in spring malt barley. For optimal control, it is recommended to apply when grasses have between 1 and 5 leaves on the main stem or prior to emergence of the 3rd tiller. THIS PRODUCT IS NOT LABELED FOR OATS!!!

We are still advising growers not to mix your herbicide and nitrogen applications and spray separately. The leaf burning can cost us up to 10 bushels and could get worse as temperature and humidity increase.

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