- 1 View from the Field
- 2 Weather Outlook – August 23, 2018
- 3 What’s the deal with velvetleaf this year?
- 4 Fall Weed Survey – Invasive species and Plants affecting Livestock
- 5 Planting Winter Small Grains? What are the Pest Issues?
- 6 Western Bean Cutworm Report
- 7 Clipboard Checklist
As always this crop season has brought unique opportunities and challenges for corn silage. It may be helpful to compare and contrast 2018 with the last two years as we look at the potential timing of this year’s harvest.
For much of the state, 2016 was excessively dry to drought conditions through mid-August. However, where the crop survived to see the rains in late August it bounced back a bit, though some yield was already lost. Late summer saw some more normal rain events and a continuation of above average growing degree day (GDD) accumulation. Typically, we would expect the heat to lead to earlier maturity of the corn crop. However, with each shot of rain, the stressed crop seemed to re-hydrate as it attempted to finish ear development, which resulted in an extended dry down period and later than expected harvest.
We don’t need a reminder that the 2017 season was wet and cool from beginning to end. Late planting and below average GDD accumulation delayed harvest well into the fall and some of the crop received a killing frost prior to maturity. Also of note is that GDD accumulation slows down considerably in mid-September, so as the crop neared maturity last year it did so at a much slower pace than it is likely to this year, when it will be at this stage in mid-August to early September.
This season brought excessively dry and drought conditions for much of the state. However, relief from the drought came three to four weeks earlier than it did in 2016, aiding in pollination and more normal late season development of the crop. Therefore, we should not expect the extended dry down period that was observed in many areas in 2016.
In terms of GDD accumulation, 2018 was above average in May, below average in June and above average in July and August (to date). While the slight deficit in June may have led to a slower start for corn planted in late May, that deficit was erased by the end of July as we continue to accumulate above average heat units.
GDD accumulation for corn planted in early May is even further above average and current forecasts suggest that most areas of the state will end August with GDD accumulation (since May 1) between 125 and 150 GDD’s above average. To translate that into calendar days, based on average GDD accumulation in late August and early September, this puts use seven to 10 calendars ahead of average since May 1.
Past research by Bill Cox at the Cornell Aurora Research Farm provides approximate GDD accumulation needed from silking to the crop reaching 32 percent dry matter (DM) for 96 to 115 day relative maturity (RM) corn (Table 1). Based on this we would expect that corn below 96 day RM will take 750 GDD or slightly less.
Currently 32 percent DM is considered on the low end of desired harvest DM, target DM ranges are found in Table 2. Therefore, the accumulation of 750 GDD’s after silking represents a good time to start measuring whole plant dry matters.
Using our Corn Silage Hybrid Evaluation program projected crop progress is shown in Table 3a and 3b.
The dry down rate of corn in the field as it nears silage harvest is largely dependent on the weather and health of the crop. A general range is 0.4 to 0.7 percentage points per day. Using 35 percent DM as a target for harvest, you could expect the crop to reach this four to seven days after it reaches 32 percent DM.
Also, consider that while the crop looks like it will finish fairly strong and produce a good ear, it is not likely to recover the lost yield from early season stressors. This combined with depressed hay crop yields in many areas should be taken into consideration when projecting forage needs for the coming year.
Cox, William. 2008. Timing Corn Silage Harvest. Cornell University What’s Cropping Up? Newsletter. Vol. 18, No. 4.
For More Information
By Mike Stanyard, NWNY Dairy, Livestock & Field Crops Team – Field Crops Specialist and Team Leader
It has always been encouraged to spray the earliest planted fields for winter annual weeds (purple deadnettle, chickweed, chamomile) in late fall. However, there are so many other things going on in the fall and your windows of opportunity for spraying can be slim to none. You never know what the weather will be like in the spring and timely weed control can be tricky. Here is an update on broadleaf and grass control products for this spring with two new products just registered in 2018.
Broadleaf Weeds. Harmony Extra and Harmony SC are still the backbone of many spray programs. Harmony Extra (Harmony + Express), controls a wider range of broadleaves and it is favored over other products because of its control of corn chamomile, wild garlic and chickweed. A recent point of concern has been the number of marestail/horseweed plants that are making it through until harvest. This may be an indication that you have an ALS resistant marestail population. Both of these products can be applied up until the flag leaf is visible (before Feeke’s stage 8).
Growth regulator products like Clarity, Banvel, MCPA and 2,4,-D are effective against many broadleaves and should take care of ALS resistant marestail. They are usually tankmixed with Harmony products for extra control of winter annuals and perennials. Application past Feek’s stage 6 (jointing) is not advised as it could lead to plant injury and yield reductions. Unfortunately, I have seen annual marestail emerge after this stage.
Huskie (Bayer Crop Science) just received a 24(c) Special Local Needs label for New York on March 2nd. It is a combination of pyrasulfotole (an active not labeled in NY yet) and two formulations of bromoxynil (ie Buctril). The SLN labeling is for marestail/horseweed control in wheat, barley, rye and triticale. Huskie can be used for control of marestail in winter malt barley as well. Talking with Dwight Lingenfelter, Penn State weed scientist, Huskie would be best tank-mixed with Harmony Extra for complete broadleaf control. In fallow ground trials over the past two seasons, Penn State has been seeing (90-95%) control of 8 inch marestail with Huskie at the highest rate. Huskie can be applied up until flag leaf emergence.
Grasses. NYS has a 24(c) Special Local Needs label for Osprey for control of roughstalk bluegrass and cheat in winter wheat. It expires at the end of 2018. Osprey can be applied in the fall and spring but must be applied early in the spring, prior to the jointing stage in winter wheat.
Prowl H2O can be applied to wheat and triticale in the fall and the spring but must be applied before weed seeds germinate. It is very effective on our annual grass spectrum and some of our annual broadleaves but must be applied early in the spring prior to weed emergence.
Axial XL (Syngenta) was just registered on January 12 in NYS and is labeled for the control of grasses in wheat and barley. The active ingredient is pinoxaden which is in Group 1 (ACCase mode of action). Axial can be applied to wheat and barley from the 2-leaf stage to pre-boot stage. It is labeled for Foxtail (giant, green and yellow), volunteer and wild oats, annual ryegrass, barnyardgrass and canarygrass. Axial XL can be used for annual grass control (foxtails most importantly) in spring malt barley. For optimal control, it is recommended to apply when grasses have between 1 and 5 leaves on the main stem or prior to emergence of the 3rd tiller. THIS PRODUCT IS NOT LABELED FOR OATS!!!
We are still advising growers not to mix your herbicide and nitrogen applications and spray separately. The leaf burning can cost us up to 10 bushels and could get worse as temperature and humidity increase.
Northern New York farmers interested in protecting their alfalfa crops from the devastating alfalfa snout beetle can take advantage of discounts from the Cornell University laboratory raising the biocontrol nematodes that have been proven to reduce not only populations of snout beetle, but other crop pests as well.
Research funded long-term by the farmer-driven Northern New York Agricultural Development Program developed the science needed to pioneer the use of native nematodes, tiny insect-attack worms, as a biocontrol to suppress the spread of the destructive insect.
Recent field trials funded by the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program indicate that the biocontrol nematodes are also having an impact on corn rootworm after a field treated with the nematodes is rotated from alfalfa into corn. Research elsewhere in the state has shown the biocontrol nematodes can reduce white grub and wireworm populations.
It requires three to five years to totally inoculate a farm with nematodes to reduce the snout beetle populations to a manageable level.
Cornell entomologist Dr. Elson Shields and Research Support Specialist Antonio Testa who developed the protocol for the use and rearing of the biocontrol nematodes recommend application on alfalfa fields in their seeding year or first production year for best results. Based on recent research trials, application can also be made to cornfields.
The Shields Lab at Cornell University that has reared the biocontrol nematodes as part of its research mandate is offering a discount for orders placed for delivery by June 15 for application within the following 3 to 5 days. This advance order deadline is April 28 and an additional ten percent applies for payment in advance or on delivery.
After the April 28 deadline, a ten percent discount applies to any order paid upon delivery. Farmers must contact the lab at no later than 45 days prior to a planned application based on their 2018 alfalfa cutting schedule. Biocontrol nematode application must be made before September 15.
The cost is $28 per acre before discount.
The Shields Lab will only be providing the nematodes through 2021, opening an opportunity for business development to continue to supply the biocontrol nematodes to area farmers. While one nematode rearing business has been developed as a result of this research, others are needed. The Shields’ Lab will assist individuals seriously interested in rearing the biocontrol nematodes as a business.
Farmers who wish to rear their own biocontrol nematodes may also contact the Shields Lab for assistance.
For more information, contact Antonio Testa at 607-591-1493, email@example.com, or call Cornell Cooperative Extension NNY Field Crops Specialists Mike Hunter, 315-788-8602, or Kitty O’Neil, 315 854 1218.
Funding for the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program is supported by the New York State Senate and administered by the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets. Learn more at www.nnyagdev.org.
Alfalfa snout beetle is known to exist across the six northernmost counties of New York State, in Oswego, Cayuga, and Wayne counties in NY, and in southeastern Ontario, Canada. The beetle can destroy entire fields of alfalfa in one growing season. The use of the nematode biocontrol developed in Northern New York is now being trialed in several U.S. states.
Harvested cornfields may look barren, but in some a winter-hardy crop is already growing. The results of field trial research funded by the farmer-driven Northern New York Agricultural Development Program evaluating the opportunity to grow winter rye planted in Northern NY cornfields are posted at www.nnyagdev.org.
W.H. Miner Agricultural Research Institute, Chazy, N.Y. Is leading the double cropping research. A second of trials assessed the yield and quality of the two crops grown on the same acreage and the opportunity for conservation benefits.
‘Our field work in both years suggests that the presence of the rye cover crop reduced losses of nitrogen and phosphorus in field surface runoff,’ said project leader and Miner Institute Agronomist Eric O. Young.
‘Double cropping with rye and corn silage may be a good fit for farms in Northern New York looking to increase hay forage production while reducing nutrient losses,’ Young added.
Overwintering forage crops such as winter rye, also known as cereal rye, germinate at cooler temperatures and are hardy against Northern New York cold and snow.
‘Establishing a winter forage crop such as rye or triticale after corn silage harvest can reduce soil erosion and improve soil health, and can potentially supply a hay forage crop for spring harvest, but attention to management and the right growing conditions are needed,’ said Young.
The research team has developed insight into practices that could improve the opportunity for yield from both the corn silage crop and the winter rye crop.
The 2016 trials showed that planting corn for silage following a winter rye crop can decrease the corn yield significantly. The corn silage yields were approximately four tons per acre lower in the winter rye plots that year,’ Young said.
He suspects that rye actively growing when the corn was planted in the 2016 trial and no-till planting to establish the corn crop likely exacerbated a yield penalty associated with the rye.
In the 2017 trials, rye and control plots were disked prior to planting corn and there was no significant difference in corn yield.
Young suggests that the rye should be terminated two weeks prior to planting corn in combination with some level of tillage to increase the rye biomass decomposition and allow for easier planting and more consistent planting depth for the corn.
This project is taking advantage of small field plots equipped with tile and surface monitoring capability funded earlier by the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program. Those plots were used to evaluate the impact of tile drains on phosphorus loss and will assist the double cropping project by indicating how the winter rye impacts the loss of nitrogen and phosphorus in field runoff.
The farmer-driven Northern New York Agricultural Development Program provides research and technical assistance to farmers in Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Jefferson, Lewis and St. Lawrence counties. Funding for the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program is supported by the New York State Senate and administered by the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets.
Data from the 2017 fall corn harvest in Northern New York will help Cornell University researchers re-evaluate a corn yield potential database used by farmers and crop advisers to determine the nitrogen needed via fertilizer or manure application to achieve an optimal corn crop under most conditions in the region. A report on this research in 2013 through 2016 is posted on the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program website at www.nnyagdev.org.
The Re-Evaluating Yield Potentials of Corn Grain and Silage in Northern New York project is funded by the farmer-driven Northern New York Agricultural Development Program to learn how advances in corn breeding and production practices are impacting crop yields and if the associated nitrogen application guidelines need updating.
‘The farmers and farm advisers in Northern New York were frontrunners in the database re-evaluation that started in 2013,’ said research leader Dr. Quirine M. Ketterings of the Cornell Nutrient Management Spear Program, Ithaca, N.Y. ‘With more yield monitors in use, we now have a great opportunity to more quickly and more widely obtain real-field data.’
While early on-farm trials showed substantial agreement between yield potentials and actual yields when averaged across fields, there were notable exceptions between actual harvest and yield potential expectations in some fields.
‘Over the three-year study, one-third of fields tested yielded less than 90 percent of the yield potential, while 26 percent of the fields evaluated yielded more than 110 percent of the Cornell yield potential,’ Ketterings noted.
Increasing reliability of yield monitor equipment and data, greater yield monitor use, and development by the Cornell team of a more reliable approach for handling yield data sets in recent months allows for much quicker evaluations of yield across a larger number of soil types.
Yield map data from the corn harvesting in Northern New York will also be added to the statewide yield potential database and used to refine nitrogen application recommendations for future corn planting.
Jefferson and Lewis County farmers who wish to contribute to the corn yield database project may contact Cornell Cooperative Extension NNY Regional Field Crops Specialist Mike Hunter at 315-788-8540; farmers in Clinton, Essex, Franklin and St. Lawrence counties may contact Cornell Cooperative Extension NNY Regional Field Crops and Soils Specialist Kitty O’Neil at 315-854-1218. Mike Contessa of Champlain Valley Agronomics is also a key collaborator to the project.
The farmer-driven Northern New York Agricultural Development Program provides research and technical assistance to farmers in the six northernmost counties of New York State. Funding for the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program is supported by the New York State Senate and administered by the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets.
The statewide corn silage and grain yields from 1919 through 2015 show that yields have steadily increased since the second World War in New York State and in Northern New York. The data show, however, large year-to-year variation and very limited advances over the past 10 years.
Each of the more than 600 soil types found in New York State has an estimated yield potential in the Cornell University soil database.
Weather-related conditions from drought to excessive rainfall impact year-to-year differences in crop yield, thus, multiple years of data need to be collected for each soil type of agricultural importance.
Here is this week’s Ag Report:
Topics in this issue:
Silage Inoculant Use
Cover Crop Resources
Sr. Extension Resource Educator, Agronomy
Cornell Cooperative Extension
415 Lower Main St.
Hudson Falls, NY 12839
Here is this week’s Ag Report: The Ag Report, 8-15-2017
Topics in this issue:
Advice for a difficult crop year.
Grain Bin Safety
Winter Rye Varieties
Sr. Extension Resource Educator, Agronomy
Cornell Cooperative Extension
415 Lower Main St.
Hudson Falls, NY 12839
Cornell Cooperative Extension
Capital Area Agriculture and Horticulture Program