Weather Outlook –September 12, 2019

NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

Last week temperatures were near normal to 6 degrees below normal. Precipitation has ranged from a trace to 2 inches. Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 20 to 100.

Above-normal temperatures this week!

Today will be cooler & cloudy with scattered showers and thunderstorms and temperatures in the 60s and low 70s. Overnight lows will be in the 40s to mid 50s.

Friday temperatures will be in the 60s to mid 70s with breezy conditions. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 40s to upper 50s with showers and thunderstorms; locally heavy rainfall is possible.

Saturday temperatures will range from the 60s to 70s with showers and thunderstorms ending from west to east by afternoon/evening. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s.

Sunday highs will be in the mid 70s to low 80s with mostly clear conditions; northern NY could have a few showers. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s.

Monday temperatures will be in the mid 70s to low 80s. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s

Tuesday highs will be in the mid 70s to low 80s. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s.

Wednesday highs will be in the mid 70s to low 80s. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s.

The seven-day precipitation amounts will range from a trace one inch.

The 8-14 day outlook (September 19-25) favors above-normal temperatures with high probability and slightly favors above-normal precipitation for most of the state.

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:
http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/predictions/814day/index.php

National Weather Service watch/warnings map:
http://www.weather.gov/erh/

US Drought Monitor
http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/Home.aspx

Drought Impact Reporter:
https://droughtreporter.unl.edu/map/

CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface):
http://climodtest.nrcc.cornell.edu

Weather Outlook –August 29, 2019

NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

Last week temperatures were near normal to 4 degrees below normal. Precipitation has ranged from a trace to 3 inches. Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 50 to 130.

High pressure brings sunny but cooler weather today, followed by a cold front bringing some scattered showers of Friday.

Today will be sunny & cooler with temperatures in the 70s. Slight possibility for a shower in the northern areas. Overnight lows will be in the 50s.

Friday temperatures will be in the mid 70s to low 80s with a cold front bringing scattered showers & possibly some storms in central and eastern NY. Overnight temperatures will be in the 40s and 50s.

Saturday will be a dry day with temperatures in the upper 60s to 70s. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s.

Sunday highs will be in the mid 60s to low 70s with rain likely. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s.

Monday temperatures will be in the upper 60s to 70s with some lingering showers. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s.

Tuesday highs will be in the low 80s with clearing conditions. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 50s to mid 60s.

Wednesday highs will be in the low to mid 80s. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 50s to mid 60s.

Will keep an eye on Hurricane Dorian…

The seven-day precipitation amounts will range from a tenth of an inch to one and a half inches.

The 8-14 day outlook (September 5-11) favors below-normal temperatures for the state. The outlook slightly favors below-normal precipitation for southeast NY and near-normal precipitation for the rest of the state.

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:
http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/predictions/814day/index.php

National Weather Service watch/warnings map:
http://www.weather.gov/erh/

US Drought Monitor:
http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/Home.aspx

Drought Impact Reporter:
https://droughtreporter.unl.edu/map/

CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface):
http://climodtest.nrcc.cornell.edu

Unfamiliar Foliar Lesions on Your Corn??? It Could Be Southern Corn Leaf Blight

Jaime Cummings (NYS IPM), Joe Lawrence (PRO-Dairy), and Josh Putman (CCE)

corn leaf blight
Southern corn leaf blight lesions on corn leaf. (Photo by C. Grau, and image courtesy of Crop Protection Network)

Reports of Southern Corn Leaf Blight, have been confirmed by our neighbors near Erie, PA this past week.  This is on our radar, because that area shares latitude with some of our corn acreage in our southern tier and Hudson Valley region.  Therefore, you may want to keep an eye out for atypical corn foliar disease symptoms as the season progresses.

Most corn growers are unfortunately familiar with many of our common foliar diseases, including northern corn leaf blight, gray leaf spot, and eyespot.  Sure, at first they all look alike as all young lesions start out as small chlorotic spots.  But, as the disease progresses, and as the lesions mature, each disease has fairly distinctive lesion types that a trained eye could possibly identify even from the window of the truck on a drive-by scouting effort.  But, throw an unfamiliar leaf spot into the mix, and it might get a little more confusing.

Southern Corn Leaf Blight (SCLB), though not common in NY, was confirmed in 2018 on Long Island, and may be appearing again in 2019.  Suspicious samples have been submitted for ID.  SCLB lesions may not be as distinctive or easy to identify, because they are somewhere intermediate in size and shape between gray leaf spot and northern corn leaf blight, and they also resemble lesions of the northern corn leaf spot disease.  With so much overlap in symptoms, it’s best to get an accurate diagnosis before making any management decisions.

SCLB typically appears on corn leaves between VT and R4 growth stages as irregular tan lesions with vaguely reddish margins.  Lesion shape and size may vary among hybrids.  There are different races of this pathogen (races T, O, and C), but race O is most common in North America and is restricted to leaf infections.  However, race T also exists in the US, and can infect leaves, stalks, and ears.  As with most of our corn diseases, the fungus overwinters on corn debris, and can be further disseminated by wind or rain within and among fields in subsequent seasons (Fig. 1).  There can be multiple cycles of this disease in one season if conditions are favorable (warm and wet).  However, this hasn’t been a major disease of concern since the 1970’s, and we don’t anticipate it to be a chief concern here in NY compared as compared to our regional issues with northern corn leaf blight and gray leaf spot.

Diagram of the disease life cycle of corn foliar pathogen
Figure 1. Typical disease life cycle of a corn foliar pathogen such as southern corn leaf blight. (Image courtesy of Pioneer)

As with all corn foliar diseases, the incidence and severity of the lesions and the level of epidemic in the field will determine its impact on yield, because all foliar diseases affect photosynthesis and may leave plants more susceptible to stalk rots.  The first and best option for managing SCLB is through genetic resistance.  However, since this is such an uncommon disease in NY or other northern production areas, resistance ratings specifically for this disease may not be widely available in seed catalogs when making hybrid selections.  And, as for many of our common foliar diseases, an integrated management approach will work best.  Reducing primary inoculum through residue management and crop rotations, in combination with genetic resistance and use of fungicides only when necessary will successfully minimize losses from southern corn leaf blight.  Please remember, research has shown that fungicides are most cost-effective with a single application at VT/R1 when disease pressure is >5% throughout the field, and when the disease reaches at least the ear leaf by tasseling on susceptible hybrids when the weather is expected to be conducive for the disease to spread (Fig. 2).

Data charts
Figure 2. Corn fungicide timing and disease severity trials summary of hundreds of trials in 2013 by Dr. Kiersten Wise of University of Kentucky show that a single fungicide application at VT/R1 with disease severity >5% resulted in the best yield response.
Corn leaves from Southern NY
A corn field in Chautauqua County with suspected southern corn leaf blight infection. Samples submitted and awaiting diagnosis. (Photo by J. Putman)

USDA to Measure Small Grain Production

During the week of August 26th, growers of small grains around the country will receive survey forms from the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS). The agency is taking a comprehensive look into the 2019 production and supply of small grains, which include wheat, oats, barley, and rye.

“The small grains industry is an important part of Northeastern agriculture and it is crucial for all involved with the agriculture sector to have accurate data about this key sector of the economy,” explained King Whetstone, director of the National Agricultural Statistics Service. “We will contact more than 4,000 producers in Delaware, Maine, Maryland, New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania to accurately measure 2019 acreage, yield, and production for small grain crops. The data collected from this survey will also help set small grain acreage, yield, and production estimates at the county level, to be published in December 2019.”

NASS will contact survey participants to gather information on their 2019 production and the quantities of whole grains and oilseeds stored on farm. As an alternative to mailing the survey back, and to help save both time and money, growers will have the option to securely respond to the survey online. Farmers who have not responded by August 30, 2019 may receive a phone call or visit from a NASS representative who will help them fill out the survey form.

“NASS safeguards the privacy of all respondents and publishes only county, State and National level data, ensuring that no individual operation or producer can be identified,” stated Whetstone. “We recognize that this is a hectic time for farmers and ranchers, but the information they provide helps U.S. agriculture remain viable and capable. I urge them to respond to these surveys and thank them for their time and cooperation,” said King Whetstone.

NASS will analyze the survey information and publish the results in a series of USDA reports, including the annual Small Grains Summary and quarterly Grain Stocks reports, both to be released September 30, 2019. Survey data also contribute to NASS’s monthly and annual Crop Production reports, and the USDA’s World Agricultural Outlook Board’s monthly World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE).

All NASS reports are available online at https://www.nass.usda.gov/Publications/. For more information call the NASS Northeastern Regional Office at (800) 498-1518.

USDA-NASS: Farm Computer Usage and Ownership Highlights

General computer usage and internet access categories increased from 2017 to 2019 in the United States. Nationally, 75 percent of farms reported having access to the internet, while 83 percent of farms in New York reported having access to the internet. Farms that used a desktop or laptop computer to conduct farm business was down 4 percent from 2017 in New York. While nearly 60 percent of the farms in New York used a smart phone or tablet to conduct farm business, equal to that in 2017. Notably, the percentage of farms with internet access in 2019 was 81, down from 83 in 2017.

In 2019, 21 percent of N.Y. farms used satellite, significantly up from 8 percent in 2017, and 25 percent of farms used a Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) to access the internet. Since 2017, Satellite and DSL continue to be the most popular choices that United States farms use to access the internet. While mobile access has also seen an increase since 2017, up 3 percent.

For the complete “Farm Computer Usage and Ownership” report, go to:
https://usda.library.cornell.edu/concern/publications/h128nd689

Weather Outlook – August 22, 2019

A pretty tranquil week is in store for New York.  Temperatures will be very close to normal and there will be little if any rainfall through late Tuesday at the earliest.  Daytime high temperatures will be mainly in the 70s to low 80s at best through Tuesday and a bit warmer on Wednesday (low- mid 80s). Nights will be clear and crisp with lows from the low 50s to about 60 across the state.  By Wednesday lows will be in 60s everywhere.  Over the weekend upstate locations will see lows in the 40s especially in the North Country and Southern Tier, which is normal for late August.  Expect less than an inch of rain for the week. The week 2 period which will take us into early September appears to be near normal temperature-wise, maybe a tad on the warm side.  There will be a weak trough to our west which will give us a few chances of rain in this period, but I would not expect any big rain producers with such a pattern.

Weather Outlook – August 15, 2019

NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

Last week temperatures ranged within 2 degrees of normal. Precipitation has ranged from a quarter inch to 3 inches. Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 80 to 160.

An active weather pattern expected for the week. Temperatures and humidity will increase for the end of the weekend into next week.

Thursday a week frontal system will bring a chance for showers and thunderstorms, a few strong storms could develop with gusty winds, hail, & brief downpours; northern areas of the state will stay dry and sunny. Temperatures will be in the 70s to near 80. Overnight lows will be in the mid 50s to mid 60s with overnight showers and thunderstorms.

Friday scattered showers and thunderstorms will move through, with increased humidity and temperatures in the mid 70s to low 80s. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 50s to mid 60s.

Saturday temperatures will be in the low to mid 80s with afternoon and evening showers and thunderstorms. Overnight temperatures will be in the upper 50s to mid 60s.

Sunday highs will be in the 80s to near 90 with increased chances for shows and thunderstorms with gusty winds. Overnight temperatures will be in the 60s.

Monday will be warm and humid with temperatures in the 80s to near 90. Showers and thunderstorms are possible. Overnight temperatures will be in the 60s.

Tuesday highs will be in the 80s. Overnight temperatures will be in the 60s.

Wednesday highs will be in the low to mid 80s. A cold front is expected to bring cooler temperatures and lower humidity. Overnight temperatures will be in the 60s.

The seven-day precipitation amounts will range from a quarter inch to one and a quarter inches.

The 8-14 day outlook (August 22-28) favors above-normal temperatures for the state, with high probability. The outlook slightly favors below-normal precipitation for northern and eastern areas and near-normal precipitation for the rest of the state.

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:
http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/predictions/814day/index.php

National Weather Service watch/warnings map:
http://www.weather.gov/erh/

US Drought Monitor
http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/Home.aspx

Drought Impact Reporter:
https://droughtreporter.unl.edu/map/

CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface):
http://climodtest.nrcc.cornell.edu

More Pokeweed than Usual?

Jaime Cummings and Ken Wise (NYS IPM), Jeff Miller, Mike Hunter and Paul Cerosaletti (CCE)

We are receiving reports and more questions than usual on pokeweed incidence this season from various parts of the state.  Particularly with regards to it seemingly surviving glyphosate applications in fields.  Some of us are familiar with this large weed, and know that once established in your fields, it can be a serious challenge to eradicate.  And, sometimes by the time you notice it, it has already flowered and set fruit, and the birds are helping to spread it further.

Here are some quick questions and answers on pokeweed:

Why is pokeweed so challenging to manage?  It’s a perennial with a very large and persistent taproot, and is also a prolific seed producer with a wide emergence period.

Why is pokeweed becoming more prevalent?  Plowing and soil-applied residual herbicides were the typical management strategies for this weed.  With the widespread adoption of no-till or conservation tillage practices, and a move away from some of those residual herbicides in combination with less crop rotation diversity, we are experiencing a resurgence of pokeweed.

Why do I still have pokeweed in my fields that were treated with glyphosate?  Pokeweed seedlings can emerge from May – August, which means that you may have missed some of the later emerging seedlings during your typical early-season corn and soybean herbicide applications, especially if you didn’t include a residual herbicide in the mix.  And, since pokeweed is a perennial, you may be trying to kill plants that over-wintered and have established huge and hardy taproots.  It’s challenging to kill any weed with well-established taproots with a single herbicide application.

Pokeweed seedling emergence
Figure 1. Research at Penn State University illustrates seasonal patterns pokeweed seedling emergence. This figure can be found as part of a larger presentation, available at https://extension.psu.edu/pokeweed.

Pokeweed seedlings can emerge continuously throughout the summer, with a peak in May and ending in August (Fig. 1).  This long period of emergence makes it difficult to manage with a single-pass program of post-emergence herbicides alone.  And, it’s important to manage any seedlings that emerge later in the season, because although they are unlikely to set seed that season, they can produce a serious taproot to overwinter and pop up the following year (Fig. 2).  Research by K. Patches at Penn State University from 2011-2013 investigated the biology and management of pokeweed, and determined that many herbicides (including glyphosate and plant growth regulators) provided at least 80% control, when applied with either air induction or flat fan nozzles (Figs. 3 & 4).  And, in those trials, glyphosate applications after mid-June provided better control than applications made earlier in the season (Fig. 5).  This is because systemic herbicides applied at flowering on perennials are more likely to be translocated down to the roots to kill the taproot.  For increased later season pokeweed control, consider rotating into a small grain crop and applying herbicides in August to kill the seedlings that emerged after your typical soybean or corn herbicide applications.

Pokeweed seedling continual emergence
Figure 2. Pokeweed seedling continual emergence May – August, as observed in research (https://extension.psu.edu/pokeweed) at Penn State University. (Photos by K. Patches)
Chart showing effect of corn herbicides on pokeweed
Figure 3. Results from Penn State research trials on herbicide efficacy against pokeweed in corn 12 weeks after application. (Figure courtesy of Penn State University)
Chart showing effect of soybean herbicides on pokeweed
Figure 4. Results from Penn State research trials on herbicide efficacy against pokeweed in soybean 12 weeks after application. (Figure courtesy of Penn State University)
Effect of glyphosate application timing on pokeweed
Figure 5. Timing of glyphosate applications for controlling pokeweed in corn and soybean. (Figure courtesy of Penn State University)

Weather Outlook – August 8, 2019

NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

Last week temperatures ranged within 2 degrees of normal. Precipitation has ranged from a hundredth of an inch to near 3 inches. Base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 70 to 170.

A cold front will bring strong to severe storms on Thursday, with cooler and dryer weather following.

Today a cold front will bring afternoon to evening showers and thunderstorms with gusty winds, hail, and heavy rain possible; temperatures in the mid 70s to 80s. Overnight lows will be in the mid 50s to low 60s.

Friday will be cooler and windy with temperatures in the 70s and isolated afternoon showers. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s.

Saturday temperatures will be in the 70s with mostly dry conditions, a few isolated showers are possible. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s.

Sunday will be sunny with highs in the 70s and low 80s. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50s with showers overnight.

Monday temperatures will be in the mid 70s to mid 80s with possible showers. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 50s to low 60s.

Tuesday highs will be in the mid 70s to mid 80s. Overnight temperatures will be in mid 50s to low 60s. Showers and thunderstorms will be possible Tuesday into Wednesday.

Wednesday highs will be in the mid 70s to mid 80s. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 50s to low 60s.

The seven-day precipitation amounts will range from a hundredth of an inch to one and a quarter inches.

The 8-14 day outlook (August 15-21) favors near-normal temperatures for most of the state; slightly favors above-normal temperatures for southwest NY. The outlook slightly favors below-normal precipitation for all of the state.

Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:
http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/predictions/814day/index.php

National Weather Service watch/warnings map:
http://www.weather.gov/erh/

US Drought Monitor
http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/Home.aspx

Drought Impact Reporter:
https://droughtreporter.unl.edu/map/

CLIMOD2 (NRCC data interface):
http://climodtest.nrcc.cornell.edu

Incentive Program Survey – make your voice heard!

Cover crop, Diakon radish field and blue sky

Cornell University, with support from Sustainable, Agriculture, Research, and Education (SARE), is conducting a survey for all fruit, vegetable, field crop, grain, and mixed crop-livestock producers in New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Vermont to identify the biggest challenges that farmers face, as well as the best solutions in regards to cover crop incentive programs. You do not need to have experience with cover crops to participate.

Our goal is to understand what the most important factors are for farm owners and managers when deciding whether or not to use incentive programs. Notably, the survey also provides an opportunity to share your experience managing issues related to cover crops and incentive program requirements.

Key findings from the survey will be published and communicated to grower organizations and other farmer advocates so that recommendations, actions, and outcomes reflect what you identify as being most helpful for your operation. Whether your farm is small or large, organic or conventional – your responses to this survey can be a powerful tool for change.

Please click the below link fill out the survey:
https://cornell.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_41vvNzqOIAQTmyF