This newsletter is on-line at: www.nysipm.cornell.edu/lfc/tag/pestrpt/index.html
- View from the Field
- Weather Outlook
- Time to Start Scouting for Potato Leafhopper on Alfalfa
- Dairy Cattle Pest Management Resources
- Mark Your Calendars
- Contact Information
View From the Field
The True armyworm is center stage again for the 4th week. They are being found statewide and mostly in grasses and mixed stands. There have been reports of armyworm over threshold in oats and corn. The majority of the damage is still occurring in Western NY and into St. Lawrence county. But there are reports of some fields over threshold in Eastern, NY from Clinton County to Dutchess County and out to Oneida County. A light of hope is that in Eastern NY extension educators are reporting that some of the populations are showing signs of biological control. Both parasitoids and pathogens have been found in populations of armyworms. The pathogen can wipeout a population armyworms in a field. Parasitoids can hold a population in check so it does not build. Again as we have said you never know where and when this will happen. It might come to a field near you!
Armyworm damage with true armyworm (Photo by Dale Dewing)
A question was raised this week on whether the 2nd generation of true armyworms would cause more damage to crops Elson Sheilds (Cornell Field Crops Extension Entomologist) responded that there is no useful reason to monitor or worry about the second generation of armyworm!! The same behavior which makes this insect a long-distance migrant (the need to fly long distance before settling down to lay eggs) is in force in all generations. In addition, the dilution in the vast habitat in NY reduces any potential to a non problem. The reason we had a spring problem was that millions of moths were concentrated into a small zone due to weather issues and dumped on us in a wide swath from Michigan across Ontario to NY.
Paul Cerosaletti and Dale Dewing are reporting black cutworm damage in corn. Paul stated that they have found damage in very clean fields (weed free) of corn. They also found a loose smut on the heads of barley. I also found a lot of loose smut in organic wheat in Essex county last week.
Loose Smut on Barley (Photo taken by Paul Cerosaletti)
Gary Bergstrom reports finding several wheat diseases near Aurora this week. These include brown leaf rust, striped leaf rust, eye spot foot rot, and Fusarium foot rot. Rusts can dramatically reduce yields on wheat. Eye spot root rot and fusarium root rot can also affect yield.
Potato leafhoppers (PLH) can be found readily on alfalfa throughout the state. In western NY Mike Stanyard is reporting very high levels of PLH on alfalfa. He stated that they are even over threshold on PLH resistant alfalfa. The rest of the state is reporting finding PLH but not at threshold levels. See article below on how to scout for PLH in alfalfa.
An interesting thing is that Mike Stanyard reports that PLH are at high levels in soybeans. Elson Shields (Cornell Field Crops Extension Entomologist) responds that pubescent soybeans are not generally damaged by PLH. The plant hairs interfere with the adult’s egg laying ability. Eggs are inserted in the leaf and stem tissue and the plant hairs interfere with those activities. It is a mechanical resistance. Remove the plant hairs (glabrous) and soybeans are very susceptible to PLH. In pubescent soybeans, you will find adults but rarely nymphs. It is the nymphs which cause the majority of the economic damage.
Keith Severson reports an issue we should all be aware of “BEES”! This time of year with fields being sprayed with insecticides it is important to consider protection of bees. Always follow insecticide label instructions. If there are flowering plants in the fields you are spraying you have the potential to kill bees. Many times the bees will carry an insecticide back to the hive and kill many more. If you observe bees in a field you are going to spray you could consider a better time of the day to spray. Spraying in the evening after bees have returned to their hives is one option. Notify the bee keeper of your intentions to treat a field.
Stripe Rust on Wheat (Photo taken by Gary Bergstrom)
Western Bean Cutworm (WBCW) trapping began statewide the week of June 10. Twenty-eight locations are now reporting WBC collection data.
The first WBC moths (2) were collected last week in Eden (Erie County) in a sweet corn field. This week WBC moths (1 each) were collected in Eden and Lockport (Niagara county). Both traps were adjacent to sweet corn fields.
July 21, 2012
NOAA NE Climate Center, Cornell University
Last week temperatures ranged from normal to 6 degrees above normal. Precipitation amounts ranged from a trace to half an inch. The base 50 growing degree-days ranged from 75 to 150 for most of the state.
Hot! We’ll have one more day of heat before a cold front comes through to bring us back to normal temperatures. Temperatures will continue to cool into next week as a large upper low persists over the Northeast.
Today will be hot & humid with temperatures in the upper 80’s and throughout the 90’s, and heat indices into the 100’s. A cold front will move across the state, starting in the evening, and bring a chance of showers and thunderstorms. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 60’s to low 70’s. Friday temperatures will be closer to normal, in the upper 70’s and low 80’s. The Catskills and lower Hudson Valley could still see some near 90. Showers and thunderstorms will be possible as the front moves along. Lows will be in the mid 50’s to low 60’s. Saturday will be sunny with highs in the upper 70’s and low 80’s. Lows will be in the mid 50’s to low 60’s. Sunday will be partly sunny with temperatures in the mid 70’s to low 80’s. Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 50’s to low 60’s. Monday scattered showers will be possible with highs only in the low to mid 70’s. Lows will be in the 50’s. Tuesday will be cool with highs in the mid 60’s to low 70’s and a chance of showers. Lows will be in the 50’s.Wednesday’s temperatures will also be cool, in the mid 60’s to low 70’s. Overnight temperatures will be in the 50’s. The five-day precipitation amounts will range from .25 to 1.25 inches. The 8-14 day outlook is below normal temperatures and normal precipitation.
Maps of 8-14 day outlooks:
National Weather Service watch/warnings map:
NRCC Drought Page which features the US Drought Monitor map (updated every Thursday):
Time to Start Scouting for Potato Leafhopper on Alfalfa
Ken Wise, NYS IPM
Scouting alfalfa fields is the key to early detection of potato leafhopper infestations. Use a 15-inch diameter sweep net to determine the potential risk a potato leafhopper infestation may pose to your alfalfa. Scouting for potato leafhopper starts after the first cutting of alfalfa (about the first part of June) till the first fall frost. You will want to use a potato leafhopper sequential sampling plan to determine if an infestation requires management or not. The first thing to do is determine the height of your alfalfa. Smaller plants are more vulnerable to potato leafhopper; thus there are different action thresholds for different heights of alfalfa. The second thing you will need to know is how to sample for potato leafhopper. A sample consists of a set of 10 sweeps of the net. A sweep is one pass in front of you as you walk through the alfalfa. The return swing is counted as another sweep. Sequential sampling reduces the time spent in each field and tells you whether to treat (management action) or not treat (no management action). Sequential sampling is particularly helpful in minimizing time required to make a management decision in situations where PLH populations are very high or very low. Use the following chart to determine potato leafhopper infestation levels.
Write down the number of potato leafhoppers for each sample taken on the card. Add each sample to the next, keeping a running total of potato leafhoppers. You will need to take at least 3 samples using the sequential sampling method. On the sequential sampling card “Don’t Treat” is defined as no treatment (no management) needed at this time and “Treat” is defined as treatment (management) needed within in a week. If the sample is smaller than the “Don’t Treat” number stop and scout 7 days later. If the number of leafhoppers is larger than the “Treat” number then management action needs to be taken within a week. If the number of potato leafhoppers fall between “Don’t Treat” and “Treat” then continue and take the next sample till a decision can be determined.
Dairy Cattle Pest Management Resources
Keith Waldron, NYS IPM
Summer is here and warmer temperatures have been favorable for potential increases in fly pests affecting dairy animals and other livestock.
A quick source of factsheets, management recommendations and other resources on Livestock (dairy cattle, poultry, sheep, goats, swine, and horses) Integrated Pest Management can be found at: http://nysipm.cornell.edu/livestock/ and http://www.entomology.cornell.edu/Extension/Vet/index.html.
For those with a specific interest in dairy barn fly management an archive of a 2 hour Web stream broadcast is available for viewing or download at: http://nysipm.cornell.edu/livestock/teleconf.asp
Keith Waldron, NYS IPM
- Emergency contact information (“911”, local hospital, Chem. Spill emergency contact, other?) posted in central posting area
- Maintain crop records by field, including variety, planting date, pesticides used, nutrient inputs including manure, etc.
- Walk fields to check crop condition, growth, and emergence. Look for signs of vertebrate pests (birds, ground hogs, deer, etc.).
- Mow around farm buildings to minimize rodent and other pest habitat
- Begin grain bin and auger clean up and preparations for storage.
Alfalfa and Grass Hay:
- Monitor alfalfa for crop condition, watch re-growth for alfalfa weevil, potato leafhopper, and diseases.
- Evaluate alfalfa seedings for weeds, insects (potato leafhopper, armyworm) & diseases.
- Monitor grass hay for crop condition, watch re-growth for armyworm
- Monitor winter wheat for foliar & grain head diseases, Fusarium Head Blight incidence
- Monitor winter grain fields for crop growth stage, signs and symptoms of diseases, weed pressure, insects (armyworm, cereal leaf beetle)
- Post emergence: Determine corn plant populations, monitor for emergence problems, weeds, noting presence of “who”, “how many” and “where”
- Early season corn pests: seedling blights, seed corn maggot, white grub, wireworm, black cutworm, armyworm, slugs, birds
- Adjust post emergence weed control actions
- Post emergence: Determine plant populations, monitor for germination and emergence problems, monitor for weeds, noting presence of “who”, “how many” and “where”
- Monitor for soybean aphid
- Monitor pastures for crop condition, watch re-growth for armyworm
- Check and mend fences as needed.
- Check crop growth
- Check for presence of undesirable plant species harmful to livestock.
- Review/Plan rotation system
- Arrange for custom weed / disease management or check your own application or cultivator equipment for readiness or need for repairs.
- Check nozzles, pumps, etc., recalibrate pesticide application equipment regularly before use.
- Calibrate manure spreaders – maintain records on amount spread per field
Cattle on Pasture:
- Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal (all four legs)
- Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter – spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
- Check paddocks for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
- Check paddocks for vegetation poisonous to livestock
- Consider use of fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly populations
Dairy Cattle Barn Fly Management:
- Monitor animals and barn area for house fly, stable fly and other pest management needs including presence of rodents and birds.
- Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,
- Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation – clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
- Continue fly monitoring: install “3X5” index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn
- Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards
- Consider purchase and release of Muscidifurax raptor and/or M. raptorellus natural enemies of house and stable fly pupae
Mark Your Calendars
2012 CORNELL SEED GROWERS FIELD DAY
Tuesday, 3 July 2012
For Seed Growers, Seed Treatment Applicators, and other Seed Professionals
Place: NYSIP Foundation Seed Barn, 791 Dryden Rd., Rt. 366, Ithaca, NY
Time: 8:30 AM-12:00 noon (registration starts at 8:30 and the program runs fro 9:00 until noon)
JULY 17 – TUESDAY – H. C. THOMPSON RESEARCH FARM
Freeville, NY (10 miles Northeast of Ithaca, Fall Creek Road, Rt. 366 extension)
8:00 a.m. Registration
Coffee (beverage), doughnuts, and informational trial packet
8:30 a.m.-11:30 a.m. Vegetable Crop Weed Control (Bellinder)
JULY 17, TUESDAY – ROBERT B. MUSGRAVE RESEARCH FARM
Aurora, NY (Poplar Ridge Road, connects 90 and 34B)
12:00 – 1:30 p.m. NYSABA Pork BBQ lunch at Musgrave Research Farm.
1:30 p.m. Registration
2:00 – 5:00 p.m. Field Crop Weed Control (Hahn)
CCA and DEC Credits have been requested for field crop and vegetable
JULY 18-ROBERT B. MUSGRAVE RESEARCH FARM FIELD DAY
1256 Poplar Ridge Road, Aurora, New York
WEDNESDAY, July 18, 2012, 9:00-3:00 pm
FREE and open to all!
Registration at 9:00 with Coffee and Donuts (no preregistration)
FREE Lunch will be available at 12:00 noon
Pesticide Applicator and Certified Crop Advisor Credits will be available
Questions: Please call (607-255-2177) or email (firstname.lastname@example.org) Mary McKellar
Keith Waldron: NYS Livestock and Field Crops IPM Coordinator
Phone: (315) 787 – 2432
Fax: (315) 787-2360
Ken Wise: Eastern NYS IPM Area Educator: Field Crops and Livestock
Phone: (518) 434-1690
Fax: (518) 426-3316